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CLASSICAL MODERNIZATION STUDIES-- studies that have become the exemplars ofmodernization research, starting a chain ofempirical investigations on entrepreneurialachievements, on modern attitudes andbehavior, on Japanese religion, and on thesocial and economic correlations of democracy
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION-- studies that have become the exemplars ofmodernization research, starting a chain ofempirical investigations on entrepreneurialachievements, on modern attitudes andbehavior, on Japanese religion, and on thesocial and economic correlations of democracy
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATIONMotivation research has long considered human motives and needs. However, isolating peoples motivational needs can be a difficult process because most people are not explicitly aware of what their motives are.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATIONIn attempting to understand employeemotivation, Abraham Maslow proposed ahierarchy of needs. David McClelland furtheredthis idea in his learned needs theory.McClellands experimental work identified sets ofmotivators present to varying degrees indifferent people. He proposed that these needswere socially acquired or learned. That is, theextent to which these motivators are presentvaries from person to person, and depends onthe individual and his or her background.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATIONWhich group is ultimately responsible for theeconomic modernization of the 3rd worldcountries?According to McClelland (1964), domesticentrepreneurs play the critical role. Thus heargued that researchers need to go beyond thestudy of economic indicators to study theentrepreneur. He also said that policymakersneed to invest in human beings, not just ineconomic infrastructures.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATIONHow can achievement motivation bemeasured?McClelland used the projection method tomeasure individual achievement motivation.After showing a picture to his research subjectshe asked them to write a story. Content analysisof each story was then used to assess theachievement motivation of the storyteller.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATIONWhat are the sources of achievementmotivation? Where does it come from? -- McClelland locates it in family, especially in the process of parental socialization.The policy implications of this line of research isto promote economic development in 3rd worldcountries, it is necessary to promoteachievement motivation among 3rd worldentrepreneurs.
INKELESS: MODERN MANInkeless is concerned with the following research questions:1.What is the impact of modernization on the individuals attitudes, values, and ways of living?2.When world people are exposed to western, modern influence, will they adopt more modern attitudes than before?
INKELESS: MODERN MANInkeless discovered a stable pattern of “modern men” across countries. In other words, the criteria used to define men as modern in one nation can be used to define men as modern in other countries as well. These are some of the traits shared by modern men, according to Inkeless: Openness to new experience Increasing independence from authority figures Belief in science Mobility orientation Use of long-term planning Activity in civil politics
INKELESS: MODERN MANWhat makes men modern? What are the crucial factors that have led 3rd world men to adopt modern values?Education is the most important indicator of modern values. Occupation, as measured by the factory work, also has independent effect on modern values.
INKELESS: MODERN MANWhether modernization produces psychological stress among 3rd world people.The literature on 3rd world modernization has tended to stress the negative impacts of modernization-- social disorganization, personal demoralization, deviance, and alienation.
BELLAH: TOKUGAWA RELIGIONBellah’s (1957) study examines how the Tokugawa religion has contributed to the rapid economic development of Japan.Bellah focuses on Japan because of its peculiar patter of industrialization. Japan’s initial wave of industrialization was promoted by a samurai class. It was them who restored the emperor, Supplied a large number of vigorous entrepreneurs, and lay foundation for Japanese modernization.
BELLAH: TOKUGAWA RELIGIONDespite the fact that there are many religion in Japan (Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shinto,) it is possible to speak of Japanese religion as a single entity.Religion constituted the central value system of the society. Japanese religion historically began as the ethics of the samurai warrior class; it then became so popularized through the influence of Confucianism and Buddhism that it became the ethics of the entire Japanese population.
BELLAH: TOKUGAWA RELIGIONLinkages between religion and economic development:First, diligent work in this word, especially in ones occupation, occupied the central place among ethical duties. Second, an ascetic attitude toward consumption was also present, as can be seen from the following: Always think of divine protection. Cheerfully do not neglect diligent activity, morning and evening. Work hard at the family occupation. Be temperature in luxury Do not gamble Rather than take a lot, take a little.
BELLAH: TOKUGAWA RELIGIONIndirect influence of religion via the political system. • Japanese Confucianism advocated the selfless subordination of all the parts to single collective whole. • Adaptation of samurai ethics to modern entrepreneurship: 1. Operate all enterprise with the national interest in mind. 2. Never forget the pure spirit of the public service. 3. Be hardworking, frugal, and thoughtful to others. 4. Utilize proper personnel. 5. Treat your employees well 6. Be bold in starting an enterprise but meticulous in its prosecution.
ECONOMIC DEV’T & DEMOCRACYLipset’s (1963) work is concerned with how political democracy is related to economic development.Lipset addresses the question of whether only wealthy societies can give rise to democracy, and whether poor societies with a large impoverished mass lead to oligarchy or to tyranny.
ECONOMIC DEV’T & DEMOCRACYVariables: Four types of Political systems in Europe and Latin America1. European stable democracies: countries with an uninterrupted continuation of political democracy since World War I and the absence of a major political movement opposed to the democratic “rule of the game”2. European unstable democracies and dictatorships: countries in Europe that do not meet the above criteria3. Latin American democracies and unstable dictatorships: countries with a history of more or less free elections since WWI4. Latin America stable dictatorships: countries in Latin
ECONOMIC DEV’T & DEMOCRACYVarious indices for the concept of economic development• Wealth, as measured by per capita income, number of persons per motor vehicle, and the number of physicians, radios, telephones, and newspaper per 1,000 persons• Industrialization, as measured by the percentage of employed labor in agriculture and per capita energy consumed• Urbanization, as measured by the percentage of population in cities over 20,000, in cities over 100,000 and in metropolitan areas• Education, as measured by primary education enrollment, post primary enrollment, and higher education enrollment per 1,000 persons
ECONOMIC DEV’T & DEMOCRACYLipset found that no matter what index is used for economic development, it is always higher for democratic countries than for dictatorships. Thus more democratic countries have higher average wealth, higher degree of industrialization and urbanization, and a higher level of education than do less democratic nations.
ECONOMIC DEV’T & DEMOCRACYWhat explains the strong relationship between economic development and democracy?Lipset basically provides a social class explanation: “Economic development, producing increased income, greater economic security, and widespread higher education, largely determines the form of the ‘class struggle’ ” that lays the foundation of democracy.
ECONOMIC DEV’T & DEMOCRACYIn sum, Lipset has documented and explained this strong relationship between economic development and democracy. Lipset’s qualifies his findings by adding a new factor of the rate of industrialization.In Lipset’s words, “Wherever industrialization occurred rapidly, introducing sharp discontinuities between pre-industrial and industrial situation, more rather than less extremist working-class movements.”
POWERS OF C.M.T.• has focused on ways in which past and present pre-modern societies become modern (i.e., Westernized) through processes of economic growth and change in social, political, and cultural structures.• contemporary developing societies are at a pre- modern stage of evolution and they eventually will achieve economic growth and will take on the social, political, and economic features of western European and North American societies which have progressed to the highest stage of social evolutionary development
POWERS OF C.M.T.• advanced industrial technology produces not only economic growth in developing societies but also other structural and cultural changes.• he common characteristics that societies tend to develop as they become modern may differ from one version of modernization theory to another.• but, in general, all assume that institutional structures and individual activities become more highly specialized, differentiated, and integrated into social, political, and economic forms characteristic of advanced Western societies.
CRITICISMS OF C.M.T.Modernization theory has been criticized, mainly because it conflated modernization with Westernization -- a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in such matters as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and/or values.
CLASSICAL MODERNIZATION THEORY• The modernization of a society required the destruction of the indigenous culture and its replacement by a more Westernized one.• This view sees un-modernized societies as inferior even if they have the same standard of living as western societies.• Opponents of this view argue that modernity is independent of culture and can be adapted to any society.
References for powers and criticisms of classic modernization theory slides:• http://www.springerlink.com/content/y0w1282p70191613/• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernization• http://what-when-how.com/sociology/modernization-theory/