• An action verb is a word that expresses an
– Run, leap, swim, sing, play
• A verb must agree in number with its
– Use a singular verb with a singular subject
and a plural verb with a plural subject.
– A verb must agree with its subject even if the
verb comes before the subject or the verb is
separated from the subject.
• Correct: The teacher talks to the class about
• Incorrect: The teacher talk to the class about
• A linking verb connects the subject of a
sentence with a predicate noun or a predicate
• A linking verb does NOT show action.
• A predicate noun renames or identifies the
• A predicate adjective describes the subject.
– The winner was Teddy.
• ‘was’ is the linking verb
• ‘Teddy’ is the predicate noun
• A helping verb helps the main verb
express action or make a statement.
• Examples: am, is, are, was, were
– Matt was helping Michael with his homework.
• ‘helping’ is the main verb
• ‘was’ is the helping verb
Transitive & Intransitive Verbs
• A direct object is a noun or pronoun in the
predicate that receives the action of a
• A transitive verb has a direct object.
• An intransitive object does not have a
– She brought popcorn to the party.
• ‘party’ is the direct object
• ‘brought’ is the verb and since it has a direct object
it is a transitive verb.
• An indirect object is a noun or pronoun in the
predicate that answers the question to
whom? for whom? to what? for what? after
the action verb.
• Sentences with an indirect object MUST also
have a direct object.
• Direct objects and indirect objects can be two
or more words.
– Sarah gave Emily the invitation.
• ‘Emily’ is the indirect object
• ‘invitation’ is the direct object
Present, Past, & Future
• The present tense of a verb tells that
something is happening now or happens
– I see the dogs playing in the park.
• The past tense of a verb shows an action that
has already happened.
– I saw the dogs playing in the park.
• The future tense of a verb shows an action
that will take place in the future.
– I will see the dogs playing in the park.
Active & Passive Voice
• A verb is in the active voice when the
subject of the sentence performs the
– Verbs in the active voice may or may not have
a direct object.
• The players greeted the coach.
• A verb is in the passive voice when the
subject of the sentence receives the
– Verbs in the passive voice do NOT have a
• The players were approached by the coach.
• The present progressive form of a verb
expresses action that is continuing now.
• The past progressive form of a verb
expresses action that continued for some
time in the past.
• Progressive forms are made up of a form of
‘be’ and the present participle.
– I am singing. (present progressive)
– I was singing. (past progressive)
Present Perfect &
Past Perfect Tenses
• The present perfect tense of a verb expresses an
action that happened at an indefinite time in the
past or that started in the past and is still
happening in the present.
– My friend has collected baseball cards for years.
• The past perfect tense expresses an action that
was completed before another past action.
– He had collected them before we met.
• The future perfect tense expresses an action that
will be completed in the future before some other
– He will have collected 1000 of them by this winter.
• The past and past participle forms of
irregular verbs do not end in –ed.
Present Past Past Participle
be (is, are) was, were (have, has, had) been
come came (have, has, had) come
bring brought (have, has, had)
sit sat (have, has, had) sat
Your & You’re
– Used to show possession
• Is that your dog?
• How old is your sister?
– A contraction of ‘you are’
• You’re going to the movie with me.
• Okay, now you’re officially a member of the team!