2. The word "statistics" comes
from the Latin status - state
of affairs. The term
"statistics" was introduced
into science by the German
scientist Gottfried Achenwall
in 1746, proposing to replace
the name of the "Government"
course taught at German
universities with "Statistics",
thus starting the development
of statistics as a science and
an educational discipline.
3. Statistics originated in ancient times. Its
sources were Ancient China: there, as early as
two thousand years before our era, the
population was calculated by sex and age, in
addition, summaries of the state of industry
and agriculture were collected.
In general, statistics gradually developed in
the state for management, primarily - to
determine the number of people who can be
called up for military service, the number of
lands subject to taxation, etc.
4. In Ancient Rome, information on the population and
property status of citizens was collected. Population
censuses took place there regularly; evidence of 36
such events has been preserved to this day.
The existence of statistics in the Middle Ages is
evidenced by numerous descriptions of royal
possessions, abbeys, bishoprics, and counties.
Statistical summaries - about the emergence and
development of urban settlements, about the number
of livestock in peasant farms - can also be found in
ancient Russian annals, in the code of laws of the 12th
century "Russkaya Pravda".
5. The materials of the census of the Cossack estate,
carried out by order of the Hetman of Ukraine Bohdan
Khmelnytskyi in 1649, have a unique historical value.
Censuses of the entire male population, so-called
revisions, were conducted in Ukraine from 1782 to 1857.
From the first half of the 19th century. centers of
statistical research were provincial committees and
bureaus, the results of research were published in special
publications, mostly in the form of annual commemorative
books. In the middle of the 19th century departments of
statistics were created at Kyiv and Kharkiv universities