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lecture 5.pptx

  1. 1. Chapter 5 ANALYSIS OF FIXED ASSETS 5.1. Tasks and sources of analysis of fixed assets. 5.2. Analysis of the movement and structure of fixed assets. 5.3. Analysis of fixed assets. 5.4. Analysis of the security of the use of equipment. 5.5. Analysis of the efficiency of using fixed assets. 5.6. Analysis of the use of production capacity. 5.7. Directions for improving the use of fixed assets and production capacity.
  2. 2. 5.1. Tasks and sources of analysis of fixed assets • For the normal functioning of the enterprise requires the presence of fixed assets, consisting of buildings, structures, machinery, equipment and other means of labor involved in the production process. • Rational and economical use of fixed assets is the priority of the enterprise. • The study of the volume, structure and dynamics of fixed assets of the enterprise is based on their classification by industry - industrial, production assets of other industries and non-productive fixed assets.
  3. 3. • Data sources for analysis: business plan of the enterprise, technical development plan, form № 1 "Balance sheet", form № 2 "Statement of financial results", form № 5 "Notes to the annual financial statements", section 2 "Fixed assets", form № 11-03 "Report on the availability and movement of fixed assets, depreciation (depreciation)", form M "2-kb (capacity)" Report on the commissioning of fixed assets, buildings, structures and facilities ", data on the revaluation of fixed assets, inventory cards of fixed assets, design estimates, technical documentation, etc.
  4. 4. 5.2. Analysis of the movement and structure of fixed assets • The condition and movement of fixed assets are reflected in f. № 11 annual report. • Using indicators of this form, as well as analytical accounting data on the sources of increase and the reasons for disposal of fixed assets of the enterprise constitute the balance of their movement. • It allows you to analyze the factors that influenced both the increase and the reasons for the disposal of fixed assets by type. • For the general characteristics of the movement of fixed assets are the coefficients of renewal and disposal of fixed assets:
  5. 5. • 1. Update rate - Коефіцієнт оновлення (Кон) • Кон = Вартість основних введених засобів Вартість основних засобів на кінець періоду . (5.1) • 2. Term of renewal of means of production - Термін оновлення засобів виробництва (Тон) • Тон = Вартість основних засобів на початок періоду Вартість введених основних засобів .(5.2) • 3. Disposal rate - Коефіцієнт вибуття (Квиб): • Квиб = Вартість основних засобів, що вибули Вартість основних засобів на початок періоду .(5.3) • 4. Growth rate - Коефіцієнт приросту (Кпр) • Кпр = Сума зносу основних засобів Вартість основних засобів на початок періоду . (5.4)
  6. 6. 5.3. Analysis of fixed assets • A generalizing indicator that characterizes the condition of fixed assets is the coefficient of their depreciation, which is determined by the ratio of depreciation to the book value of fixed assets at a certain date. • This ratio shows the extent to which fixed assets in operation are worn out, ie what part of their value has already been transferred to manufactured products.
  7. 7. The coefficient of physical wear can be determined by the formulas: • Кф.зн=Нрен*Тф/100 • Кф.зн=Арен*Тф/Ф where Tф, Tн - respectively the actual and regulatory service life of the equipment, years. Hрен - annual depreciation rate for renovation, UAH; Aрен - the annual amount of depreciation; Ф - the average annual value of fixed assets.
  8. 8. • The coefficient of depreciation can be calculated by the following formula: • Км.зн = Впоч-Ввідн / Впоч • Впоч - the initial cost of fixed assets; • Ввідн - the replacement cost of fixed assets, taking into account its depreciation under the influence of the production of new, more advanced designs
  9. 9. 5.4. Analysis of the security of the use of equipment • When analyzing the provision of the enterprise with fixed assets compare the existing fixed assets with the planned need for them as a whole and by main types. • The presence of uninstalled equipment is analyzed and the actual need for it is determined. All equipment is divided into: • - available; • - installed; • - current.
  10. 10. • All equipment at the enterprise belongs to available irrespective of where it is (in shop, in a warehouse) and in what condition. • Installed equipment is assembled and prepared for operation equipment located in the shops. • Operating equipment is all equipment actually operating in the reporting period (regardless of the time of its operation). Based on these data, calculate the coefficients: • - use of existing equipment - is defined as the ratio of existing equipment to its availability; • - use of installed equipment - is calculated as the ratio of the number of operating equipment to the installed.
  11. 11. • The generalizing indicators of the company's security with the main production assets are capital stock of labor and technical equipment of labor • capital stock of labor is the ratio of the average annual value of industrial assets to the average number of workers in the largest shift. • technical equipment of labor is determined by the ratio of the cost of production equipment to the average number of workers in the largest shift.
  12. 12. • An indicator of extensive use of equipment is the coefficient of its variability (Kзм). It is determined by the ratio of the number of spent machine changes to the number of equipment: Кз.м = Тзм Вуст • where Tзм - the number of spent machine changes; • Вуст - the number of machines.
  13. 13. • The change in output due to changes in the coefficient of variability is determined by the formula 𝛥ТП = ТП1 − ТП1 ⋅ Кзм0 Кзм1 • Where ТП1 – release of marketable products in the reporting period; • Кзм0, Кзм1 - variability of equipment operation in the base and reporting periods, respectively.
  14. 14. • An indicator of the degree of use of equipment in time and quantity is the coefficient of extensiveness: • Кекс = Факт.виробл.машино−год. План.кільк.вироблен.машино−год. • Intensive use of equipment is characterized by the output per 1 machine hour, ie its productivity: • Кінтенс = Факт.випуск продукції випуск продук.за од.часу
  15. 15. • To characterize the degree of extensive loading of equipment, the balance of time of its operation is studied. It contains: - calendar time fund - the maximum possible operating time of the equipment (the number of calendar days in the reporting period increases by 24 hours and the number of units of installed equipment); - regime time fund (the number of units of installed equipment increases by the number of working days of the reporting period and the number of hours of daily work, taking into account the coefficient of variability); - planned fund - the time of operation of the equipment according to the plan differs from the regime time of the equipment in the planned repair and modernization; - actual time spent.
  16. 16. • The following coefficients are used to characterize the use of equipment operating time: • - calendar time fund Ккф = Тф/Тк; • - regime time fund Крф = Тф/р; • - planned time fund Кпф = Тф/Тп; • - the share of equipment downtime in the calendar fund У = П/Тк; Тф , Тп, Тр, Тк – respectively the actual, planned, regime and calendar funds of working time of the equipment; - ПР – downtime of equipment.
  17. 17. 5.5. Analysis of the efficiency of using fixed assets • A common indicator that characterizes the level of efficiency of use of fixed assets by their value is the return on assets. • Return on assets is directly proportional to labor productivity (ПП) and inversely proportional to labor capital (ФО): • Фв = ВП ОФ = ВП Ч : ОФ Ч = ПП: ФО. • The capital intensity of products is an indicator inverse of the return on assets, and is expressed by the ratio of the value of fixed assets to the volume of production.
  18. 18. • Another indicator of the efficiency of use of fixed assets is the profitability of fixed assets - is the ratio of balance sheet profit to the average annual value of fixed assets: • Росн. ф = П СВОВФ • П - balance sheet profit for the reporting period • СВОВФ - the average annual value of fixed assets
  19. 19. 5.6. Analysis of the use of production capacity • The analysis of use of production capacities is an important tool of revealing of reserves of development of the enterprise, an objective estimation of the reached results of activity, a substantiation of ways of increase of intensity of planned tasks, reception of high final results of work of the enterprise. • Under the production capacity of the enterprise understand the maximum possible output in the range and range with full use of equipment and production areas.
  20. 20. • The balance of production capacity is calculated by the formula MK = MP + MT + MR + MNP ± MZM - MV, • where MК - production capacity at the end of the reporting (planning) period; • MP - production capacity at the beginning of the reporting (planning) period; • MT - increase in capacity due to technical re-equipment of existing enterprises and other organizational and technical measures; • MR - increase in capacity due to the reconstruction of existing enterprises; • MNP - commissioning of new facilities through the construction of new and expansion of existing enterprises; • ± MZM - increase or decrease in capacity due to changes in the range and range of products (decrease or increase in labor intensity of products); • MV - reduction of capacity due to disposal of fixed assets.
  21. 21. 5.7. Directions for improving the use of fixed assets and production capacity • Efficient use of fixed assets is associated with the main task of the modern period of reforming the national economy - to increase the competitiveness of products by improving quality and reducing production costs, because in conditions of competition in high demand is high quality and cheaper products.
  22. 22. Areas of effectiveness of the use of fixed assets and production capacity

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