3. What to expect from this lecture
Overview of low-resource infrastructures
Introduction of some technological solutions
Highlight of "do"s and "don't"s
4. ICT ‘here’ and ‘there’
Same/similar data needs and expectations but...
Here: push technology, usage will (sometimes) follow
There: spot usage and find matching technology
Direct implications to keep in mind:
The best infrastructure is not necessarily the one with the highest
Cloning what we enjoy here will most probably not work there
5. A model for technology-enhanced communication
Need to pay attention to all of them in their context
oCommunity computer center
o Internet café
o Internet Kiosk
o"Computer room" in schools
o One installation impact many users
oCentralisation of infrastructural needs
oConcentration of valuable items
o Typically high installation costs
o Harder to embed into culture / habits
Bring the users to the ICT
o laptops for schools (OLPC)
o (Smart) phones and tablets
o"Personal" relationship with the device
o De-centralisation of resource usage
o One device per person
o Higher deployment costs
Bring the ICT to the users
12. What's best to do?
Very much depending on the context
oEasy access to a central location?
oWhat kind of usage for the devices?
It is possible to hybridise the approaches
o e.g.: use laptops and print in a cyber-café
Also think of embedding other communication channels
o USB sticks
o Analog answering machine
13. In any case, remember that
oDevices will have to be serviced on spot
oTraining individuals to operate something is costly
oNot everything is available everywhere
oUptake will be better from involved communities -> Participatory design
Thus, to increase chances of success,
Source material and expertise locally
as much as possible
Use local expertise and materials
14. Ship baby incubator to
$40000 per unit
Hard to find spare parts
Need skilled staff
Example: baby incubator
15. Build baby incubator in, and
for, developing countries
$1000 per unit
Need staff able to repair and
use a car
Example: baby incubator
23. Some of the things to power up
oCPUs and GPUs
oScreens / Lights
24. Varies a lot depending on the CPU class and internal architecture (Intel / ARM)
Indicated through the Thermal design power or TDP value
Consumption of a CPU
Server Desktop Netbook Smart phone
69 to 150 W 19 to 73 W 0.65 to 13 W 0.5 to 2 W
28. Using electricity from the grid
oStable, and affordable, source
oHigh throughput of generation
oSignificant infrastructure costs
oElectricity does not travel well ->
hard to connect remote areas
30. More about solar power
Optimally 1000W per m2
Actual up to 250W per m2
Better bet on less in practice
34. ●The Web browser sends a request for
"index.html" to the port 80
What happens in practice...
35. Internet is a network of networks
Several routes can connect two devices
Traffic is agglomerated on several levels
ISPs exist for each level
36. Why does it matter in ICT4D ?
Let two farmers in Mali send a mail to each other implies a
couple of regional servers
If they want to use GMail, a backbone connection to the US'
west coast will also be involved !
oWeb-based social networking can hardly be local
oThe costs for the end user is likely to be high
o( Cloud computing is incompatible with ICT4D (?))
38. How to choose
Reasons to prefer mesh network
oFaster to deploy
oExample: Sensors network, OLPD
Reasons to prefer an infrastructure network
oBetter for the quality of service
oShared installation costs
oExample: Universities' WiFi
It is also possible to combine the two
39. What kind of network
infrastructure/protocol can we
use to connect two devices?
43. Island of "Nosy Komba“, Madagascar
45. (Semantic) Web in an SMS
SPARQL data exchange over GSM networks.
HTTP vs SMS:
URLs vs Phone numbers
No size restriction vs heavy size restriction.
Request-response vs one-way messaging
49. Keep in mind four things
oThe context of usage (dust, humidity, sunlight, ...)
oThe target users
oThe target use-cases
oThe resources needed
There exist some optimized hardware
What to pick?
50. Total cost of ownership (TCO)
Total cost of acquisition and operation…
…computed over the expected operation time
Example: TCO of a car = car + parking place + fuel +
insurance + driving license + ...
For ICT: hardware + software + skilled staff +
infrastructure (electricity, network) + ...
51. TCO surprises
Standalone data storage solution
(NAS) is often less expensive than
a PC with software RAID
Inkjet printers can be more
expensive than laser printers
57. Related: Green ICT
1. reduce the use of hazardous materials
2. maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime,
3. Promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products
and factory waste.
VU prof Patricia Lago: http://www.s2group.cs.vu.nl/green-lab/
Prefer affordable and supported software
oIndividuals have few money but don't mind
spending it on things that matters
Prefer open source software
oHighest level of appropriation level
Prefer software using open standards
oIf the software changes, the data can still be used
60. The hardware solutions that were chosen, developed, and evaluated in the context of the COVID-19 Detect and Protect challenges include a range of
products such as personal protective equipment (PPE), ventilators, thermometers, disinfection devices, touchless water and soap dispensers, and open-
source pulse oximeters. The challenge focused on lower-income settings and required that all innovations be accompanied by documentation and
resources to enable quick replicability. The challenge was successful in engaging thousands of participants, with nearly halfof these coming from low- or
lower-middle-income countries. The hardware solutions developed and evaluated in the challenge were intended to inform, support, or contribute to
meaningful responses to COVID-19 on the ground, particularly in countries affected by the disease.
The evaluated hardware is medical hardware, more precisely, pulse oximeters. This information is important because everyone deserves to be treated
equally, and we should be aware of our biases before fixing them.
The article highlights the importance of contextualizing digital divide solutions to the particular country rather than applying â€œone size fits allâ€•
solutions or relying on generalized assumptions that are not supported by detailed empirical research.
The article analyzes the factors that affect mobile phone ownership in Nigeria.
The researchers found that poverty or low literacy levels, as commonly thought, did not have a significant impact on mobile phone ownership rates.
In the section technology redundancy and unsustainability, the author highlights the problems that are rise with mobile phones and their hardware (as an
example). Mobile phones have a 'replace rather than repair' business model making them incredibly unsustainable because theyare replaced very quickly
due to consumers wanting the next-best-thing, trends or software updates requiring more advanced hardware. This also leads to a massive e-waste
problem as old, redundant hardware is thrown away as users willingly or are forced to upgrade to new hardware.
The article does not mention new hardware that has been developed. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of considering the composition of UAV
design elements, such as flight range and level of autonomy. The type of drone that a city chooses will depend on what they need it for and the
infrastructure of the city.
Hardware design should consider the diversity. The pulse oximeter should was developed, because it gives black patients moreoptimistic results and
could cause serious treatment delay. The basic reason is that the manufactures did not realize skin color could affect optical device.
The essay emphasizes how crucial electrical access is for Nigerians who own mobile phones. The study indicated that, while solar power did not
significantly contribute, electricity provided by a generator or through a primary electrical grid was related to higher ownership chance. In order to create
practical solutions to close the digital divide in Nigeria.
A pulse oximeter is chosen because unlike other hardware, the racial biases of a medical hardware may lead to risks of life.The technical design flaw and
the lack of regulations make it a good example to elaborate the methods related to design diversity and open standards.
61. Mobile device is chosen.
This is in order to respond to social and economic needs as well as SDG target 4.4. Developing digital skills matches the evolution track of the current era.
The article focuses on pulse oximeters, which are used to estimate blood oxygen levels. These devices were chosen for discussion because a study found they provided more
optimistic readings for Black patients compared to white patients, potentially leading to worse clinical outcomes and revealing racial bias in the hardware.
Some considerations were that one should think about the whole process, take into account how it will be supported, repaired and replaced, that giving away old tech is often not a
good idea because it cannot be repaired or replaced, and to see whether the hardware can be produced locally.
The hardware: mobile phone was chosen/evaluated. It was Â chosen because it is not clear yet how many people and what kind of people own a phone in Africa. It shows that
general assumptions like that being in a rural area does not really influence mobile ownership. There are other factors like employment have influence in Africa on ownership and
ICT4D practitioners should not rely on the generalized assumptions.Â
The article specifically mentions a pulse oximeter, which estimates blood oxigen levels. They chose this device because it turned out that the device gave more "optimistic"
measurements for people with black skin, leading to possibly worse clinical outcomes.
The pulse oximeter was evaluated. This hardware performed better in predicting the oxygen level in blood and the heart rate for white patients compared to black patients. The
chemical which gives skin pigment interferes with light-based pulse ox measurements.
Open source hardware/software for COVID-19 was developed. This included lower resource ventilators and face shields. These were developed as open source solutions that could
be more easily replicated, afforded and distributed than traditional solutions. This was important given COVID-19's rate of transmission and the negative impact it has on the global
population. This impact was more harshly felt in low resource settings who have lower access to healthcare provisions. Â
The article mentions UAV as hardware to help low-income cities in development. UAVs allow to help lower-income cities address urbanization pressures, enhance city planning, and
facilitate sustainable development.Â
Pulse oximeters, that measure oxygen percentages in a patient's blood, were evaluated because during COVID-19, they were seen to provide too positive results for Black patients,
as compared to other analysis methods. For medical equipment, it is especially serious if it is racist because this can have fatal consequences for the patient.
This article discusses how redundancy and unsustainability are built into the digital technology business model. The industry is based on replacement rather than repair, and new
models and fashions are promoted to entice people to buy the latest technology. The hardware-software development cycle also forces users to regularly upgrade their devices.
This leads to massive redundancy and old devices being thrown away, which is unsustainable. The article also mentions the issue of e-waste and its impact on the environment. This
article does not mention any specific hardware that was selected, developed or evaluated. Instead, it discusses the general trend in the digital technology industry to design
hardware that is replaceable rather than repairable. This is done to entice people to buy the latest technology and increase a company's profits.
62. Breakout exercise
Discuss in breakout room your selection of the ICTworks page
in articles tagged with
1. Each person quickly summarizes the article and lists the
hardware considerations and how they relate to the
2. Choose one or more of the selections in your group and
discuss how they relate to the model
3. Report back to the main room and we discuss one or two
67. Some KASADAKA use cases
Poultry vaccination service (Mali)
Seed market (Mali and Burkina Faso)
Centered around user-
defined use cases
Hybrid approach: locally
centralized hardware +
Cheap, ownable hardware
No moving parts
Where possible: Open
source +Open standards
VSDK under construction
KASADAKA and the model
70. See what is already working and think how ICT
can be improve part of communication
Think of all the side things
ocost, environmental conditions, ...
Design carefully your use-cases
Employ appropriate hardware and software
When you consider ICT in low