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Topic 4 - Human impact on environment.pptx

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Topic 4 - Human impact on environment.pptx

  1. 1. Topic 4 Human’s Impacts On Environment
  2. 2. Contents 4.1. Causes of human’s impacts 4.2. Global changes 4.3. Biodiversity loss 4.4. Environmental pollution 4.4.1. Air pollution 4.4.2. Noise pollution 4.4.3. Water pollution 4.4.4. Soil pollution 4.4.5. Marine pollution 4.4.6. Natural and man-made disaster 4.5. Social issues and the environment
  3. 3. 4.1. Causes of human’s impacts • Application of technology • Agricultural activities • Fishing • Introductions and invasive species • Energy industry • Light pollution • Manufactured products • Mining • Transport • War
  4. 4. a. Application of Technology • The applications of technology often result in unavoidable environmental impacts.
  5. 5. b. Agricultural activities • The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. • The environmental impact of agriculture involves a variety of factors from the soil, to water, the air, animal and soil diversity, plants, and the food itself. • Some of the environmental issues that are related to agriculture are climate change, deforestation, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.
  6. 6. c. Fishing • The environmental impact of fishing can be divided into issues that involve the availability of fish to be caught,
  7. 7. d. Introductions and invasive species • Introductions of species, particularly plants into new areas, by whatever means and for whatever reasons have brought about major and permanent changes to the environment over large areas. • Introductions have resulted in genetic changes to native fauna where interbreeding has taken place.
  8. 8. e. Energy industry • The environmental impact of energy harvesting and consumption is diverse. • In recent years there has been a trend towards the increased commercialization of various renewable energy sources. • In the real world, consumption of fossil fuel resources leads to global warming and climate change.
  9. 9. f. Light pollution • Artificial light at night is one of the most obvious physical changes that humans have made to the biosphere, and is the easiest form of pollution to observe from space. • Artificial light also affects dispersal, orientation, migration, and hormone levels, resulting in disrupted circadian rhythms.
  10. 10. g. Manufactured products • The environmental impact of cleaning agents, nanotechnology, leather, paint, paper, pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are diverse.
  11. 11. h. Mining • The environmental impact of mining is very clear. • In some cases, additional forest logging is done in the vicinity of mines to increase the available room for the storage of the created debris and soil. • Besides creating environmental damage, the contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals also affect the health of the local population.
  12. 12. i. Transport • The environmental impact of transport is significant because it is a major user of energy, and burns most of the world's petroleum. • Transport creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide.
  13. 13. k. War • As well as the cost to human life and society, there is a significant environmental impact of war. • Modern technology war can cause a far greater devastation on the environment. • Unexploded ordnance can render land unusable for further use or make access across it dangerous or fatal.
  14. 14. 4.2. Global changes • Global change refers to planetary-scale changes in the Earth system. • This term is widely used to describe the effects of human activities on the earth. • In the past, the main causes of global change were solar variation, plate tectonics, volcanism, proliferation and abatement of life. • In modern time, the main cause of planetary-scale change, or global change, is the growing human population’s demand for energy, food, goods, services and information, and its disposal of its waste products.
  15. 15. Ozone layer depletion
  16. 16. Natural sunscreen: Ozone layer
  17. 17. 4.3. Biodiversity loss • Biodiversity – or biological diversity – is the term given to the variety of life on Earth. • It is the variety within and between all species of plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems within which they live and interact. • It is an essential component of nature and it ensures the survival of human species by providing food, fuel, shelter, medicines and other resources to mankind.
  18. 18. 4.3. Biodiversity loss (cont.) • The richness of biodiversity depends on the climatic conditions and area of the region. • Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. • Species extinction is usually treated as one of the most important components of biodiversity loss.
  19. 19. 4.3. Biodiversity loss (cont.) • It is really painful to realize that we are one major problem as far as biodiversity preservation is concerned. • Humans affect biodiversity through our actions; we cut down trees, we hunt and fish, we exploit wild animals. • Human activity is also affecting biodiversity more and more indirectly, through our effects on global climate.
  20. 20. 4.4. Environmental pollution
  21. 21. 4.4.1. Air pollution What is it? • Whenever there is an introduction of gasses, sand or dust particles, soot, fumes, or any substance into the atmosphere or air (indoors or outdoors) in a way that distorts the natural composition of the air, and has negative effects on any given area, we say there is air pollution.
  22. 22. 4.4.1. Air pollution (cont.) What are the causes? • Natural causes: o Forest fires, o erupting volcanoes, o Gases released from radioactive decay of rocks inside Earth. • Man-made Causes: o Burning fossil fuels o Power plants o Industrial plants and factories o Smoking, cooking, heating...
  23. 23. 4.4.1. Air pollution (cont.) What are the effects? • Human health • Agricultural effects • Climate change • Egosystems change
  24. 24. 4.4.2. Noise pollution What it is? • Noise pollution or noise disturbance is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. • Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. • Unwanted sound (noise) can damage psychological health.
  25. 25. 4.4.2. Noise pollution (cont.) What are the causes? • Industrialization • Poor Urban Planning • Social Events • Transportation • Construction Activities • Household Chores
  26. 26. 4.4.2. Noise pollution (cont.) What are the effects? • Hearing problems • Health issues • Sleeping disorders • Cardiovascular Issues • Trouble communicating • Effect on wildlife
  27. 27. 4.4.3. Water pollution What is it? • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater). • This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
  28. 28. 4.4.3. Water pollution (cont.) What are the causes? • Industrial waste • Sewage and waste water • Mining activities • Accidental Oil leakage • Burning of fossil fuels • Chemical fertilizers and insecticides • Animal waste
  29. 29. 4.4.3. Water pollution (cont.) What are the effects? • Death of aquatic (water) animals • Disruption of food-chains • Effect on human health • Destruction of ecosystems
  30. 30. 4.4.4. Soil pollution What is it? • Land pollution is degradation or destruction of earth’s surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities. • Land pollution also refers to the deposition of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground in a manner that can contaminate the soil and groundwater, threaten public health, and cause unsightly conditions and nuisances.
  31. 31. 4.4.4. Soil pollution (cont.) What are the causes? o Deforestation o Agricultural activities o Mining activities o Overcrowded landfills o Industrialization o Construction activities o Nuclear waste o Sewage treatment
  32. 32. 4.4.4. Soil pollution (cont.) What are the effects? o Change in climate patterns and ecosystems o Effect on human health o Distraction for Tourist o Effect on wildlife o Cause Air pollution
  33. 33. 4.4.5. Marine pollution What is it? • Marine pollution refers to a range of threats from land-based sources, and it generally involves contamination of bodies of water such as rivers, streams and oceans.
  34. 34. 4.4.5. Marine pollution (cont.) What are the causes? • Oil spills, • Untreated sewage, • Marine litter, • Radioactive substances, • Heavy metals from mine tailings, • Persistent organic pollutants, • Eutrophication and heavy siltation.
  35. 35. 4.4.5. Marine pollution (cont.) What are the effects? • Disruption to the Cycle of Coral Reefs • Depletes Oxygen Content in Water • Effect on Food Chain • Affects Human Health
  36. 36. Discussion • What can we do to protect the marine environment?
  37. 37. 4.4.6. Natural and man-made disaster • Disaster can be defined as a sudden, accidental event of great magnitude that causes considerable damage to life and property. • Disasters can take many different forms, and the duration can range from an hourly disruption to days or weeks of ongoing destruction. • Disasters can be caused by nature and by human.
  38. 38. Natural disasters • When disasters occur due to natural forces they are called natural disasters, over which man has hardly any control. • Some common natural disasters are earthquakes, landslides, floods, droughts, cyclones, etc. • Tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and wildfires are also included under natural disasters. • These disasters cause enormous loss to life and property.
  39. 39. Man-made disasters • When the disasters are due to carelessness of human or mishandling of dangerous equipment’s they are called man-made disasters. • Common examples of these disasters are train accidents, plane crashes, collapse of buildings, bridges, mines, tunnels, industrial and technological disasters.
  40. 40. Discussion • How do natural and man-made disasters affect on human life? What can you do to prevent effects from the disasters?
  41. 41. 4.5. Social issues and the environment • We live in a natural as well as social world • Development cannot be only the rich nor it means only high living standards. • Also not just economic development • It has to be a holistic approach. • Social aspects, development and environment have a strong relation.
  42. 42. 4.5. Social issues and the environment (cont.) • Urban problems related to energy • Water conservation • Resettlement and Rehabilitation issues • Environmental ethics • Climate Change • Global Warming • Acid Rain and Ozone layer Depletion • Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust • Wasteland Reclamation • Consumerism and waste products
  43. 43. Rain Water Harvesting
  44. 44. Process