❖ Despite being the fifth largest oilseed crop producing country in the world,
India is also one of the largest importers of vegetable oils today.
❖ There is a spurt in the vegetable oil consumption in recent years in respect
of both edible as well as industrial usages.
❖ Cooking oil consists of edible vegetable oils derived from olives ,peanuts, safflowers etc...
❖ Today we can see that India is one of the largest importers of cooking oils
❖ There is a spurt in the cooking oil consumption in recent years in respect of both edible as
well as industrial usages
❖ In olden days people use sun or fire to heat oily plant products until the plants exuded oil that
could then be collected.
❖ Now when we go through the raw materials that are needed for cooking oil we can see that
an average bottle of cooking oil contains vegetable oil with no additives,preservatives or
❖ The oil comes from various parts of plants
❖ In most cases these are from seeds which include sunflower,palmkernet,safflower,...etc
❖ oil seeds are primary source of cooking oils And some of them are SOYBEAN SEEDS
,GROUNDNUT SEEDS ,MUSTARD SEED ,SUNFLOWER SEED
❖ Some factors affecting cultivation of seeds are:altitude, temperature, rainfall, length of day, day
light, soil and soil fertility, fertilizers and pests.
❖ SOYABEAN SEEDS:Soybean (Glycine max) is the world’s most important seed legumes which
contributes 25% to the global edible oil, Soybean is predominantly grown as rainfed crop
in Vertisols and associated soils with an average crop season rainfall of 900 mm.
❖ Groundnut seedsIn India, groundnut is cultivated largely in kharif season (June to October)
under rainfed conditions with low input use.In kharif, the pressure of insect pests and diseases
including weeds is high and hence, the productivity is low
❖ MUSTARD SEEDSThe crop can be raised well under both irrigated and rainfed conditions.
responsive to fertilizers, it gives a better return under irrigated conditions.
Recommended Practices to Handle
• The need for a good quality transport system
To begin with, it is important to understand the need for a good quality transport
system. There are many different types of vegetable oils and as much as it is required for
cooking, it is an essential element in the production of other by-products as well. Hence there
are two main reasons why there needs to be a quality transport service to deliver oil from one
industry to another. Focus on flexibility
• Focus on flexibility
Since cooking oil has many varied uses, it needs to be delivered on time to produce
various other products. This is one of the major reasons why when cooking oil is transported. it
is transported in bulk almost at all times. Implementing a good quality transport service will help
avoid any glitch related to delayed delivery, as this will even lead to spoilage of the commodity
unless precise steps are taken.
• Reduce the chances of delayed delivery
A delayed delivery will not only result in the spoilage of the commodity, but it will result in a
chain of unfortunate events. Think of the delay as a reason to set off an economic disaster, where
vegetable-cooking oil is not available to you at your fingertips. As important it is to deliver cooking oil
for further production, it is also important to deliver it on time to reach end users on time.
storage and transportation
There are so many varieties of designs that can be adopted in order to be able to store and
transport oil efficiently. though the main type of container used to store vegetable-cooking oil is a
tank, there are different types of tanks that can be used.
Bulk transport of oil requirement, ship
tanks have proven to be extremely efficient With
capacities varying from 200 to 2500 tonnes, a
single vessel carries these tanks or cargoes from
one place to another. Made out of mild steel,
these tanks are coated to avoid corrosion and
additionally needs to be approved for contact with
cooking oil that is ultimately used to make food.
• Bulk tankers: With a capacity of over 15000
to 40000 tonnes,these usually include inter-
connected pipelines and most commonly
used for the storage and transport of single
• Parcel tankers: With a similar capacity range
as the bulk tankers, these are more
sophisticated and are designed to effectively
carry different types of oils.
• Container vessel: A vessel that is designed
to carry tanks of standardized dimensions
which enhances the convenience in storage
Rail and Road Tanks:
These are tanks equipped to transport oil by and from one place to another. Most commonly
used material for this tank is stainless steel or mild steel and if you are into production of end-user
oils then this tanker will be perfect.
Similar to the others, this tank also helps in reducing the chances of deterioration if taken care
of appropriately. The coating on this tank is also very essential to be well maintained as it
can contaminate the oil stored inside.
Major recent decisions in respect of edible oils
• The import duty on crdue palm oil has been revised from 37.5% to 27.5%
• Import duty on crude and refined palm oils was revised to 37.5% & 45% respectively for
imports from ASEAN countries.
• Import policy of refined palm oil is amended from ‘free’ to ‘restricted’ category.
• Import duty on crude and refined palm oils was revised to 40% & 45% respectively for
imports from malaysia and 40% & 50% respectively for import from ASEAN countries.
• Export of all edible oils except mustard oil made free without quantitative ceiling, pack size etc
till further orders. Export of mustard oil is permitted to be exported in consumer packs
of upto 5kg with a minimum export price of USD 900
• Customs duty on crude palm oil increased to 44% and customs duty on
refined palm/palmolein increased to 54%.With the implementation of FSSAI act, 2006 the
edible oil industries is now governed by fssai for issue of license, safety and
standard parameters. However, the data monitoring of procurement for the edible oil
industries are being administered by the directorate under vegetable oil products, production
The Top 10 Edible Oil Manufacturing Companies in India are listed below.
• Ruchi Soya Industries ltd. Ruchi Soya is India's largest producer of edible oil.
• Gokul Agro Resources Ltd.
• Gujarat Ambuja Exports Ltd.
• Gokul Refoils and Solvent Ltd.
• Vijay Solvex Ltd.
• BCL Industries Ltd.
• Agro Tech Foods Ltd.
• Kriti Nutrients.
• ️Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food.
• ️Oils can also "carry" flavours of other ingredients.
• ️Oils can be heated to temperatures significantly higher than the boiling point of water,
100 °C (212 °F), and used to fry foods.
• ️Vegetable oils are used as an ingredient or component in many manufactured
• ️Vegetable oil is used in the production of some pet foods.
• ️Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel, which can be used like conventional
• The greenhouse gas savings when using vegetable oils in place of fossil fuel-based
alternatives for fuel production.
• ️Many vegetable oils are consumed directly,or indirectly as ingredients in food-a role
that they Shere with and ghee.
Consumption & usages
Advantages of cooking oil
Disadvantages of cooking oil
Weight gain and Respiratory fat
Waste cooking oil