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Avian Parasitic
Diseases
By
Dr: Fares El-Khayat
Department of Poultry Diseases
Collage of Vet. Medicine- Kafr El-Sheikh
Un...
Economic importance of the parasitic diseases:
1-cause direct serous specific diseases as coccidiosis.
2-cause indirect di...
4-Nutrition: Balanced ration increase the resistance to infection with Ascaridia
species. Certain vitamins and/or amino ac...
Classification of parasitic diseases
I -Metazoan parasites:
A –Helminthes:
1-Nematodes as roundworm (Ascaidiasis), cecal w...
Coccidiosis General
Tetra-sporocystic dizoic oocyst
Life cycle
of
coccidiosis
Life cycle
of
coccidiosis
Life cycle of coccidiosis
Different
types of
coccidiosis
Coccidiosis due to
E. acervulina
Coccidiosis due to
E. maxima
Coccidiosis due to E.necatrix
Coccidiosis due to
E. brunetti
Coccidiosis due to
E. tenella
Coccidiosis due to E.mivati
Coccidiosis of Turkeys
Blackhead (Histomoniasis, Enterohepatitis): Blackhead is an acute or chronic
protozoan disease of fowl, primarily affectin...
Hexamitiasis (Infectious Catarrhal Enteritis): Hexamitiasis is an acute
infectious disease of turkeys, quail, ducks, chuka...
YesNoNoYes
Transmissio
n by blood
inoculation
R.B.Cs
Parenchyma of
parenchymatus
organs
Endothelial
lining of B.Vs
R.B.CsS...
Anemia, weakness, fever, emaciation
, diarrhea,
hepato-
splenomegaly,
yellow green
kidney & with
punctiform
hemorrhage in
...
Stained blood
film with
Romanowesky
stain shows
organisms
appear as
single or
multiple,
rounds, “signet-
ring” (0.5-4 µm)
...
Tetracyclines
esp.
doxycycline,
are effective.
Pyrimethamine (1
ppm) &
sulfadimethoxine
(10 ppm) in feed
controls L
caulle...
Parasitic diseases (external)
Poultry Mites
All classes of poultry are susceptible to mites, some of which are blood-sucke...
A poultry house remains infested four to five months after birds are removed.
Since the mite feeds on wild birds, these bi...
The Scaly-Leg Mite (Knemidocoptes mutans) lives under the scales on feet and
legs of poultry. It also may attach to the co...
The Depluming Mite (Knemidocoptes laevis, variety gallinae) causes severe
irritation by burrowing into the skin near the b...
I- Metazoan diseases
1-Ascardiasis (large round worm): Grayish white, 1½ to 4 inches long"
length varies with age and species", infecting the d...
2-Cecal Worms: White, ¼- to ½-inch long "length varies with age and
species" worms infecting the lumen of the cecal pouche...
Gapeworms = Tracheal worm
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)
Primary species: Syngamus trachea
Location: Inner lining of trachea....
3-Capillaria or hair roundworms
Primary species: Capillaria amulata
Location: Embedded in the mucosal lining of the SI.
Sy...
Capillaria eggs in an
earthworm as IH
Cestodiasis
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat
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Avian parasitic diseases Dr Fares El-Khayat

  1. 1. Avian Parasitic Diseases By Dr: Fares El-Khayat Department of Poultry Diseases Collage of Vet. Medicine- Kafr El-Sheikh University
  2. 2. Economic importance of the parasitic diseases: 1-cause direct serous specific diseases as coccidiosis. 2-cause indirect diseases as anemia due to ectoparasite infestations. 3-transmit other pathogens as virus "leucosis and pox"; bacteria "spirochetosis" and other parasites "black head diseases". 4-cause annoyance or irritation that lead to decrease of flesh and egg production i.e. profit eaters. 5-Young birds that recovered from a parasitic infestation → stunted in growth & show delayed sexual maturity. Factors affecting The Incidence of Parasitic Diseases: 1-Breed: Heavy breeds are more resistant to ascaridiasis than light breeds. 2-Age: Young birds are more susceptible and seriously affected with parasites than adult or older birds. 3-Season: ectoparasite infestations have increased incidence in summer or warm season e.g. fowl tick infestation.
  3. 3. 4-Nutrition: Balanced ration increase the resistance to infection with Ascaridia species. Certain vitamins and/or amino acids have a direct role on the life cycle of coccidiosis e.g. vitamin B1, B6, biotin, methionin and others. 5-System of housing: tracheal worm infestation and cestodiasis are associated with the free range system. Coccidiosis is associated with deep litter system. 6-Previous exposure to infestation: In most parasitic infestations a previous exposure to sub-lethal doses of the parasites provides a sort of immunity. This fact is used as a rule foe application of vaccines against certain parasites as coccidiosis. 7-Hygein: Bad hygienic measures leads to serious parasitic infestation while strict hygienic; measures leads to decrease in the occurrence of parasitic infestation. 8-Management: Overcrowded birds are affected more seriously with parasitic diseases than uncrowded ones. 9-Use of drugs: the use of coccidiostats decreases incidence of coccidiosis.
  4. 4. Classification of parasitic diseases I -Metazoan parasites: A –Helminthes: 1-Nematodes as roundworm (Ascaidiasis), cecal worm "Hetrakiasis", Hair worm (capillariasis) and Tracheal worm (syngamiasis ). 2-Cestodes that include tape worm infestation or cestodiasis. 3-Trematodes that include Echinostomum revolutum. B- Ectoparasites includes: 1-Permanent ectoparasites (lice). 2-Intermittent ectoparasites including Ticks, Mite "Red or Roost mite, Depluming mite (body mange) and Scaly leg mite (leg mange)". II-Protozoan parasites includes: 1-GIT Protozoan parasites "Coccidiosis, Trichomoniasis, Histomoniasis and Hexamitiasis". 2-Blood protozoal parasites " avian malaria, Hemoproteus infestation (Pigeon malaria), Leucocytozoonosis (Turkey and malaria) and Aegyptenellosis.
  5. 5. Coccidiosis General Tetra-sporocystic dizoic oocyst
  6. 6. Life cycle of coccidiosis
  7. 7. Life cycle of coccidiosis
  8. 8. Life cycle of coccidiosis
  9. 9. Different types of coccidiosis
  10. 10. Coccidiosis due to E. acervulina
  11. 11. Coccidiosis due to E. maxima
  12. 12. Coccidiosis due to E.necatrix
  13. 13. Coccidiosis due to E. brunetti
  14. 14. Coccidiosis due to E. tenella
  15. 15. Coccidiosis due to E.mivati
  16. 16. Coccidiosis of Turkeys
  17. 17. Blackhead (Histomoniasis, Enterohepatitis): Blackhead is an acute or chronic protozoan disease of fowl, primarily affecting the cecae and liver. The disease is present wherever poultry are raised. Blackhead is one of the critical diseases of growing turkeys and game birds. It may cause stunted growth, poor feed utilization and death. It is of lesser economic importance in chickens since they are more resistant, but the incidence in chickens apparently is increasing.
  18. 18. Hexamitiasis (Infectious Catarrhal Enteritis): Hexamitiasis is an acute infectious disease of turkeys, quail, ducks, chukar partridges and pigeons. Heavy losses have been reported in one outbreak in ring-necked pheasants. Chickens apparently are not affected. Trichomoniasis in domestic fowl, pigeons, doves, and hawks is characterized, in most cases, by caseous accumulations in the throat and usually by weight loss. It has been termed “canker,” “roup,” and, in hawks, “frounce.” Three ways of transmission: In pigeons, transmission occurs when infected older birds (carriers) feed "pigeon milk" to newly hatched squabs. Adult birds, which do not show signs of disease, may carry the infection for a year or more and are a constant source of infection for their young. Turkeys & chickens → through contaminated drinking water or food. Wild birds → eating birds of prey. An infection may be established in a raptor that has fed on an infected prey bird.
  19. 19. YesNoNoYes Transmissio n by blood inoculation R.B.Cs Parenchyma of parenchymatus organs Endothelial lining of B.Vs R.B.CsSchizogony R.B.CsR.B.CsR.B.CsR.B.CsGametogony Argus prescus & Argus reflexus Black Fly (Simulium) Pigeon fly (Pseudolynch ia maura) MosquitoesIH Avian piroplasmosis -Avian tick fever T & D malaria. Spring rise disease ---- Avian plasmodiosis Synonyms Aegyptenella pullorum LeucocytozoonHemoproteus Plasmodium spp Cause Aegyptenellosi s Leucocytozonosi s Pigeon malaria Avian malariaDisease Avian blood protozoal disease
  20. 20. Anemia, weakness, fever, emaciation , diarrhea, hepato- splenomegaly, yellow green kidney & with punctiform hemorrhage in S.Ms lameness, leucocytosis & hepato- splenomegaly diarrhea, dehydration, lameness with lung congestion. hypoxia, ocular hemorrhage, abd. protrusion and rarely nervous signs. Clinical findings Aegyptenellosi s Leucocytozonosis Pigeon malaria Avian malaria Disease Avian blood protozoal disease
  21. 21. Stained blood film with Romanowesky stain shows organisms appear as single or multiple, rounds, “signet- ring” (0.5-4 µm) or irregular oval bodies in RBC often lateral to the nucleus. i.e. signet ring appearance without pigment. Stained blood film shows large gametocytes along edges & tail of smear. It lack pigment & distort RBC or WBC, making it no longer identifiable. Shape of it varies with the species—some are elongated with long tapering extremities, while others are round. Stained blood film with Wright or Leishmann's stain shows the presence of microgametes and macrogamete s in R.B.Cs. Stained blood film with Romanowesky stain shows the parasite fills the R.B.Cs leaving a thin of blue cytoplasm & nucleus i.e. signet ring appearance with dark pigment (digested hemoglobin). Microscopic examination Aegyptenellosi s Leucocytozonosi s Pigeon malaria Avian malariaDisease Avian blood protozoal disease
  22. 22. Tetracyclines esp. doxycycline, are effective. Pyrimethamine (1 ppm) & sulfadimethoxine (10 ppm) in feed controls L caulleryi; clopidol (0.0125-0.025%) controls Chloroquine sulphate Chloroquine sulphate Treatment Aegyptenellosi s Leucocytozonosis Pigeon malaria Avian malariaDisease Avian blood protozoal disease
  23. 23. Parasitic diseases (external) Poultry Mites All classes of poultry are susceptible to mites, some of which are blood-suckers, while others burrow into the skin or live on or in the feathers. Others occur in the air passages and in the lungs, liver and other internal organs. Poultry mites cause retarded growth, reduced egg production, lowered vitality, damaged plumage and even death. Much of the injury, consisting of constant irritation and loss of blood, is not apparent without careful examination. The Common Chicken Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most common mite found on all types of poultry. It is a blood-sucker, and when present in large numbers, loss of blood and irritation may be sufficient to cause anemia. Egg production is seriously reduced. This mite feeds at night, and usually remains hidden in cracks and crevices during the day. It attacks birds at night while they are on the roost. In heavy infestations, some mites may remain on the birds during the day. About a day after feeding, the female lays eggs in cracks and crevices of the house. The eggs hatch and the mites develop into adults within about a week. During cold weather, the cycle is slower.
  24. 24. A poultry house remains infested four to five months after birds are removed. Since the mite feeds on wild birds, these birds may be responsible for spreading infestations. However, it is more likely that spread of the mite is promoted by using contaminated coops. Human carriers are also important. Since these mites do not stay on the birds during the day, apply treatments to houses and equipment as well as the birds.
  25. 25. The Scaly-Leg Mite (Knemidocoptes mutans) lives under the scales on feet and legs of poultry. It also may attach to the comb and wattles. It causes thickening of scales on the feet and legs that gives the impression that the scales are protruding directly outward, rather that laying flat on the limb. It spends its entire life cycle on the birds and spreads mainly by direct contact.
  26. 26. The Depluming Mite (Knemidocoptes laevis, variety gallinae) causes severe irritation by burrowing into the skin near the bases of feathers and frequently causes feathers to be pulled out or broken. The mite is barely visible to the naked eye and can be found in follicles at the base of the feathers. The mites crawl around the birds at times, spreading from bird to bird.
  27. 27. I- Metazoan diseases
  28. 28. 1-Ascardiasis (large round worm): Grayish white, 1½ to 4 inches long" length varies with age and species", infecting the duodenal lumen. Ascaridia species, usually of semi-mature and mature birds manifested by severe emaciation. Primary species: Ascarida galli that affect chickens and less frequently turkeys. Other species "Ascarida colmbse" affect pigeon. Location: intestinal lumen. Symptoms: all ages, the greatest damage is in young birds less than 12 wks of age. Unthriftiness, droopy wings, emaciation, reduced egg production. Treatment: Piperazine salts are the dug of choice. Roundworms in small intestine Ascaridia galli eggs
  29. 29. 2-Cecal Worms: White, ¼- to ½-inch long "length varies with age and species" worms infecting the lumen of the cecal pouches. Several species of roundworms involved. Primary species: Heterakis gallinae Location: Cecal lumen. Symptoms: With heavy infection (500), especially in young birds, listlessness, depression and unthriftiness are present. In production birds, heavy infestation of cecal worms can adversely affect production. Cecal worm eggs can be carriers of the blackhead organism Histomonas meleagridis . Autopsy: Large numbers of worms can cause thickening of the cecal walls, hemorrhages. Treatment: Phenothiazine is the drug of choice. Piperazine salts, Hygromycin B and Levamisole in the feed.
  30. 30. Gapeworms = Tracheal worm Syngamus trachea (gapeworm) Primary species: Syngamus trachea Location: Inner lining of trachea. Symptoms: Respiratory distress and death may occur from asphyxiation. Autopsy: Red worms can be found in trachea causing inflammation, ulceration and accumulation of mucus in the trachea. Treatment: None
  31. 31. 3-Capillaria or hair roundworms Primary species: Capillaria amulata Location: Embedded in the mucosal lining of the SI. Symptoms: Droopiness, anemia, muscular weakness, loss of appetite, foul breath, emaciation, twisting of the neck and paralysis of the legs are described. Autopsy: To identify presence of small roundworms, scrape mucosa of infected area, wash through a fine mesh screen, and backwash into a large glass jar. Identify worms suspended in the backwash. Inflammation and thickening of walls are described. Treatment: Levamasole in drinking water, Hygromyacin B in feed.
  32. 32. Capillaria eggs in an earthworm as IH
  33. 33. Cestodiasis
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