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Finland lex.pptx

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Finland lex.pptx

  1. 1. Finland, country located in northern Europe. Finland is one of the world’s most northern and geographically remote countries and is subject to a severe climate. Nearly two-thirds of Finland is blanketed by thick woodlands, making it the most densely forested country in Europe. Finland also forms a symbolic northern border between western and eastern Europe: dense wilderness and Russia to the east, the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden to the west.
  2. 2. Area: 338,145 km2 Population: 5,595,981 (2021) Capital: Helsinki (since 1812) Largest cities: Turku, Tampere, Oulu, Espoo, Jyvaskyla, Vantaa, Kouvola Phone code: 358 Languages: Swedish, Finnish Heads of State : Sanna Marin (Prime Minister), Sauli Niinisto (President)
  3. 3. • There are seven (or eight) major dialects in Finland: • western: south-western (actually Finnish, or Suomi), Yemsky (khame), transitional between them south Bothnian, middle and North Bothnian, northern; • eastern: Savosky, south- eastern.
  4. 4. The formation of the Finnish people at the end of the 1st half of the 2nd millennium AD was a complex process of unification of the Baltic-Finnish tribes Suomi (in Russian chronicles — sum), Khame (Old Russian name-em), Savo and Western Karelians. The classification of Finnish dialects is based on their genetic correlation with these tribes.
  5. 5. Traditionally, Finnish dialects differ in a number of phonetic features. The most striking example of the difference between Western and Eastern dialects is the d sound. In Eastern dialects, the d sound is often omitted or replaced by a semivowel consonant (aidat — aijat, vedessä — veessä); in Western dialects, r or l is pronounced instead of d (aidat — airat, vedessä — velessä). The ts affricate is not typical for both Western and eastern dialects. For example, the word metsä ("forest") is mostly pronounced mettä in Western dialects, and mehtäin Eastern dialects
  6. 6. In addition to phoneticones, Western and Eastern dialects have morphological differences, in particular, the sets of personal pronouns differ sharply. Meaning Standard fin. language Western dialects Eastern dialects I minä mä/mää/mnää minä/mie/miä you sinä sä/sää/snää sinä/sie/siä he/she hän hän hää we me me(t) myö you te te(t) työ they he he(t) hyö
  7. 7. • The vocabulary of Western and eastern dialects reveals significant lexical discrepancies. Since the development of Finnish writing was influenced by both groups of dialects, the Finnish literary language can use words that go back to both Western and Eastern dialects. Western dialects Eastern dialects Meaning ehtoo ilta evening karitsa vuona the lamb orpana serkku cousin/cousin sonni härkä bull lanka rihma thread takki nuttu jacket
  8. 8. The dialect differences persist to varying degrees throughout the entire territory of modern Russia. Of Finland especially in rural areas and small towns, and the dialects themselves serve as an important component of regional identity. Still among the Finns believe that speakers of different dialects differ in character and temperament.

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