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Presentation · November 2021
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Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-Latif Megahed
Suez Canal University
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At the end of this lecture the students will be
1. Define Health Promotion & Related
2. Discuss Health Promotion Models.
3. Identify 3 Strategies for Health Promotion
4. Identify Health promotion programs.
5. Evaluate Health Promotion Programs.
In fact, many continuously attempt to change
Changing habits may begin at the individual or
family level, but maintaining change relies on
reinforcement and approval at the community level.
Program efforts need to focus on the whole
community (family, the media, employers, educators,
voluntary and professional organizations).
Definition of health promotionrelated
It is the process of enabling people to increase
control over and to improve their health by
developing their resources that maintain or enhance
well-being and maximize their human potential.
Heath Promotion and Health Education are terms
that are sometimes used interchangeably but this is
incorrect because health education is only a part of
It is the most critical modifiable factor influencing the health
day which include: nutrition, exercise, rest & sleep, safety,
immunization and periodic health examination.
It is the act of incorporating this health promoting action
into life style, leading to maintain ones health on a
1. Precaution AdoptionProcessModel:
• Describe the stages that occur in deciding to adopt or not
adopt a health-Related behavior 7stages (from awareness to
Unaware of the health _ related issue and the need to adopt any
particular health related behavior.
Aware of the issue but unengaged by it .
Decide to act or not to act. (Deciding)
Decide not to act. (stop)
Decide to act.
Act and engage in the behavior.
The behavior become a routine in there lifestyle. (
• It has been widelyused in research and programdevelopment
relatedto health-promoting behaviors.
• Elements ofthe model include:
a) Individual perceptionsof susceptibilityand seriousness.
b) Modifying factors(demographic, psychosocial, and structural
c) Perceptionsof benefitsand barriersto action.
• Health- promotive action based on 4 basic beliefs:
I.First, one believes that one is susceptible to, or at risk for, a
particular health problem.
II.Second, One believes that the health problem can have
III.Third, One believes that the problem can be prevented.
IV.Fourth, That the benefits of action outweigh the costs or
• For example, People with asymptomatic hypertension (family
history) may not follow the treatment unless they accept that
they have hypertension and they must understand HTN can
lead to heart attacks and stork take treatment will reduce risk
without negative side effect.
• In thehealth promotionmodel, behavior isinfluenced by,
a) Individual characteristics(bio-psycho social and cultural factors),
Forexample, Aclient who wasphysically activepriorto pregnancy
willbeengage in exercise afterdelivery.
b) Behavior-specific cognitions& affect (emotionwhich include the
perceivedbenefitsof & barriersto health-promoting activity) that
result ina commitment toaction, Forexample, Iffamily members
support weight loss, theclient ismore likelytostick to adiet.
• Ithas beenwidelyused in health educationpracticeand consists of
a) The PRECEDE component.(Diagnostic element prior to
planning health promotion activities)
b) The PROCEED component.(The development of health
• Reflect diagnostic
• P; Predisposing factors.
• R; Reinforcing factors.
• E; Enabling factors.
• C; Constructs.
• E; Education
• D; Diagnosis.
• E; Evaluation.
• For example, You know
benefits of exercise but it is
winter, you cannot exercise
• Determine environmental
factors that need to change.
• P; Policy.
• R; Regulatory.
• O; Organization.
• C; Constructs.
• E; Education.
• E; Environment.
• D; Development.
• For example, University could
require from student to take
one unit physical education
course each semester.
Strategies for health promotion
• Different strategies for health promotion affect goal
accomplishment in different ways which include the
• It involves enabling communities to acquire the knowledge
and skills to make informed decisions and allowing
communities to make those decisions.
• It focuses on the environmental conditions that affect peoples
abilities to act in ways that promote health.
• Description of community empowerment:
1. Empowering individuals for personal action.
2. Empowering individuals to form small mutual assistance
3. Empowering groups to create community organizations.
4. Empowering community organizations to form partnerships.
5. Empowering communities to take social and political action
to improve environmental conditions that affect health.
For example, Smoking cessation.
2. Social Marketing:
• It involves the application of commercial marketing
technologies to analysis, planning, implementation and
evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary
behavior of target audiences in order to improve their
personal welfare or that of their society.
• It is characterized by the concept of exchange, the use of
research to direct action, and the development of marketing
• Phases of the social marketing process:
1. Problem description:
Identification of the problem issue to be resolved.
2. Market research:
Determining of characteristics of the target audience.
3. Strategy research:
Creation of a tailored marketing strategy or plan of action
for each segment of the target audience.
Identification and allocation of resources.
4. Intervention design:
Development of actual marketing messages.
5. Monitoring plan:
Development of strategies for monitoring intervention
Dissemination of marketing messages.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of marketing messages.
3. Health Education:
It is an activity that seeks to inform the individual on the
nature and causes of health / illness and that individual's
personal level of risk associated with their lifestyle – related
• Purposes of Health Education:
The primary purpose is to assist clients in making health –
It may equip clients to make any of three types of health
1. Decisions about self care.
2. Decisions about the use of health resources.
3. Decisions about social health issues.
• Goals of Health Education:
1. Client participation in health decision making.
2. Increased potential to comply with health recommendations.
3. Development of self care skills.
4. Improved client and family coping.
5. Increased participation in continuing care for specific
6. Adoption to healthier lifestyles.
• General principles of learning:
1. To develop health education programs required time,
resources, and creativity appropriately target to specific
2. Culturally diverse teams should participate in the
development of health education programs for culturally
3. Curricula for health education programs should be developed
as team efforts.
1. Evaluation/ screening programs:
It include health risk appraisals, wellness inventories, breast-
self-exam, fitness evaluation, hypertension screening,
multiphase screening, diet analysis& stress.
2. Education/ motivation programs:
It includes health risk, appraisal interpretation, health/
wellness fairs, wellness lectures, back education drug
awareness, breast-say exam. Education and fattens/ weight.
3. Behavior change programs:
It includes aerobic exercise, running clubs, stress management
training, smoking cessation, self-care skills, nutrition
modification, and weight reduction.
4. Organization enhancement programs:
It include healthy food programs, air quality, smoking policies,
personal policies, professional development, work site, stress
assessment and employee assistance programs
Evaluating health promotion
• Evaluation is the process of assessing what has been achieved
(whether the specified goals, objectives and targets have been
met) and how it has been achieved.
• It likes all community health nursing activities, the
effectiveness of health promotion initiatives should be
• Purposes of Evaluation:
1. To assess results and to determine if objectives have been
2. To justify the use of resources.
3. To demonstrate success in order to compete for scarce
4. To assist future planning by providing a knowledge base.
5. To improve our own practice by building on our success and
learning from our mistakes.
6. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of different
methods of health promotion. This helps in deciding the best
use of resources.
7. To inform other health promoters so that they don't have to
reinvent the wheel. This helps others to improve their
• What to Evaluate?
a) What has been achieved (Outcome)?
b) How it has been achieved (Process)?
• Types of Evaluating Health Promotion Programs:
a) Formative Evaluation (Process Evaluation):
Examines the way in which the program was carried out.
b) Summative Evaluation:
Focuses on program outcome, impact or both.