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Practical biopharmaceutics 1.pptx

  1. Lab1 ‫د‬ . ‫سعد‬ ‫زهراء‬
  2. Objectives  At the end of this lab the students will be able to  Difene the biopharmaceutics  Known the in-vitro and in-vivo study  Stages of drug discovery
  3. Biopharmaceutics  Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics are pharmaceutical disciplines useful to improve the outcome of drug therapies, assist drug product development, and establish pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics models and in vitro-in vivo correlations
  4. Biopharmaceutics  can be defined as the study of the physical and chemical properties of drugs and their proper dosage as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action, or it can be defined as the study of the effects of physicochemical properties of the drug and the drug product, in vitro, on the bioavailability of the drug, in vivo, to produce a desired therapeutic effect.
  5.  Both definitions imply the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the drug, the drug's biological fate in the body after its administration, and the resulting pharmacological action of the drug.
  6.  The study of biopharmaceutics is based on fundamental scientific principles and experimental methodology .  Studies in biopharmaceutics use both in-vitro and in-vivo methods.
  7.  In vitro is Latin for “in glass.” It describes medical procedures, tests, and experiments that researchers perform outside of a living organism. An in vitro study occurs in a controlled environment, such as a test tube
  8.  In vivo is Latin for “within the living.” It refers to tests, experiments, and procedures that researchers perform in or on a whole living organism, such as a person, laboratory animal, or plant.
  9.  New drugs, also known as drug candidates, undergo in vitro testing before they enter clinical trials.  During an in vitro preclinical test, researchers will expose target cells to a novel drug and monitor its effects. In vitro testing is especially helpful for identifying whether or not a novel drug has any toxic or carcinogenic effects.
  10. In vivo  Despite positive preclinical results, around 30% of drug candidates fail human clinical trials due to causing adverse side effects. An additional 60% do not produce the desired effect.  In vivo testing, especially in clinical trials, is a vital aspect of medical research in general. In vivo studies provide valuable information regarding the effects of a particular substance or disease progression in a whole, living organism.
  11.  The main types of in vivo tests are animal studies and clinical trials.  Animal studies  Researchers use animal studies to uncover the mechanisms that underlie various disease processes and to assess the safety of emerging medical treatments.  Animal studies act as a kind of middle ground between in vitro experiments and human trials.
  12.  Clinical trials  If a drug candidate appears both safe and effective in in vitro and animal studies, researchers will evaluate its effects in humans through clinical trials.  Researchers often compare the effects of new drugs against those of a placebo.  Many consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the gold standard for pharmaceutical testing. All RCTs must include randomization and control.