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Emerging Trends in Foreign Language Teaching with ICT

Presentation to CESL at the University of Arizona. March 2, 2012

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Emerging Trends in Foreign Language Teaching with ICT

  1. 1. Emerging Trends in Foreign Language Teaching withInformation & Communication TechnologiesDr. Steve SordenChair – MCC Distance EducationPresentation to CESLUniversity of ArizonaMarch 2, 2012 1
  2. 2. About Me • German Translator for the U.S. Army – Berlin, Germany Studied Basic & Advanced German at the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, CA • K-12 Teacher and Administrator (Including 3 years at TAES in Hermosillo) • Taught ESL/EFL to K-12 and adults • College Teacher and Administrator • Career focus has been on history, languages & technology • CV and background at http://sorden.com 2
  3. 3. Disclaimer I am not a professional language instructor. I am a professional educational technologist. 3
  4. 4. Today’s Topics Changing Learner Expectations Blended Learning Applications for ICT in FLT Open Discussion 4
  5. 5. First Topic Changing Learner Expectations 5
  6. 6. The “Future” of Education MP4 | WMV | FLV 6
  7. 7. The World is Open “What few people realize is that as the Web becomes our preferred learning platform, non-traditional learning is suddenly the norm.” “Anyone can now learn anything from anyone at anytime.” Curtis Bonk The World is Open: How Web Technology is Revolutionizing Education 7
  8. 8. Changing Learner Expectations 21st Century Learners will increasingly demand that their experience is: • Learning-Centered • Personalized • Interactive, Social & in “The Cloud” • Mobile: Anytime, Anywhere • What They Want (Buyers Market) 8
  9. 9. Personalized Learning The Snowflake Effect (Eric Duval and Wayne Hodgins) “Massive Hyper-Personalization” Personalized Learning as a “Disruptive Innovation” Christensen, Johnson & Horn (2008) 9
  10. 10. 21st Century Learners Will Expect (Very Soon) Interactivity Social Media The Cloud Digital media Learning Learning should do outside of this materials and something world will not status must be when it is be relevant. available touched or anywhere clicked on. (24/7) on any device. 10
  11. 11. Education is Now a Buyer’s Market It doesn’t matter whether you agree with what students want from their educational experience. If you don’t provide it, they will go somewhere else. ICT in education will make this very easy. 11
  12. 12. Leader in Mobile Language Learning Praxis Language Learning ChinesePod Mission? Coming to you from Shanghai, China! • ChinesePod.com To help busy people • FrenchPod.com learn Chinese. • ItalianPod.com • SpanishPod.com ChinesePod breaks down • EnglishPod.com what happens in a classroom and then smartly applies 1400+ Audio Lessons technology where A New Podcast Each Day appropriate. Uses Skype for Live Lessons Think of it as language http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ChinesePod learning for the Internet Age. 12
  13. 13. Mobile Learning (mLearning) • Handheld Computers & Smartphones • Increasing Presence in Higher Ed • Still Very Early • Can Place Language Learning in Context • Ambient Technology 13
  14. 14. Mobile Trend TowardsAmbient Technology Surrounding us with technology rather than interacting through small screens and tiny keyboards. 14
  15. 15. Google Glasses 15
  16. 16. Speech Recognition and Synthesis From this… To this! 16
  17. 17. SPEECH RECOGNITION AND SYNTHESIS Vocre • A new translation app that MP4 allows communication without language barriers HD • Operates by hand gestures. Speak into the phone while it is vertical, and then flip the phone horizontally to translate the FLV WMV phrase. 17
  18. 18. Disruptive Technologies vs.Sustaining Technologies An innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network, displacing an earlier technology. In contrast a sustaining innovation does not create new markets or value networks but rather only evolves existing ones with better value, allowing the firms within to compete against each others sustaining improvements. Sustaining innovations are typically innovations in technology, whereas disruptive innovations are typically innovations in marketing. 18
  19. 19. Disruptive Technologies • Coined by Clayton Christensen in 1995 • Two types of disruptions: – New-market disruptions which targets customers who have needs that were previously unserved by existing organizations. – Low-end disruptions which targets customers who do not need the full performance valued by customers at the high end of the market. In low-end disruption, the disruptor is focused initially on serving the least profitable customer, who is happy with a lesser product and not willing to pay premiums for product enhancement 19
  20. 20. Disruptive Innovation in Higher Ed MP4 | WMV | FLV 20
  21. 21. Disruptive Technologies Do Potential Disruptive Technologies exist in FLT in K-12 and Higher Education? 21
  22. 22. Self-Directed Language Learning 22
  23. 23. Online Language LearningCommunities • Livemocha – World’s Largest Language Learning Community • italki – Language Learning Community & Marketplace • busuu.com – Your Language Learning Community • My Language Exchange – Find a native speaking partner! • Dave’s ESL Café – The Internet’s Meeting place for ESL & EFL • LingQ – Study online 24/7 and meet people from around the world! • hello-hello – Interactive online language course with a community 23
  24. 24. Second Topic ICT Instructional Methods and Theories 24
  25. 25. Connectivism/Networked Learning Theory by George Siemens We can no longer personally experience everything. There is too much. We create networks to learn more than we can as individuals. 25
  26. 26. Self-Regulated Learning• Zimmerman (2000, 2001) Socially-Shared• Winne & Hadwin (1998) Regulation of Learning• Pintrich (2000) Coregulated Learning• Cognitive Constructs – Motivation – Goal Setting Self-Regulated Learning – Reflection – Self-Explaining Behaivors 26
  27. 27. Blended Learning It’s a new approach. It’s not just a combination of online and f2f 27
  28. 28. Blended Learning Blended learning is a combination of training methodologies, which uses the best delivery method for the successful achievement of the learning objective. - Jennifer Hofmann and Nanette Miner Tailored Learning: Designing the Blend That Fits. Methodologies can include: • Classroom • eLearning: Computer Based Training • eLearning Web-based training • eLearning: Asynchronous (independent, at convenient times) • eLearning: Synchronous (simultaneously) • Self-Study • Informal 28
  29. 29. The Inverted Classroom • The Inverted Classroom (Flipped Classroom in K-12) (Lage, Platt & Treglia, 2000) • Video lectures, reading and podcasts outside of class using technology. Save class time for active learning, collaboration and even working through homework. “Students learn and teachers learn what students don’t know” • Good article in February 24, 2012 issue of The Chronicle “How ‘Flipping” the Classroom Can Improve the Traditional Lecture” • The Community of Inquiry Framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000; Garrison & Vaughan, 2008)
  30. 30. Blended Learning Components Blended learning instructional design has two main components: – Collaboration with peers – Learner self-reflection 30
  31. 31. Technology is Not the Magic Ingredient! February 17 article in The Chronicle about Michael Wesch who is well known for touting new models of active teaching with technology. “A Tech-Happy Professor Reboots After Hearing His Teaching Advice Isn’t Working” “They (professors) would just be inspired to use blogs and Twitter and technology, but the No. 1 thing that was missing from it was a sense of purpose.” “It doesn’t matter what method you use if you do not first focus on one intangible factor: the bond between professor and student.” “Technology rarely plays more than a passing roll in the work of teacher-of-the-year winners.” – Mary Huber, consulting scholar at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 31
  32. 32. So What Does the Future Look Like? 32
  33. 33. Third Topic Applications for ICT in FLT 33
  34. 34. Looking Forward 34
  35. 35. Horizon Report 2012 Horizon Report 2012 – http://sorden.com/ua/horizon2012.pdf Horizon Report 2012 Shortlist – http://sorden.com/ua/horizon2012_shortlist.pdf “The Horizon Report is not a predictive tool. It is meant, rather, to highlight emerging technologies with considerable potential for our focus areas of education and interpretation.” - Horizon Report 2012 35
  36. 36. Horizon Report 2012 “Short List” Time-to-Adoption: One Year or Less Cloud Computing Mobile Apps Social Reading Tablet Computing 36
  37. 37. Horizon Report 2012 “Short List” Time-to-Adoption: Two to Three Years Adaptive Learning Environments Augmented Reality Game-Based Learning Learning Analytics 37
  38. 38. Horizon Report 2012 “Short List” Time-to-Adoption: Four to Five Years Digital Identity Gesture-Based Computing Haptic Interfaces Internet of Things 38
  39. 39. Horizon Report 2012 Final List • Time-to-Adoption: One Year or Less – Mobile Apps – Tablet Computing • Time-to-Adoption: Two to Three Years – Game-Based Learning – Learning Analytics • Time-to-Adoption: Four to Five Years – Gesture-Based Computing – Internet of Things 39
  40. 40. Technology Trendsfor Language Learning NEAR FUTURE 3-5 YEARS? • Informal/Personalized Learning • Intelligent Tutoring Systems • Blended Learning • Learning Analytics • Voice Interaction With • Personal Learning Environments Computers • Game Based Learning & Alternative Reality • Free/Inexpensive Open Content • Innovations in Digital Reading • Augmented Reality Language • Open Courses for Mobile Phones Learning • Thin Clients & Apps in the Cloud • Crowdsourcing 40
  41. 41. Digital Textbooks eBook DemoA Wealth of Free Material in Books and Textbooks• Kindle Free Books with the Kindle Cloud Reader - https://read.amazon.com• Gutenberg Project - http://www.gutenberg.org• Free Open Content Initiatives – Flat World Knowledge http://www.flatworldknowledge.com – College Open Textbooks - http://www.collegeopentextbooks.org – Secondary-Level CK-12 STEM Flexbooks http://www.ck12.orgMore important than free digital content, however, isdisruptive innovations in how we interact with the content. 41
  42. 42. Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting A Few Companies are starting to pilot the use of Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting (VSTF) in Digital Textbooks and online materials. “McGraw-Hill will be testing this research out on 3 of our books in 2012.” Jaclyn Mautone in personal email Marketing Specialist McGraw-Hill Higher Education 42
  43. 43. Expect Disruptive and CognitiveInnovations in Digital Text 43
  44. 44. The Reading Eye-Span In Block Text – Minimal character-specific information can be processed outside of the oval. Everything else only competes for visual attention, while adding no informational value. Squire Trelawney, Dr. Livesay, and the rest of these gentlemen having asked me to write down the whole particulars about Treasure Island, from the beginning to the end, keeping nothing back but the bearings of the island, and that only because there is still treasure not yet lifted, I take up my pen in the year of grace 17__ and go back to the time when my father kept the Admiral Benbow inn and the brown seaman with the sabre cut first took up his lodging under one roof. 44
  45. 45. Example of VSTF 45
  46. 46. Visual Syntactic Text Formatting 46
  47. 47. VSLT Process When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which When in the Course of human events it have connected them with another, becomes necessary for one people to and dissolve the political bands which have to assume connected them with another and to among the powers assume among the powers of the earth, of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the separate and equal station the Laws of Nature and of Natures God to which the Laws of Nature entitle them, a decent respect to the and opinions of mankind requires that they of Natures God should declare the causes which impel entitle them, them to the separation. a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that Millions of they should declare computer the causes which calculations per impel them to the separation. sentence 47
  48. 48. Pre-Test and Post-Test Research 230 Control EL1 220 Live Ink EL1 210 Control ESOL 200 Live Ink ESOL 190 Fall Spring Randall C. Walker, M.D. 48
  49. 49. In the Classroom 49
  50. 50. VSTF Web-based Parsing Site http://www.liveink.com Randall C. Walker, M.D. Walker Reading Tech, Inc.ClipRead converts any digital text of your choosinginto Live Ink format. 50
  51. 51. Open Courses for Mobile DevicesIn 2009, the Indira Gandhi National OpenUniversity (IGNOU) announced plans to createmLearning so students could access coursematerials through downloads on their phones.There is a huge, untapped potential fordelivering English and other subjects to learnersin developing countries using nothing morethan their own simple cell phones. Nabeel Ahmad Nabeel’s Syllabus (local) Delicious Links 51
  52. 52. Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) • MALL is a subset of both Mobile Learning (m-learning) and Computer-assisted language learning (CALL). • MALL has evolved to support language learning with the increased use of mobile technologies such as mobile phones (cellphones), MP3 and MP4 players and devices such as tablets. 52
  53. 53. Getting Started Resources for Learning How to Teach with MALL 53
  54. 54. Remword - Free from ChinaRemwordprovides text,image andaudio to assistwith vocabularybuilding. 54
  55. 55. Mobile Apps for Language Learning • Byki Mobile - http://www.transparent.com/mobile • Mango Mobile - http://www.mangolanguages.com/libraries/products- overview/mango-mobile • MobLang - http://www.moblang.eu 55
  56. 56. IAmLearn • International Association for Mobil Learning (launch) • mLearn 2012 in Helsinki (launch) • mLearn 2012 Blog (launch) • mLearn in Facebook (launch) 56
  57. 57. Mobile Learning 2012 http://www.mlearning-conf.org 57
  58. 58. SLAIT at the U. of South Florida http://www.coedu.usf.edu/slait 58
  59. 59. Thin Clients & Apps in the Cloud Expect to see a new emphasis on delivering courses directly from the cloud. 59
  60. 60. Mobile as Desktops As mobile phones become more powerful, and cloud computing more ubiquitous, our phone will become our computers in many cases. http://www.ubuntu.com/devices/android 60
  61. 61. Crowdsourcing A distributed problem-solving and production process that involves outsourcing tasks to a network of people, also known as the crowd. -Wikipedia 61
  62. 62. DuoLingo After re-purposing CAPTCHA to help digitize books, Luis von Ahn wondered how else to use small contributions by many on the Internet for greater good. The result was Duolingo, which will help millions learn a new language while translating the Web quickly and accurately -- all for free. MP4 | WMV | FLV Excellent TED Video http://youtu.be/-Ht4qiDRZE8 62
  63. 63. DuoLingo Blog post with first impression of DuoLingo and screenshots: http://classical-bookworm.blogspot.com/2012/01/duolingo-first-impressions.html 63
  64. 64. DuoLingo 64
  65. 65. DuoLingo 65
  66. 66. DuoLingo 66
  67. 67. DuoLingo 67
  68. 68. DuoLingo 68
  69. 69. DuoLingo 69
  70. 70. So, those were innovations that arealready here, but what about… Disruptive Innovations in 3-5 Years? 70
  71. 71. Technology Trendsfor Language Learning NEAR FUTURE 3-5 YEARS? • Informal/Personalized Learning • Learning Analytics • Blended Learning • Intelligent Tutoring Systems • Voice Interaction With • Game Based Learning Computers • Personal Learning Environments • Free/Inexpensive Open Content • Augmented Reality Language • Innovations in Digital Reading Learning • Open Courses for Mobile Phones • Thin Clients & Apps in the Cloud • Crowdsourcing 71
  72. 72. Learning Analytics • Learning analytics involves data mining, interpretation, and modeling to improve understanding of teaching and learning, and to tailor education to individual students more effectively. • Learning analytics in higher education has centered primarily on identifying at-risk students who can then receive attention to avoid failure in a particular course. • The larger promise of learning analytics, however, is that when correctly applied and interpreted, it will enable faculty to more precisely identify student learning needs and tailor instruction appropriately. It is how we will finally, truly personalize education 72
  73. 73. Intelligent Tutoring Systems • Will be many, many years until they are perfected. • Based in Artificial Intelligence. • Most research from Carnegie Mellon University. • Expect to see the first uses in foreign language learning as interactive dialogs and vocabulary building exercises. 73
  74. 74. Game Based Learning/Alternative Reality “Developers and researchers are working in every area of game- based learning, including games that are goal-oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; games developed expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and group skills.” - 2011 Horizon Report • James Paul Gee • Collins & Halverson • Curtis Bonk • Marc Prensky 74
  75. 75. Personal Learning Environment (PLE) A system for an individual to access, aggregate, configure and manipulate digital artifacts of their learning experiences VLE (Moodel, Blackboard) ePortfolio+ Web 2.0 PLE Services
  76. 76. 3 Learning Objectives in a PLE • Michele Martin divided learning in PLEs into three areas: – Gathering Information – reading and learning – Processing Information – reflecting and practicing – Acting on the Learning – what do you do with it? How does it affect your practice? http://michelemartin.typepad.com/thebambooprojectblog/2007/04/my_personal_lea.html
  77. 77. ICT & PLEs for Personalized& Informal Learning • It is still not clear whether a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) is software, or simply an idea. • The main idea for a PLE is a collection of tools and methods that use technology to promote learning. 77
  78. 78. Augmented Reality 78
  79. 79. Augmented Reality Language Learning AR is the combination of real-world and computer-generated data so that computer generated objects are blended into real time projection of real life activities. – ARLL focuses on contextual (immersive learning) – Learning can move beyond physical classroom into the street/field – Contexts have the opportunity to be relevant and to engage learners. http://www.avatarlanguages.com/blog/arll 79
  80. 80. Augmented Reality – Google Goggles 80
  81. 81. Examples of Augmented Reality THE FUTURE IS UPON US! CINEMA Layar is an augmented Soon we will be able to reality software stand in a location and developed by a company HD HD see images and video of in Holland. Listen to their MP4 MP4 events that happened in vision of the future. WMV WMV that spot. FLV FLV LANGUAGE HD ART MP4 Just a simple example of MP4 Augmented Reality WMV what will be possible to WMV allows us to enhance art FLV place foreign language in FLV galleries and museums context with Augmented with additional Reality Language information or artistic Learning (ARLL) expression. 81
  82. 82. Suggestions for Starting • Start small: as with anything else, it probably pays to start small. Trying smaller activities allows some dipping one’s toe in. • Students and their technology: finding out what the students actually have and how they use it. This can be presented as a class activity, where students discuss or present their mobile devices (phones, cameras and MP3 players). It’s especially good to know when they carry them, how they use them, what functions they use and don’t use. • Out-of-class learning: students are already learning out-of-class and a discussion of what they already do will open up an ongoing discussion on how to do this better. Learning with technology - teaching without by Howard Vickers http://www.avatarlanguages.com/cotesol 82
  83. 83. Recommendations • Try to buy or gain access to a smart phone and a tablet if you don’t already own both. • Become comfortable with digital textbooks. • Contribute to an open textbook project. • Experiment with providing resources to mobile devices. • Become visible in social sites for foreign language teachers, as well as for learners of foreign languages. • Study blended methods and experiment with blending your courses as quickly as possible. 83
  84. 84. Journals for FLT and Technology • CALICO Journal - https://calico.org/page.php?id=515 • Journal for Language Learning Technologies - http://www.iallt.org/iallt_journal • ReCALL Journal - http://www.eurocall-languages.org/recall/index.html • Journal of Technology for ELT - http://sites.google.com/site/journaloftechnologyforelt/archive • Language Learning & Technology - http://llt.msu.edu • System - http://www.journals.elsevier.com/system • Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning - http://www.igi-global.com/journal/international-journal-mobile-blended-learning/1115 84
  85. 85. Resources • Learning in the Cloud – Warshauer • Web 2.0 How-to for Educators – Solomon and Schrum • Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting: A New Method to Enhance Online Reading • Mobile Learning • Information and Communication Technology in Education • The Horizon Report • Emerging Technologies in Distance Education (Couros) 85
  86. 86. Emerging Trends in Foreign Language Teaching withInformation & Communication TechnologiesDr. Steve SordenChair – MCC Distance EducationPresentation to CESLUniversity of ArizonaMarch 2, 2012 86