Blended learning

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  • Job of DE is to protect MCC from outside online schools.
  • This model incorporates the construct of self-regulated learning (SRL) which involves cognitive constructs such as motivation, goal setting, self-efficacy, and the triadic model (Zimmerman, 2000, 2001; Winne and Hadwin, 1998; Pintrich; 2000). Hadwin, Wozney, and Pontin (2005) combined sociocognitive ideas about SRL with sociocultural ideas about learning to introduce a concept called coregulation, Hadwin & Oshige (2011) and Jarvela & Jarvenoja (2011) have since introduced a third dimension to the SRL continuum known as socially shared regulation of learning.
  • Students live online with Facebook, Twitter, messaging, and other social media. Learning outside of this world is not relevant to them.
  • The only exception to this was that a higher rate of perceived social presence was detected in the fourteen participants who identified themselves as Latino than was found for the much larger group of Caucasian participants.Conclusions:The major conclusion that can be drawn from this study is to confirm that there does indeed appear to be a strong link between the amount of social presence and collaborative activities that a student perceives in a blended course, and that student’s self-reported satisfaction in the course.The study confirmed that there also appears to be a link between rising levels of perceived collaboration and rising levels of perceived social presence.Study suggests a higher rate of perceived social presence for Latino students than Caucasian students. 14 Latino participants makes it difficult to draw hard conclusions.
  • SCFBL aims to combine the strengths of social cognitive theory, cognitive science, and some aspects of constructivism and networked learning theory into a comprehensive framework for researching and applying effective principles to blended learning. It is a learner-centered model that focuses on a highly personalized approach to learning within a larger context of social learning. It draws from the advantages of blended learning in that it can be tailored to each user’s individual interests while providing a rich, affective learning environment consisting of collaboration, reflection and discourse.
  • A popular framework for discussing blended learning from a socioconstructivist perspective is the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008; Garrison, Cleveland-Innes, & Fung, 2010). First introduced by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000), this model identifies three core elements that are required to create and sustain a purposeful learning community in a collaborative constructivist learning environment (teaching, cognitive and social presence). According to Garrison, Cleveland-Innes, & Fung (2010), teaching presence provides the structure to a course which directs cognitive and social presence. Garrison et al. (2010) identify three primary responsibilities in teaching presence:Establish curriculum content, learning activities, and timelinesMonitoring and managing purposeful collaboration and reflectionEnsuring that the community reaches the intended learning outcomes by diagnosing needs and providing timely information and direction (p. 32)The importance of teaching presence to create a learning environment conducive to collaboration and reflection cannot be underestimated. Tu and Corry (2003) explain that in order to insure a good learning experience, an ideal interactive learning environment must be constructed according to a fully integrated design, rather than assembled as a collection of “unrelated, disconnected, and fragmented learning activities scattered throughout the course” (p. 54). Collaborative learning does not automatically happen. It must be planned for and maintained with a conscious, continued effort (Roschelle, 1992; Weinberger, Kollar, Dimitriadis, Mäkitalo-Siegl & Fischer, 2009) The second core element of the Community of Inquiry framework is cognitive presence, which deals with the learning and inquiry process and is defined by the Practical Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2001). The Practical Inquiry model has four phases of collaborative inquiry which occur in an environment of reflection and discourse: the “definition of a problem or task; exploration for relevant information/knowledge; making sense of and integrating ideas; and finally, testing plausible solutions” (Garrison et al., 2010, p. 32).The third core element in the Community of Inquiry framework is social presence. Garrison et al believe that social presence can and should be established in online learning communities. According to the framework, it is a mediating variable between teaching presence and cognitive presence. It is the responsibility of teaching presence to create a course structure that creates social presence, which is a necessary condition for cognitive presence.
  • SCFBL aims to combine the strengths of social cognitive theory, cognitive science, and some aspects of constructivism and networked learning theory into a comprehensive framework for researching and applying effective principles to blended learning. It is a learner-centered model that focuses on a highly personalized approach to learning within a larger context of social learning. It draws from the advantages of blended learning in that it can be tailored to each user’s individual interests while providing a rich, affective learning environment consisting of collaboration, reflection and discourse.
  • SCFBL aims to combine the strengths of social cognitive theory, cognitive science, and some aspects of constructivism and networked learning theory into a comprehensive framework for researching and applying effective principles to blended learning. It is a learner-centered model that focuses on a highly personalized approach to learning within a larger context of social learning. It draws from the advantages of blended learning in that it can be tailored to each user’s individual interests while providing a rich, affective learning environment consisting of collaboration, reflection and discourse.
  • Mobile technology is still very early. We don’t know what it will look like. It can place language learning in context by allowing the learner to study language outside of the brick and mortar classroom and learn about things in context, when the learner is curious about them at the moment. Increasingly, mobile technology will be ambient. The device will cause the technology to be all around our environment, rather than interacted with through a small screen and keyboard.
  • Mention Dogmelanguage instruction
  • The Universal Translator. 40 years ago, it was science fiction. Today, we are on the verge of realizing it. At first this seems like it may be something scary to language teachers, but think how powerful this can be for personalized language learning. The learner can hear correct pronunciation and vocabulary at any time, for any need in the moment. It will be highly contextualized learning.http://youtu.be/VuP37PW0Yn8
  • here are three ways to create your own layer:
  • Blended learning

    1. 1. BLENDED LEARNING:A DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION BEYONDHYBRID COURSES Steve Sorden Mohave Community College LATTE Technology Expo December 15, 2011
    2. 2. Today’s Topics Talk about blended learning models Throw out some of my crazy ideas Faculty share blended learning experiences/plans Informal Open Discussion
    3. 3. My Philosophy (Solely mine)• Ground and DE Programs Need Each Other• Job of DE is to protect MCC from outside online schools by offering quality instruction.• Job of ground campuses is to offer dynamic, innovative instruction and services in ways that can’t be matched online.• Together we provide a complete, quality educational package to MCC communities.
    4. 4. Learning Theories • Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura) people learn by watching what others do • Social Constructivism (Vygotsky) groups construct knowledge for one another, collaboratively creating a small culture of shared artifacts with shared meanings • Andragogy (Knowles) ―Adult Learning Theory‖ The role of the educator is minimized. The central idea in the context of adult learning is that it is only after convincing him- or herself of the rationale of learning, will an adult decide to learn.
    5. 5. Connectivism/Networked Learning • Theory by George Siemens • Composed primarily of three concepts: – chaos theory – importance of networks – the interplay of complexity and self-organization • We can no longer personally experience everything. There is too much. We create networks to learn more than we can as individuals. • A learning theory which is based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world rather than simply in the head of an individual. 5
    6. 6. Self-Regulated Learning • Zimmerman (2000, 2001) Socially-Shared Regulation of • Winne & Hadwin (1998) Learning • Pintrich (2000) Coregulated • Cognitive Constructs Learning – Motivation – Goal Setting – Reflection Self-Regulated Learning – Self-Explaining Behaivors 6
    7. 7. Cognitive Theoryof Multimedia Learning• Theory developed by UCSB psychologist Richard E. Mayer• Theory is based on three main assumptions: – There are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information – there is limited channel capacity – learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information• The theory includes a series of principles that provide guidelines on how to design online lessons using multimedia. 7
    8. 8. Blended vs. Hybrid What’s the difference? Is there a difference?
    9. 9. Hybrid Courses at MCCA hybrid course meets at least 50% of the timein the classroom. The other part of the courseis held online.MCC Distance Education FAQshttp://www.mohave.edu/pages/212.asp
    10. 10. Policies & Procedures Section 2 –Instruction and Academic SupportPolicy 2.040.10.02.02.03 on Hybrid Courses states:Hybrid courses integrate online and in-class instruction in acomplementary manner to combine the best features of both.Classroom time is reduced but not eliminated. Class meetingtimes are to be listed in the schedule. Hybrid courses requirestudent access to a computer and the same hardware, softwareand Internet connectivity requirements as online courses.
    11. 11. Definition of Blended LearningBlended Learning is anapproach to course designthat brings together thebest of both face-to-faceand online strategies.This combination aims tobuild from each approachto create an innovative andeffective learningexperience for students.
    12. 12. Why Blended Learning? • Several studies report increased student satisfaction with the blended model over either face-to-face or online approaches. (Clusky, Hodges, & Smith, 2006) • A new approach—not combination of online and f2f. Online learning grew rapidly because of student preferences, but blended learning is a pedagogically-oriented innovation that will be driven by students AND faculty. (Albrecht, 2006)
    13. 13. The Metamorphosis of Blended Learning What if the focus of Blended Learning changed from ―brick and mortar vs. online‖ to using the most appropriate methods for maximizing learning? – Learner self-reflection – Collaboration with peers If we consider this, the focus changes from learning space to learning design
    14. 14. So my question is…• If it looks like there are real potential benefits to blending f2f (brick & mortar) and online.• But if we use Collaborate or a similar program to deliver the f2f, can a completely online course be considered blended if it applies the methodology and theories?• Something to think about while we look at the next few slides.
    15. 15. Where is learning headed?
    16. 16. Personalized LearningThe Snowflake Effect(Eric Duval and Wayne Hodgins)―Massive Hyper-Personalization‖ Personalized Learning as a ―Disruptive Innovation‖ Christensen, Johnson & Horn (2008) 16
    17. 17. 21st Century Learners Will Expect(Very Soon) Interactivity Social Media The Cloud Digital media Learning Learning should do outside of this materials and something world will not status must be when it is be relevant. available touched or anywhere clicked on. (24/7) on any device. 17
    18. 18. In the very near future… 21st Century Learners will increasingly demand that their experience is: • Learning-Centered • Personalized • Interactive, Social & in “The Cloud” • Mobile: Anytime, Anywhere • What They Want (Buyers Market) 18
    19. 19. Education is Now a Buyer’s Market It doesn’t matter whether you agree with what students want from their educational experience. If you don’t provide it, they will go somewhere else. ICT in education will make this very easy. 19
    20. 20. Pew FoundationThree Models of Blended Learning • The Program in Course Redesign, funded by the Pew foundation, identified three types of blended learning: – The Supplemental Model – The Replacement Model – The Emporium Model http://www.thencat.org/PCR/Proj_Model.htm
    21. 21. The Supplemental ModelThe supplemental modelretains the basic structure ofthe traditional course anda) supplements lectures and textbooks with technology- based, out-of-class activities, orb) b) also changes what goes on in the class by creating an active learning environment within a large lecture hall setting.
    22. 22. The Replacement ModelThe replacement model reduces the number of in-classmeetings, or classroom "seat-time," and:• replaces some in-class time with out-of-class, online, interactive learning activities• makes significant changes in remaining in-class meetings.Consequently, the nature of the in-class activities is changed aswell. Instead of traditional lectures, in-class time is freed formore interactive, collaborative learning experiences.
    23. 23. The Emporium ModelThe emporium model eliminates all class meetings andreplaces them with a learning resource center featuring onlinematerials and on-demand personalized assistance, using• an open attendance model• Or a required attendance model depending on student motivation and experience levels.The emporium model is a radical reconceptualization of the traditionalcourse. Though attendance at the learning center can be required, there areno longer lectures in a traditional sense. Course content is delivered viaonline materials, and in-person help is provided in the learning resourcecenter. http://weblearning.psu.edu/blended-learning-initiative/the-emporium-model http://math.gcsu.edu/~chiorescu/collegealgebra.html
    24. 24. 6 Types of Blended Learning According to a report by the Innosight Institute, there are six major types of blended learning: • Face to Face Driver • Online Lab • Rotation • Self-Blend • Flex • Online Driver Staker, H. (2011) The rise of k12 blended learning. Chapel Hill, NC: Innosight Institute. http://www.innosightinstitute.org/innosight/wp- content/uploads/2011/05/The-Rise-of-K-12-Blended- Learning.pdf
    25. 25. ―Face to Face Driver‖ Blended Model• The "face-to-face driver" model, in which a teacher in a traditional classroom instructional setting employs online learning for remediation or supplemental instruction;
    26. 26. ―Rotation‖ Blended Model• The "rotation: model, in which students move back and forth between online and classroom instruction.
    27. 27. ―Flex‖ Blended Model "Flex," a model in which the curriculum is delivered primarily through an online platform, with teachers providing onsite support;
    28. 28. ―Online Lab‖ Blended Model The "online lab" approach, wherein an online course is delivered in a physical classroom or computer lab;
    29. 29. ―Self-Blend‖ Blended Model "Self-blend," a model in which students choose on their own which courses they take online to supplement their schools offerings.
    30. 30. ―Online Driver‖ Blended Model The "online driver" model, where the courses are primarily online and physical facilities are used only for extracurricular activities, required check-ins, or similar functions.
    31. 31. Review: At Least Two ClassificationSystems for Blended Learning • Emporium • Face to Face Driver • Rotation • Flex • Online Lab • Self-Blend • Online Driver
    32. 32. Recommended Uses for F2F Meetings• Intro/technology overview• Collaborative small-group work• Advanced discussions• Project presentations• Guest speakers• Q&A sessions• Demonstrations• Lab work
    33. 33. Blended Learning Tools
    34. 34. Integration of ActivitiesWhen asked, What would I do differently? Blended Learninginstructors were united in their response:Id devote more attention to integrating what was going on in the classroomwith the online work.One instructor responded emphatically, Integrate online with face-to-face, sothere arent two separate courses. We found it impossible to stressintegrating face-to-face and online learning too much.―(Aycock, Garnham, & Kaleta, 2002)
    35. 35. InteractionResearch indicates that student satisfaction with the blendedformat is highly dependent on the level of interaction withinstructors and other students.Instructors can address interaction issues by providing timeduring the face to face sessions for discussion, in addition tousing available inline discussion tools such as ANGELdiscussion forums.
    36. 36. CLSS Instrument in Studies So & Brush (2008) Sorden (2011) Collaborative .586 Social Learning Presence .750 .541 Satisfaction Latino Demographic P < .01 Variables
    37. 37. Dissertation Findings Significant, Significant, high moderate positive positive correlation correlation between student between student satisfaction and satisfaction and perceived perceived social collaboration. presence No significant Significant, correlation moderate positive between any of the correlation demographic between perceived variables & three collaboration and constructs with perceived social exception of SP & presence. Latinos
    38. 38. What Do Real Blended Models Look Like?
    39. 39. The Inverted Classroom(Flipped Classroom in K-12) (Lage, Platt & Treglia, 2000) ICT are used to deliver online readings, recorded lectures, narrated PowerPoint presentations, podcasts, and instructional videos so that learners have time for self- regulated exploration and discovery, and then time to reflect on it. F2F is spent in activities that encourage interaction and collaboration, rather than passively sitting in the back row during a lecture. http://youtu.be/brUZTton67s http://youtu.be/7_ejZ5OMIDE
    40. 40. Community of Inquiry Framework The Community of Inquiry Framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000; Garrison & Vaughan, 2008) Reflection and Collaboration
    41. 41. Blending w/ Purpose: Multimodal Model(Picciano, 2009)
    42. 42. Social Cognitive Frameworkfor Blended Learning The Social Cognitive Framework for Blended Learning• Social Cognitive Theory• Self-Regulated Learning• Cognitive Science• Networked Learning Theory• Social Influence Model (Rogoff, 1998)
    43. 43. Adding mLearning into the Mix
    44. 44. Mobile Learning (mLearning) • Handheld Computers & Smartphones • Increasing Presence in Higher Ed • Still Very Early • Ambient Technology 44
    45. 45. Mobile Trend TowardsAmbient Technology Surrounding us with technology rather than interacting through small screens and tiny keyboards. 45
    46. 46. Speech Recognition and Synthesis From this… To this! 46
    47. 47. Augmented Reality 47
    48. 48. Augmented Reality – Google Goggles 48
    49. 49. The Future is Upon Us! Layar is an augmented reality software developed by a company in Holland. Listen to their vision of the future. http://youtu.be/HW9gU_4AUCA
    50. 50. Recommendations for Making the Most ofa Blended Course• At a minimum, allow six months lead time for course development;• Master the technology necessary to administer the course. Set aside time to learn the requisite tools.• Hold an initial face-to-face kick-off meeting. (General orientation to the format of the course, a review of technology requirements, and an opportunity for the students to socialize and get to know their peers and their instructor.)• Make students aware of what a blended course entails.• Provide information on time management skills. Penn State online tutorial: http://istudy.psu.edu/FirstYearModules/Time/TimeManagementLesson.htm• Be sure that the face-to-face class meetings are integrated into the course, and hold value to the educational experience that connects with the online coursework. Students may become frustrated if they feel that the face-to-face sessions are simply thrown into the course, with no thought given to the role that the classroom time plays within the course. Larry Ragan – Best Practices in Blended Learning: http://cnx.org/content/m15048/latest
    51. 51. Final RecommendationAttend Our Moderator Training This Afternoon!
    52. 52. Faculty Discussion Tony Noble Kurt Spilker Then Open Discussion Ideas? Questions?
    53. 53. BLENDED LEARNING:IT’S MORE THAN JUST HYBRID Steve Sorden Mohave Community College LATTE Technology Expo December 15, 2011

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