1. N. Durga Chaitanya Prasad M.Com, MBA (SITE) 1
Communication can be explained an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more people. It can be defined as a process of passing and understanding from one person to
another. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another.
Although this is a simple definition, when we think about how we may communicate the subject
becomes a lot more complex. There are various categories of communication and more than one
may occur at any time.
The different categories of communication are:
Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television and other
Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our
Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or via other
Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can communicate
Definition of communication
'Communication' is about sharing of ideas, information, knowledge and opinions while
interacting with another person. Shuchi M. Bhardwaj.
"Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to
another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver."
"Of all of our inventions for mass communication, pictures still speak the most
universally understood language." Walt Disney
"The strong man is the one who is able to intercept at will the communication between
the senses and the mind." Napoleon Bonaparte
Main Characteristics of Communications
(1) Two or More Persons:
The first important characteristic of communication is that there must be a minimum number of
two persons because no single individual can have an exchange of ideas with himself. A listener
is necessary to receive one’s ideas. Therefore, there must be at least two persons-the sender of
information and the receiver.
(2) Exchange of Ideas:
Communication cannot be thought of in the absence of exchange of ideas. In order to complete
the process of communication there must be an exchange of ideas, orders, feelings, etc., among
two or more than two persons.
(3) Mutual Understanding:
Mutual understanding means that the receiver should receive the information in the same spirit
with which it is being given. In the process of communication, it is more important to understand
the information rather than carry it out.
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(4) Direct and Indirect Communication:
It is not necessary in communication that the receiver and giver of information should be face-to-
face with each other. Communication can be both direct and indirect. Direct communication
means face-to-face conversation, while indirect communication is through other means.
(5) Continuous Process:
Communication is an endless process, as is the case with business where the manager
continuously assigns work to his subordinates, tries to know the progress of the work and gives
(6) Use of Words as well as Symbols:
There can be many means of communication, like the written, the oral and symbolic. The
examples of symbolic communication are the ringing of bell for closing a school or a college,
saying something by the movement of the neck, showing anger or disapproval through eyes,
giving some decision by the raising of a finger in cricket, etc.
The goal of communication is to convey information—and the understanding of that
information—from one person or group to another person or group. This communication process
is divided into three basic components: A sender transmits a message through a channel to
the receiver. (Figure shows a more elaborate model.) The sender first develops an idea, which is
composed into a message and then transmitted to the other party, who interprets the message and
receives meaning. Information theorists have added somewhat more complicated language.
Developing a message is known as encoding. Interpreting the message is referred to as decoding.
1. Source 2. Encoding 3. Channel 4. Decoding 5. Receiver 6. Message (M) 7. Feedback
Source: It is the giver of the message.
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Encoding: First a though occurs. This though is converted into message. This process of conversion of thought to
message is called encoding.
Message: The product of encoding is called message. When we speak, speech is the message. When we write our
writing is the message, when we gesture, our hand movements and face expression is the message.
Channel: It is the medium through which the message travels.
Decoding: Before the message is received, the symbols in it must be translated into a form that is understood by the
receiver. This process is called decoding.
Receiver: The object who receives the message is called receiver.
Feedback: It is a check on how successfully the message has been transmitted.
Types of communication:
Communication is one kind of activity of exchanging message by reading, writing, speaking,
listing, gesture, behavior etc. We are motionless with out communication. There are different
kinds / types of communication depending on their nature or behavior. Detail discussion about
types of communication given below:
Different types of communication system are found in different kinds of the types of
communication differ from Organization to Organization depending upon the nature of
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information to be communicated and the purpose of Communication mainly takes the
form of –
Formal Communication and
Formal communication follows the chain and command. It consist downward communication,
upward communication and horizontal communication. Many communication scholars view the
types of communication basing on the direction or flow of the message only and as such they
classify communication to be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal. Different types of
communications are shown in the above graph.
The image given above about types of communication will give you at a glance idea about kinds
of communication. Firstly we can differentiate communication into three
Types of communication
On the basis of expression / Method / Media
On the basis of flow of Information
On the basis of Organizational Relationship
On the basis of expression / Method / Media we can differentiate communication into two types
which is discussed below:
Verbal communication is a communication process which uses both oral and written to
communicate like chatting with friend in internet, send SMS to any one by mobile phone all of
them are nothing but verbal communication.
Non Verbal Communication
This kind of communication doesn’t use oral or written process to communicate. It use some
symbol some of them we mention below
When we are in road we see some arrow like go left or go right
In some place there is a symbol which means no smoking
Verbal Communication can be differentiate in two
From the name of this communication type we can understand that which communication
process use only oral method that are known as oral communication.
It is same above which communication process use only written method to communicate that is
known as written communication.
Non Verbal Communication has six kinds
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Which communication process use photography, graphics design, illustration, fine art,
multimedia etc to communicate that is known as visual communication.
Audio Method Communication
A communication which uses audio method to communicate that is commonly known as audio
Audio Visual Communication
This kind of communication uses both audio and picture to communicate. It can be used with
oral and written communication. It is mainly used in television advertisement.
In our day to day life we make various gestures to communicate and that kind of communication
is known as gesture communication.
This kind of communication is most likely gesture communication difference is gesture is made
to communicate properly but passive communication is done for avoiding some communication.
Communication through action
Which kind of communication precedes its communication process through action that is known
as communication through action.
On the basis of flow of Information communication can be divided into three
David. H. Molt said that “Horizontal communication is the process of exchanging information
between peers at any organization level usually to co ordinate activates”.
When a communication made between superior to subordinate or subordinate to superior is
known as vertical communication.
Crosswise communication doesn’t follow something like upward or downward communication
in this communication process any person of any position can communicate with other person of
Again vertical communication can be divided into two
A communication which is done between subordinate to superiors and that is known as upward
This is just opposite of upward communication. Communication made between superior to
On the basis of Organizational Relationship communication can be divided into two
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Formal communication may be a verbal or written presentation which maintains some certain
rules and regulation.
Informal communication is one kind of causal communication which does not need to follow any
rules and regulation
Barriers to communication:
For the convenience of study the different barriers can be divided into four parts:
(1) Semantic Barriers
There is always a possibility of misunderstanding the feelings of the sender of the message or
getting a wrong meaning of it. The words, signs, and figures used in the communication are
explained by the receiver in the light of his experience which creates doubtful situations. This
happens because the information is not sent in simple language.
The chief language-related barriers are as under:
(i) Badly Expressed Message:
Because of the obscurity of language there is always a possibility of wrong interpretation of the
messages. This barrier is created because of the wrong choice of words, in civil words, the wrong
sequence of sentences and frequent repetitions. This may be called linguistic chaos.
(ii) Symbols or Words with Different Meanings:
A symbol or a word can have different meanings. If the receiver misunderstands the
communication, it becomes meaningless. For example, the word ‘value’ can have different
meanings in the following sentences:
(a) What is the value of computer education these days?
(b) What is the value of this mobile set?
(c) Value our friendship.
(iii) Faulty Translation: A manager receives much information from his superiors and
subordinates and he translates it for all the employees according to their level of understanding.
Hence, the information has to be moulded according to the understanding or environment of the
receiver. If there is a little carelessness in this process, the faulty translation can be a barrier in
(iv) Unclarified Assumptions:
It has been observed that sometimes a sender takes it for granted that the receiver knows some
basic things and, therefore, it is enough to tell him about the major subject matter. This point of
view of the sender is correct to some extent with reference to the daily communication, but it is
absolutely wrong in case of some special message,
(v) Technical Jargon:
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Generally, it has been seen that the people working in an enterprise are connected with some
special technical group who have their separate technical language.
Their communication is not so simple as to be understood by everybody. Hence, technical
language can be a barrier in communication. This technical group includes industrial engineers,
production development manager, quality controller, etc.
(vi) Body Language and Gesture Decoding:
When the communication is passed on with the help of body language and gestures, its
misunderstanding hinders the proper understanding of the message. For example, moving one’s
neck to reply to a question does not indicate properly whether the meaning is ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.
(2) Psychological or Emotional Barriers
The importance of communication depends on the mental condition of both the parties. A
mentally disturbed party can be a hindrance in communication. Following are the emotional
barriers in the way of communication:
(i) Premature Evaluation:
Sometimes the receiver of information tries to dig out meaning without much thinking at the
time of receiving or even before receiving information, which can be wrong. This type of
evaluation is a hindrance in the exchange of information and the enthusiasm of the sender gets
(ii) Lack of Attention:
When the receiver is preoccupied with some important work he/she does not listen to the
message attentively. For example, an employee is talking to his boss when the latter is busy in
some important conversation. In such a situation the boss may not pay any attention to what
subordinate is saying. Thus, there arises psychological hurdle in the communication.
(iii) Loss by Transmission and Poor Retention:
When a message is received by a person after it has passed through many people, generally it
loses some of its truth. This is called loss by transmission. This happens normally in case of oral
communication. Poor retention of information means that with every next transfer of information
the actual form or truth of the information changes.
According to one estimate, with each transfer of oral communication the loss of the information
amounts to nearly 30%. This happens because of the carelessness of people. Therefore, lack of
transmission of information in its true or exact form becomes a hindrance in communication.
For successful communication the transmitter and the receiver must trust each other. If there is a
lack of trust between them, the receiver will always derive an opposite meaning from the
message. Because of this, communication will become meaningless.
(3) Organisational Barriers
Organisational structure greatly affects the capability of the employees as far as the
communication is concerned. Some major organisational hindrances in the way of
communication are the following:
(i) Organisational Policies:
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Organisational policies determine the relationship among all the persons working in the
enterprise. For example, it can be the policy of the organisation that communication will be in
the written form. In such a situation anything that could be conveyed in a few words shall have
to be communicated in the written form. Consequently, work gets delayed.
(ii) Rules and Regulations:
Organisational rules become barriers in communication by determining the subject-matter,
medium, etc. of communication. Troubled by the definite rules, the senders do not send some of
Under organising all the employees are divided into many categories on the basis of their level.
This formal division acts as a barrier in communication especially when the communication
moves from the bottom to the top.
For example, when a lower-level employee has to send his message to a superior at the top level
there is a lurking fear in his mind that the communication may be faulty, and because of this fear,
he cannot convey himself clearly and in time. It delays the decision making.
(iv) Complexity in Organisational Structure:
The greater number of managerial levels in an organisation makes it more complex. It results in
delay in communication and information gets changed before it reaches the receiver. In other
words, negative things or criticism are concealed. Thus, the more the number of managerial
levels in the organisation, the more ineffective the communication becomes.
(v) Organisational Facilities:
Organisational facilities mean making available sufficient stationery, telephone, translator, etc.
When these facilities are sufficient in an organisation, the communication will be timely, clear
and in accordance with necessity. In the absence of these facilities communication becomes
(4) Personal Barriers
The above-mentioned organisational barriers are important in themselves but there are some
barriers which are directly connected with the sender and the receiver. They are called personal
barriers. From the point of view of convenience, they have been divided into two parts:
(a) Barriers Related to Superiors: These barriers are as follows:
(i) Fear of Challenge of Authority:
Everybody desires to occupy a high office in the organisation. In this hope the officers try to
conceal their weaknesses by not communicating their ideas. There is a fear in their mind that in
case the reality comes to light they may have to move to the lower level,
(ii) Lack of Confidence in Subordinates:
Top-level superiors think that the lower- level employees are less capable and, therefore, they
ignore the information or suggestions sent by them. They deliberately ignore the communication
from their subordinates in order to increase their own importance. Consequently, the self-
confidence of the employees is lowered.
(b) Barriers Related to Subordinates: Subordinates-related barriers are the following:
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(i) Unwillingness to Communicate:
Sometimes the subordinates do not want to send any information to their superiors. When the
subordinates feel that the information is of negative nature and will adversely affect them, an
effort is made to conceal that information.
If it becomes imperative to send this information, it is sent in a modified or amended form. Thus,
the subordinates, by not clarifying the facts, become a hindrance in communication,
(ii) Lack of Proper Incentive:
Lack of incentive to the subordinates creates a hindrance in communication. The lack of
incentive to the subordinates is because of the fact that their suggestions or ideas are not given
any importance. If the superiors ignore the subordinates, they become indifferent towards any
exchange of ideas in future.
A report is written for a clear purpose and to a particular audience. Specific information and evidence are
presented, analysed and applied to a particular problem or issue. The information is presented in a clearly
structured format making use of sections and headings so that the information is easy to locate and follow.
Reports use features such as graphics, images, voice, or specialized vocabulary in order to persuade that
specific audience to undertake an action. Report writing is creating an account or statement that
describes in detail an event, situation or occurrence, usually as the result of observation or
inquiry. The two most common forms of report writing are news report writing and academic
report writing. Report writing is different from other forms of writing because it only includes
facts, not the opinion or judgement of the writer.
Objectives of report writing:
1. Use the appropriate languages of report writing
2. Use appropriate style and tone
3. Incorporate charts and tables in the texts
4. Use in‐text citations
5. Write an executive summary for the report
6. Edit and proofread the report
Steps of report writing:
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All reports need to be clear, concise and well structured. The key to writing an effective report is
to allocate time for planning and preparation. With careful planning, the writing of a report will
be made much easier. The essential stages of successful report writing are described below.
Consider how long each stage is likely to take and divide the time before the deadline between
the different stages. Be sure to leave time for final proof reading and checking.
Stage One: Understanding the report brief
This first stage is the most important. You need to be confident that you understand the purpose
of your report as described in your report brief or instructions. Consider who the report is for and
why it is being written. Check that you understand all the instructions or requirements, and ask
your tutor if anything is unclear.
Stage Two: Gathering and selecting information
Once you are clear about the purpose of your report, you need to begin to gather relevant
information. Your information may come from a variety of sources, but how much information
you will need will depend on how much detail is required in the report. You may want to begin
by reading relevant literature to widen your understanding of the topic or issue before you go on
to look at other forms of information such as questionnaires, surveys etc. As you read and gather
information you need to assess its relevance to your report and select accordingly. Keep referring
to your report brief to help you decide what is relevant information.
Stage Three: Organising your material
Once you have gathered information you need to decide what will be included and in what
sequence it should be presented. Begin by grouping together points that are related. These may
form sections or chapters. Remember to keep referring to the report brief and be prepared to cut
any information that is not directly relevant to the report. Choose an order for your material that
is logical and easy to follow.
Stage Four: Analysing your material
Before you begin to write your first draft of the report, take time to consider and make notes on
the points you will make using the facts and evidence you have gathered. What conclusions can
be drawn from the material? What are the limitations or flaws in the evidence? Do certain pieces
of evidence conflict with one another? It is not enough to simply present the information you
have gathered; you must relate it to the problem or issue described in the report brief.
Stage Five: Writing the report
Having organised your material into appropriate sections and headings you can begin to write the
first draft of your report. You may find it easier to write the summary and contents page at the
end when you know exactly what will be included. Aim for a writing style that is direct and
precise. Avoid waffle and make your points clearly and concisely. Chapters, sections and even
individual paragraphs should be written with a clear structure. The structure described below can
be adapted and applied to chapters, sections and even paragraphs.
Introduce the main idea of the chapter/section/paragraph
Explain and expand the idea, defining any key terms.
Present relevant evidence to support your point(s).
Comment on each piece of evidence showing how it relates to your point(s).
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Conclude your chapter/section/paragraph by either showing its
significance to the report as a whole or making a link to the next
Stage Six: Reviewing and redrafting
Ideally, you should leave time to take a break before you review your first draft. Be prepared to
rearrange or rewrite sections in the light of your review. Try to read the draft from the
perspective of the reader. Is it easy to follow with a clear structure that makes sense? Are the
points concisely but clearly explained and supported by relevant evidence? Writing on a word
processor makes it easier to rewrite and rearrange sections or paragraphs in your first draft. If
you write your first draft by hand, try writing each section on a separate piece of paper to make
Stage Seven: Presentation
Once you are satisfied with the content and structure of your redrafted report, you can turn your
attention to the presentation. Check that the wording of each chapter/section/subheading is clear
and accurate. Check that you have adhered to the instructions in your report brief regarding
format and presentation. Check for consistency in numbering of chapters, sections and
appendices. Make sure that all your sources are acknowledged and correctly referenced. You will
need to proof read your report for errors of spelling or grammar. If time allows, proof read more
than once. Errors in presentation or expression create a poor impression and can make the report
difficult to read.
Different types of reports used in business are:
Informational reports. These reports present facts about certain given activity in detail without
any note or suggestions. Whatever is gathered is reported without giving any thing by way of
either explanation or any suggestion. A vice-chancellor asking about the number of candidates
appearing at a particular examination naturally seeks only information of the fact (candidates
taking up the examination) of course without any comment. Generally such reports are of routine
nature. Sometimes they may fall under statutory routine category. A company registrar asking
for allotment return within the stipulate period is nothing but informational routine, falling under
statutory but routine report.
Analytical reports. These reports contain facts along with analytical explanations offered by the
reporter himself or may be asked for by the one who is seeking the report. Such reports contain
the narration of facts, collected data and information, classified and tabulated data and also
explanatory note followed by the conclusions arrived at or interpretations. A company chairman
may ask for a report on falling trends in sale in a particular area. He will in this case be naturally
interested in knowing all the details including that of opinion of any of the investigator.
Research reports. These reports are based on some research work conducted by either an
individual or a group of individuals on a given problem. Indian oil company might have asked its
research division to find some substitute for petrol, and if such a study is conducted then a report
shall be submitted by the research division detailing its findings and then offering their own
suggestions, including the conclusions at which the division has arrived at as to whether such a
12. N. Durga Chaitanya Prasad M.Com, MBA (SITE) 12
substitute is these and if it is there can the same be put to use with advantage and effectively. All
details shall naturally be asked and has to be given. In fact such a report is the result of a
Statutory reports. These reports are to be presented according to the requirements of a
particular law or a rule or a custom now has become a rule. The auditor reports to company
registrar has to be submitted as per the requirements of country legal requirement. A return on
compensation paid to factory workers during a period by a factory has to be submitted to
competent authorities periodically. These reports are generally prepared in the prescribed form as
the rules have prescribed.
Non statutory reports. These reports are not in the nature of legal requirements or rules wants,
therefore, the reports are to be prepared and submitted. These reports are required to be prepared
and submitted: (i) for the administrative and other conveniences,(ii) for taking decision in a
matter (iii) for policy formulations, (iv) for projecting the future or (v) any thing alike so that
efficient and smooth functioning maybe assured and proper and necessary decision may be taken
with a view to see that every thing goes well and the objectives of the organization are achieved
with assured success.
Routine reports. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted periodically on
matters required by the organization so as to help the management of the organization to take
decisions in the matters relating to day to day affairs. The main objectives of routine reports are
to let the management know as to what is happening in the organization, what is its progress
where the deviation is, what measures have been taken in solving the problems and what to do so
that the organization may run smoothly and efficiently. Routine reports are generally brief. They
only give the facts. No comments or explanations are usually offered in such reports. Generally
forms are prescribed for preparation and submission of such reports.
Special reports. Such a type of report is specially required to be prepared and submitted on
matters of special nature. Due to an accident a death of the foreman has occurred in a factory.
The factory manager may ask for a detail report from the head foreman. Such a report is
classified as special reports. These reports contain not only facts and details but they may
contain suggestion, comments and explanations as well.
An annual report informs stockholders and others outside the company about the company's
achievements and financial performance in a given year. Such a report usually serves both a
promotional and an informative purpose. The report provides basic financial information about
the status of an organization and addresses the question of a company's profitability and degree
of financial success—but it also attempts to instill some confidence in the stockholders that their
investment is a worthy one.
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report may include any of the sections outlined in the table above, in the order presented.
However, it is rare that it will include all of them. The revolving soccer balls denote the essential
sections of all reports.
The title of the report should be presented on a separate cover page and contain:
* The title: this must be brief, but must also convey something of the subject of the report to the
* The company's/organization's name
* The date of issue
* The circulation list
* The name of the author(s)
* The authority for circulation, for example, "produced at the request of..." or "commissioned
Some people give their reports titles like Preliminary Report, Interim Report, Inspection Report,
and so on. However, this often forces the author to prejudge the aims of the report. It is better to
approach the writing of a report by thinking about the information to be conveyed.
A foreword is only needed if a statement is to be made by some person other than the author.
This is sometimes done to give more authority to the report.
This section allows the people who were indispensable in writing the report to be thanked or
This part of the report summarises the ground covered in the body of the report so that anyone
wanting a quick review of what the report is about can quickly get the gist of the findings. The
summary must state:
* The aims of the report
* The depth of study that went into the research
* Whether the objective was achieved.
The summary must be no more than 10% of the length of the report and mustn't introduce any
information that isn't contained in the report body. The summary should be created once the rest
of the report has been written.
Table of Contents
A table of contents is essential for any report that is longer than about ten pages.
The table of contents must be on a page of its own and the page references must match those in
List of Illustrations/figures/tables
All illustrations, that is, figures, photos, diagrams, graphs, charts and tables etc., will be listed in
separate pages after the Table of Contents. They will be listed according to their number and
title, and the page references must match those in the text.
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The introduction gives a broad, general overview of the subject. Its length depends upon the
target reader's existing knowledge. Try to condense the information to:
What is the problem?
What is the cause?
What will you be doing to address these two points?
However long the introduction; it must clearly state the purpose (Objective) of the report. This
will help the readers to judge the document's success. Use the introduction to provide the
necessary background information, like the sequence of events leading to the problem. Outline
the scope of the report. Finally, especially for longer reports, tell the readers how the discussion
in the body of the report will be developed.
Body of the Report
This is where the issues outlined in the introduction are expanded. The development of the
arguments must be logical, the evidence relevant and the reasoning clear.
Method and Materials
Results [Discussion of Results]
The information in the body of a report can be organised in one of several ways, for example:
Sequential: where the most important facts are presented first; other points are expounded in
order of diminishing importance.
Hierarchical: where general statements are worked down into subsidiary points.
Comparative: where one idea is compared with another. It is usually combined with another
method of organisation.
The conclusion summarises the findings and inferences in the body of the report. The conclusion
must not contain any new idea that has not been previously mentioned in the report.
After analysing all the facts, the author of the report is the person most likely to be able to make
recommendations on courses of action. However, you should always consider your relationship
with the reader: if you have no authority to make recommendations, the reader may be hostile. In
such cases, the recommendations should take a more advisory tone.
This section is sometimes dealt together with the Conclusions [Conclusions and
Throughout the text, it will be necessary to refer to other documents. Readers can then turn to
them for confirmation and further study. Indicate a reference by placing an appropriate mark in
the text. (See the section on Literature Review.)
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These are notes at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the report (endnotes),
divided off from the main text, that serve as short appendices or glossary entries. They should be
used sparingly and be brief since they can detract from the main flow of the text. Make sure that
footnote marks can be distinguished from reference marks.
Sometimes the author may want to include supporting information in the report. This kind of
information should be placed in an appendix.
If there is more than one appendix they should be designated A, B and so on.
This is the list of books, periodicals and other reference sources from which the author has
drawn. A bibliography helps to show the readers how widely the author has researched the
subject and gives authority to the findings of the report.
If all the readers of the report might not understand some of the terms and abbreviations used,
you must include a glossary of terms. Sometimes it is best to explain any new terms and
abbreviations as they are encountered.
Small illustrations may be placed within the body of the report, adjacent to the text referring to
them. It may be found, however, that larger illustrations may break up the layout of the report:
these should be placed toward the rear of the document.
This section allows the people who have helped write the report to be thanked or mentioned.
In a long report (30+ pages) an index may be required. The index cross-references key items of
information that the reader may want to find. Writing a foolproof index for any document
requires more skill and effort than many people realise.
Advantages of Report Writing:
1. Report gives consolidated & updated information
A report provides consolidated, factual and an up-to-date information about a particular matter or
subject. Information in the report is well organized and can be used for future planning and
2. Report as a means of internal communication
A report acts as an effective means of communication within the organization. It provides
feedback to employees. It is prepared for the information and guidance of others connected with
the matter / problem.
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3. Report facilitates decision making and planning
Report provide reliable data which can be used in the planning and decision making process. It
acts as a treasure house of reliable information for long term planning and decision making.
4. Report discloses unknown information
Reports provide information, which may not be known previously. The committee members
collect data, draw conclusions and provide information which will be new to all concerned
parties. Even new business opportunities are visible through unknown information available in
5. Report gives Information to employees
Reports are available to managers and departments for internal use. They are widely used by the
departments for guidance. Report provide a feedback to employees and are useful for their self-
6. Report gives reliable permanent information
The information provided by a report is a permanent addition to the information available to the
office. We have census reports (prepared since last 100 years) which are used even today for
7. Report facilitates framing of personnel policies
Certain reports relating to employees are useful while preparing personnel policies such as
promotion policy, training policy and welfare facilities to employees.
8. Report gives information to shareholders
Some company reports are prepared every year for the benefit of shareholders. Annual report for
example, is prepared and sent to all shareholders before the AGM. It gives information about the
progress of the company.
9. Report gives information to the Registrar
Annual report and annual accounts are sent to the Registrar every year for information. Such
reports enable the government to keep supervision on the companies.
10. Report solves current problems
Reports are useful to managers while dealing with current problems faced by the company. They
provide guidance while dealing with complicated problems.
11. Report helps directors to take prompt decisions
Company reports relate to internal working of the company and are extremely useful to directors
in decision making and policy framing. Reports give reliable, updated and useful information in
a compact form.
17. N. Durga Chaitanya Prasad M.Com, MBA (SITE) 17
Interview is the widely used (election method. It is a face-to-face interaction between
interviewee and interviewer. If handled carefully, it can be a powerful technique in having
accurate information of the interviewee otherwise unavailable. At the same time, if the interview
is not handled carefully, it can be a source of bias, restricting or distorting the flow of
communication. A somewhat formal discussion between a hirer and an applicant or candidate,
typically in person, in which information is exchanged, with the intention of establishing the
applicant’s suitability for a position.
a meeting at which information is obtained (as by a reporter, television commentator, or pollster)
from a person
“An interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication
between two or more persons” Scott
objectives of an interview are as follows:
1. Interview helps to verify the quality and accuracy of information obtained through application
2. Interview helps to obtain additional information from the candidates as required by the
job, otherwise not available.
3. Interview helps to provide general information to the candidate about company policies, jobs,
products manufactured and so forth.
4. Interview helps to establish mutual understanding between the company and candidates.
5. Interview helps to enhance the company's image and reputation among the candidates.
Types of interview
The Telephone Interview
Often companies request an initial telephone interview before inviting you in for a face to face
meeting in order to get a better understanding of the type of candidate you are. The one benefit
of this is that you can have your notes out in front of you. You should do just as much
preparation as you would for a face to face interview, and remember that your first impression is
vital. Some people are better meeting in person than on the phone, so make sure that you speak
confidently, with good pace and try to answer all the questions that are asked.
The Face-to-Face Interview
This can be a meeting between you and one member of staff or even two members.
18. N. Durga Chaitanya Prasad M.Com, MBA (SITE) 18
The interviews conducted to screen the applicants to decide whether further detailed interview
will be required are called preliminary interviews. The candidate is given freedom by giving job
details during the interview to decide whether the job will suit him.
In this interview, the pattern of the interview is decided in advance. What kind of information is
to be sought or given, how the interview is to be conducted, and how much time is to be allotted
to it, all these are worked out in advance.
As the term itself implies, depth interview tries to portray the interviewee in depth and detail. It,
accordingly, covers the life history of the applicant along with his/her work experience,
academic qualifications, health, attitude, interest, and hobbies. This method is particularly
suitable for executive selection. Expectedly, depth interview involves more time and money in
Such interviews are conducted for the jobs which are to be performed under stressful conditions.
The objective of stress interview is to make deliberate attempts to create stressful or strained
conditions for the interviewee to observe how the applicant behaves under stressful conditions.
When the interview does not follow the formal rules or procedures. It is called an
unstructured interview. The discussion will probably be free flowing and may shift rapidly form
on subject to another depending on the interests of the interviewee and the interviewer.
The Panel Interview
These interviews involve a number of people sitting as a panel with one as chairperson. This type
of interview is popular within the public sector.
The Group Interview
Several candidates are present at this type of interview. You will be asked to interact with each
other by usually a group discussion. You might even be given a task to do as a team, so make
sure you speak up and give your opinion.
Formal / Informal Interviews
Some interviews may be very formal, others may be very informal and seem like just a chat
about your interests. However, it is important to remember that you are still being assessed, and
topics should be friendly and clean!