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Fundamentals of Agile

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Fundamentals of Agile

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Agile 1 Day Course 1  
  2. 2. Please do not copy or reproduce this course materials without expressed written consent from SparkAgility. Anyone who engage in unauthorized duplication of the course materials will be held duly accountable by the PMI Ethics Committee. Notice 2  
  3. 3. Warm Up & Introductions Constella,on   Fast  intro   What’s  in  it  for  me?   3  
  4. 4. !  Founder, Managing Consultant and Trainer !  Over 15 years of experience; business analysis, project management, team facilitation & development, process improvement and agile coaching !  Driven by helping individuals and teams reach their full potential !  Passionate about spreading agility to the community (PMI Agile Community of Practice, PMI local chapter and Meetups) !  Bachelors in Business / Accounting and Masters in Information Systems & Financial Management !  Project Management Professional (PMP), Agile Certified Practitioner (ACP), Certified Scrum Master (CSM), ICAgile Certified Professional in Agile Coaching & Facilitation (ICP-TC), Certified Trainer in Training from the Back of the Room Salah Elleithy @selleithy  salah@sparkagility.com 4   410.262.5550
  5. 5. Our Backlog 5   Origins of Agile! Agile Manifesto! Agile beyond SW Development! Understand the Agile Mindset! Establishing the Agile Mindset! Developing Soft Skills! Understanding Communication Barriers! Sharing Knowledge! Collaboration Techniques! Shift in roles! Value based work! Work in progress!
  6. 6. Our Backlog 6   Involving the customer! Continuous Delivery! Continuous Integration! User involvement! Involving the customer! User feedback! Planning! Estimation! Status (Tracking)! Process adaptation!
  7. 7. Logistics 7  
  8. 8. •  As a participant: –  I will do my best to be on time so that I don’t miss any portion of the course –  I will be present physically and mentally so that I can retain more of what is covered –  I will do my best to maintain my focus on learning and participate so that I can get the most out of the course –  I will respect all participants thoughts and opinions so that I can benefit from others’ experience Pledge of Learning 8  
  9. 9. Roadmap 9  
  10. 10. High Level Outcomes Explore Agile history and mindset Identify the difference between ‘being’ agile & ‘doing’ agile Discover the importance of individuals and interactions Apply different techniques for planning, estimation and tracking progress Demonstrate the ability to adapt based on regular inspection and introspection 10   ICAgile Certified professional www.sparkagility.com
  11. 11. What is the Problem 11  
  12. 12. 12  
  13. 13. Gulf of Evaluation 13   IKIWISI (I’ll know it when I see it)
  14. 14. Biggest   14  
  15. 15. Arewesolving Right the   Problem? 15   Arewebuilding Solution?
  16. 16. "  What problems are you trying to solve with Agile? "  Discuss with your table Why Agile? 16   Timebox: 3 minutes
  17. 17. Better success rates Credit: Mike Cohn 17  
  18. 18. 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Successful 29% 35% 32% 37% 39% Failed 18% 19% 24% 21% 18% Challenged 53% 46% 44% 42% 43% Source:  Standish  Group  CHAOS  Manifesto  2013   Project resolution results 18  
  19. 19. Source: Standish Group CHAOS Manifesto 2013 Success factors 1994 2011 2012 - 2013 1 User Involvement Executive management support 2 Executive Management Support Executive management support User Involvement 3 Clear Statement of Requirements Clear business objectives Optimization 4 Proper Planning Emotional maturity Skilled resources 5 Realistic Expectations Optimization Project management expertise 6 Smaller Project Milestones Agile process Agile Process 7 Competent Staff Project management expertise Clear Business Objectives 8 Ownership Skilled resources Emotional Maturity 9 Clear Vision & Objectives Execution Execution 10 Hard-working, Focused staff Tools & Infrastructure Tools & Infrastructure 19  
  20. 20. Source: VersionOne 7th Annual State of Agile Development Survey Benefits of being Agile 20  
  21. 21. Source: VersionOne 7th Annual State of Agile Development Survey Reasons for failed Agile projects 21  
  22. 22. Misconceptions about Agile 22  
  23. 23. 23   Origins of Agile
  24. 24. Crystal Methods (Alistair Cockburn) 2001  and  beyond  Dynamic Systems Development Methods (Arie van Bennekum) SCRUM (Ken Schwaber & Jeff Sutherland Feature Driven Development (FDD) (Jon Kern) Adaptive Planning (Jim Highsmith) An Evolution in the making 24   Waterfall (Winston Royce 40  years  ago   Declaration of Interdependence Agile Manifesto Agility as a way of thinking I promise not to exclude from consideration any idea based on its source, but to consider ideas across schools and heritages in order to find the ones that best suit the current situation. - Alistair Cockburn Lean/Kanban
  25. 25. Source: Dr. Winston W. Royce “I believe in this concept, but the implementation described above is risky and invites failure.” 25  
  26. 26. Source:  Managing  the  development  of  large  SoKware  System,  Dr.  Winston  W.  Royce       hRp://www.cs.umd.edu/class/spring2003/cmsc838p/Process/waterfall.pdf   “Hopefully, the iterative interaction between the various phases is confined to successive steps.” 26  
  27. 27. 27   Agile Manifesto
  28. 28. Responding to change Customer collaboration Working software Individuals and interactions That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Following a plan Contract negotiation Comprehensive documentation Process and tools Agile manifesto 28  
  29. 29. "  Find the Agile value that is most important to you "  Stand by your value and share what made you choose this value "  Report back to the group Stand by your value Agile Values 29   Timebox: 5 minutes
  30. 30. 1 Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. 2 Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. 3 Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. 4 Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. 5 Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. 6 The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. Agile Principles 30  
  31. 31. Agile Principles (cont.) 7 Working software is the primary measure of progress. 8 Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. 9 Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. 10 Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. 11 The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. 12 At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. 31  
  32. 32. We are a community of project leaders that are highly successful at delivering results. To achieve these results: #  We increase return on investment by making continuous flow of value our focus. #  We deliver reliable results by engaging customers in frequent interactions and shared ownership. #  We expect uncertainty and manage for it through iterations, anticipation, and adaptation. #  We unleash creativity and innovation by recognizing that individuals are the ultimate source of value, and creating an environment where they can make a difference. #  We boost performance through group accountability for results and share responsibility for team effectiveness. #  We improve effectiveness and reliability through situationally specific strategies, processes and practices. Declaration of Interdependence (DOI) Source:  pmdoi.org   Declaration Of Interdependence Project leaders! Signed by: 32  32  
  33. 33. 33   Agile beyond Software Development
  34. 34. $  Jim Highsmith: Agility is the ability to both create and respond to change in order to profit in a turbulent business environment. $  Ahmed Sidky: Agility is the flexibility to navigate the constraints of your project to get the most value as quickly as possible. Agility defined 34  
  35. 35. Roadmap 35  
  36. 36. Framework Discover (build the right product) Develop & Deliver (build the product right) Build   Measure  Learn   The Leanstartup Machine Plan Construct IDEA CONSTRUCT SHIP Agile Framework/Practices Ship Learn Charter, Backlog, Release plan Code, test and deploy 36   Experience product or service How can we work better? And deliver more value?
  37. 37. Build a game that facilitate information sharing and encourage learning for college students Exercise VISION •  High level design •  Key Features (Minimally marketable features - MMF) Outcomes 37   Timebox: 10 minutes
  38. 38. As you were working together to identify high level design and key features: "  What went well? "  What needs improvement? Inspect & Adapt Timebox: 5 minutes 38  
  39. 39. 39   Understanding the Agile mindset
  40. 40. Characteris:c   Fixed   Growth   Avoid  Failure   ☐   ☐   Con,nuous  Learning   ☐   ☐   Exert  effort  to  learn   ☐   ☐   Embrace  challenges   ☐   ☐   Ask  for  feedback   ☐   ☐   Cri,cism  is  personal   ☐   ☐   Look  smart   ☐   ☐   S,ck  to  what  I  know   ☐   ☐   Not  afraid  to  fail   ☐   ☐   Cri,cism  is  about  capabili,es   ☐   ☐   Failure  means  lack  of  talent   ☐   ☐   Ability   Growth vs. Fixed Mindset 40  
  41. 41. Characteris:c   Fixed   Growth   Avoid  Failure   "   ☐   Con,nuous  Learning   ☐   "   Exert  effort  to  learn   ☐   "   Embrace  challenges   ☐   "   Ask  for  feedback   ☐   "   Cri,cism  is  personal   "   ☐   Look  smart   "   ☐   S,ck  to  what  I  know   "   ☐   Not  afraid  to  fail   ☐   "   Cri,cism  is  about  capabili,es   ☐   "   Failure  means  lack  of  talent   "   ☐   Ability   Inherent  and  sta:c   Can  grow   Growth vs. Fixed Mindset 41  
  42. 42. “Are you sure you can do this, maybe I don’t have the talent.” “What if I fail – I’ll be a failure.” “If I don’t try, I can protect myself and keep my dignity.” “This would have been a snap if I really had talent.” “It’s not my fault. It was something or someone else’s fault.” “I’m not sure I can do it now but I think I can learn to with time and effort.” “Most successful people had failures along the way.” “If I don’t try, I automatically fail. Where’s the dignity in that?” “That is so wrong. Basketball wasn’t easy for Michael Jordan and science wasn’t easy for Thomas Edison. They had a passion and put in tons of effort.” “If you don’t take responsibility, you can’t fix it. My advise is to listen – however painful it is – and learn whatever you can.” What's driving this kind of behavior? How can we promote? Exercise 42   Timebox: 5 minutes How can we change?
  43. 43. 43   Establishing the Agile Mindset
  44. 44. What is Agile? 44  
  45. 45. Agile is a MINDSET Agile is a MINDSET Established through 4 VALUES Guided by 12 PRINCIPLES Manifested through many different PRACTICES Credit: Dr. Ahmed Sidky 45  
  46. 46. Source:  Guide  to  Agile  Prac,ces.  Agile  Alliance,hRp://guide.agilealliance.org/subway.html   Frameworks/Practices 46  
  47. 47. The Agile Mindset Mindset Values (4) Principles (12) Frameworks Practices Credit: Dr. Ahmed Sidky (how we work?) Scrum XP FDD DSDM Daily meetings Kanban Board Definition of Done Three Questions Iterations Story Mapping Retrospectives User Stories Burndown chart Backlog Unit tests Acceptance tests Definition of Ready 47  
  48. 48. With your table group, discuss who will the key stakeholders and target audience to use the learning game Exercise WHO •  Key Stakeholders •  Personas (Name / Goals) OUTCOMES 48   Timebox: 10 minutes
  49. 49. As you were working together to identify the key stakeholders and personas: "  What went well? "  What needs improvement? Inspect & Adapt Timebox: 5 minutes 49  
  50. 50. 50   Developing Soft Skills
  51. 51. Processes and tools Comprehensive documentation Contract Negotiation Following a plan Individuals and interactions Customer collaboration Working software Responding to change over over over over Agile Values 51  
  52. 52. Source: Daniel Goleman Self Awareness Self Management Social Awareness Relationship Management EmotionalIntelligence SocialIntelligence Emotional awareness Accurate self-assessment Self-confidence Self-Control Trustworthiness Ownership Adaptability Innovation Understanding others Developing othersService Orientation Leveraging diversity Political awareness Influence Communication Leadership Conflict management Change catalyst Building bonds Collaboration Team abilities Emotional Intelligence (EQ) 52  
  53. 53. "  Identify 5-10 soft skills that are most important to you "  Prioritize them from high to low "  Identify 2 action items to improve the identified skills Exercise 53   Timebox: 3 minutes
  54. 54. Source: Peter Bregman. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CuPfbTAVBP4#t=15 Ownership Commitment Trust Morale Responsibility Community Attitude Courage Soft Skills Servant Leadership Collaboration 54  
  55. 55. Tony is one of your most talented developers. Most team members go to him for advise on technical issues. You are the leading the project and noticed that when it comes to meetings, he’s usually late. You brought it up to his attention a several times but this behavior continue to persist. It is hurting the team progress and affecting morale. Exercise 55   • What are the different approaches we need to consider to rectify this issue? • Discuss with your table group. Timebox: 3 minutes
  56. 56. 56   Understanding communication barriers Seek first to understand, then to be understood. – Stephen Covey
  57. 57. Communication barriers "  Identify the most common communication barriers in your organization "  What could you do to minimize them 57   Timebox: 3 minutes
  58. 58. 58   Listening Level 1: Ignoring (Not really listening at all) Level 2: Pretending (Yeah, uh- huh, right) Level 3: Selective Listening (Hearing only parts) Level 4: Attentive Listening (Focusing and paying attention to the words) Source: The 7 habits of highly effective people by Stephen Covey Level 5: Empathic Listening (Understand the other person’s paradigm and how they feel)
  59. 59. We evaluate: we agree or disagree We probe: ask questions from our own frame of reference We advise: give counsel based on our experience We interpret: try to figure people out, explain their motives, based on our own paradigm Barriers to Listening Source: The 7 habits of highly effective people by Stephen Covey 59  
  60. 60. "  Pair up with someone and talk to them for 30 seconds about anything that comes to mind. (The person who is doing the listening should keep listening without interrupting) "  After 30 seconds, Switch roles "  Be prepared to report your observations to the whole group Exercise 60   Timebox: 2 minutes
  61. 61. Effective Communication Credit: Dr. Alistair Cockburn 61  
  62. 62. 62   Sharing Knowledge
  63. 63. •  Knowl.edge :  information, understanding, or skill that you get from experience or education :  awareness of something : the state of being aware of something Definition Merriam-webster dictionary 63  
  64. 64. Types of Knowledge Explicit Tacit (Example: learning how to speak a language) (Example: learning the rules of grammar) Difficult  to  transfer  to  another  person  by   means  of  wri,ng  it  down  or  verbalizing  it     Knowledge  that  has  been  ar,culated,   codified,  and  stored  and  can  be  readily   transmiRed  to  others   90-95% 5-10% Percentages are hypothetical 64  
  65. 65. Explicit vs. Tacit Explicit Tacit Documents Experience Data Thinking Information Competence Records Commitment "  What are the different characteristics of explicit vs. tacit knowledge? "  Is Tacit knowledge transferrable? Why or why not? 65   Timebox: 3 minutes
  66. 66. Osmotic communication means that information flows into the background hearing of the team, so that they pick up relevant information as though by osmosis. Osmotic Communication Credit: Dr. Alistair Cockburn 66  
  67. 67. "  Pairing team members to enhance knowledge sharing "  Reduce errors and maintain consistency "  Promote learning Pairing 67  
  68. 68. 68   Physical work environment We shape our places and then our places shape us. -Winston Churchill
  69. 69. Physical setup Image source: Motley fool Environment can encourages or discourages certain team behaviors   69  
  70. 70. 70   Collaboration techniques Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much. – Helen Keller
  71. 71. Collaborate: to work together especially in some literacy, artistic or scientific undertaking [1]; to work jointly with others or together especially in an intellectual endeavor. [2] [1] Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language [2] Merriam Webster Online Dictionary Collaboration Source:  Jean  Tabaka.  Collabora,on  Explained   71  
  72. 72. Collaboration Culture 72  
  73. 73. Source:  Christopher  Avery.  The  Responsibility  Process   Owning  your  ability   and  power  to  create,   choose  and  aRract   Doing  what  you  have   to  instead  of  what   you  want  to   Laying  blame  onto   oneself  (oKen  felt  as   guilt)   Using  excuses  for   things  being  the  way   they  are   Holding  others  at   fault  for  causing   something   Giving  up  to   avoid  the  pain  of   Shame  and   Obliga,on   Giving  up  to   avoid  the  pain  of   Shame  and   Obliga,on   73  
  74. 74. "  Think of a high performing team you worked with or you would like to work with. "  What were the qualities that made it a high performing team? "  How did they collaborate? Exercise 74   Timebox: 3 minutes
  75. 75. "  What are the most important values to us as individuals and as a team? "  What do we need to do to succeed as a team? "  How do we want to resolve conflicts? "  How do we create a safe space for everyone? Working Agreement 75  
  76. 76. "  If you were on a team, what would the working agreement look like? "  Write it down Exercise 76   Timebox: 3 minutes
  77. 77. 77   Techniques for shared understanding The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place. - George Bernard Shaw
  78. 78. "  Vision "  SMART Goals "  Information Radiators "  Regular touch points Shared Understanding 78  
  79. 79. "  Define a clear vision for the team. "  Reiterate vision often and communicate change in direction. "  Make it visible for everyone to see. Vision 79  
  80. 80. "  Establish SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Time bound) "  Review goals on a regular basis "  Make it visible for everyone to see SMART Goals 80  
  81. 81. "  An Information Radiator is a display posted in a place where people can see it as they work or walk by. "  Radiators show information the team cares about without asking anyone a question. "  This means more communication with fewer interruptions. Information Radiators Source: Alistair Cockburn 81  
  82. 82. "  Is large and easily visible "  Is understood at a glance "  Is kept up to date A good Information Radiator 82  
  83. 83. Regular Touchpoints Identify our goal for the day and agree on what will be done (serves as a daily planning meeting) Raise any impediments and ensure someone will follow through to resolve them for the team Image credit: Jason Yip 83  
  84. 84. 84   Shifts in Roles Self-organizing teams aren’t characterized by a lack of leadership, but by a style of leadership. -Jim Highsmith
  85. 85. Agile Principles "  Agile Principle #5: Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. "  Agile Principle #11: The best architecture, requirements, and designs emerge from self- organizing teams. Source: agilemanifesto.org/principles.html 85  
  86. 86. Daniel Pink in his book ‘Drive: the surprising truth about what motivates us’ explains that we are motivated by 3 simple things: –  Autonomy (wanting to direct our own lives) –  Mastery (wanting to be good at something) –  Purpose (wanting to make a difference) What motivates us? Source:  youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc   86  
  87. 87. Self-organizing teams Creating a self-organizing team entails: "  Getting the right people "  Articulating the product vision, boundaries and team roles "  Encouraging collaboration "  Insisting on accountability "  Fostering self-discipline "  Steering rather than control Source: Jim Highsmith 87  
  88. 88. Roles Generalist Specialist Generalizing Specialist Pro: Has one or more technical specialties (Java, Project Management, Business analysis) Con: Lack of knowledge in a specific area may create an impediment Pro: Has a deep knowledge in one domain area Con: True specialists may create bottlenecks by focusing too much on their area and missing the bigger picture Pro: has a dispersed knowledge over a wide array of areas Con: May not be able to help the team in a specific area Where does Agile teams fall? 88  
  89. 89. "  Think of how you would use agile in your current role "  Pair up with someone and discuss Exercise 89   Timebox: 3 minutes
  90. 90. 90   Value based work
  91. 91. Plan Driven Delivery Requirements Shall do this Will do that Shall do this Will do that Shall do this Will do that Shall do this Will do that Idea   Resources   Requirements   Everything is a PRIORITY Schedule   How can we meet our “Initial Plan”? Deliver   Scope Budget Schedule 91  
  92. 92. Value Driven Delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PRIORITIZED Idea   Resources   Requirements   Schedule   Deliver   How can we deliver the highest value in the time we have? Scope Budget Schedule 1 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 92  
  93. 93. Plan vs. Value driven delivery Value Time Plan driven delivery Value driven delivery Time is up There is value that can be delivered to the customer. There is no value to be delivered to the customer. 93  
  94. 94. M Prioritization S C W BusinessValue High Low To Do Doing Done 94  
  95. 95. M Prioritization S C W BusinessValue High Low To Do Doing Done MUST HAVE SHOULD HAVE COULD HAVE WON’T HAVE 95  
  96. 96. When can we deliver the product? Building a bit at a time “Incrementing” We build to finish Build a rough version, validates it, bit at a time “Iterating” We build to learn Throughout Where do we deliver value faster? Where does the maximum value happen? Source: Jeff Patton Here 96   Incremental vs. Iterative
  97. 97. Slicing value Vision Desired Outcomes Product Backlog Feature 1 Feature 1 Feature 1 Feature 1 Feature 1 Feature 1 Feature 1 has to satisfy who has pay Goals and Needs User Story 1 Iteration Backlog User Story 4 User Story 5 User Story 6 User Story 3User Story 2 to buyrealized by broken into 97  
  98. 98. Slices of Value 98   Each slice of the product provides that can be delivered to the customer   value  
  99. 99. All we doing is looking at the time line, from the moment the customer gives us an order to the point when we collect the cash. And we are reducing the time line by reducing the non- value adding wastes. – Taiichi Ohno. Father of TPS 99   Receiving Value Idea Usage
  100. 100. Waste In Manufacturing In Software In-­‐Process  Inventory Par,ally  Done  Work Extra  Processing Extra  Processes Overproduc,on Extra  Features Transporta,on Handoffs Wai,ng Delays Mo,on Task  Switching Defects Defects Source:  7  wastes  in  soKware.  Mary  and  Tom  Poppendieck   100  
  101. 101. 101   Work in Progress (WIP)
  102. 102. Work in Progress (WIP) Inventory Manufacturing Software Ideas/Inputs Value Is WIP good, Bad or Necessary? 102  
  103. 103. ‘Waste’ in Software Development Waste Description Example Partially done work Work started but not complete %  Code waiting for quality assurance (QA) %  Specs waiting for dev. Extra processes Extra work that does not add value %  Unused documentation %  Unnecessary approvals Extra features Features that are not required, or thought of as nice-to-haves %  Gold plating %  Technology features Task switching Multi-tasking between several different projects when there are context-switching penalties %  People on multiple projects Waiting Delays waiting for reviews and approvals %  Waiting for document approvals Motion The effort required to communicate or move information or deliverables from one group to another %  Distributed teams %  Handoffs Defects Defective documents or Software needs correction %  Requirements defects %  Software bugs Source:  7  wastes  in  soKware.  Mary  and  Tom  Poppendieck   103  
  104. 104. Backlog Ready   for  Dev. Development   (5) Tes:ng   (3) Accepted   (2) To  be   Deployed In Done In Done In Done Cycle time Throughput How  long  it  takes  a   work  item  to  go   through  the  cycle?   How  many  work  items   are  going  through  the   cycle  at  a  given  ,me?   Limit WIP Limiting WIP helps the team see the bottlenecks and “swarm” (collaborate) to alleviate it. 104  
  105. 105. Why limit WIP? 105   The aim of WIP limits is NOT to optimize resource utilization But to optimize THROUHGPUT
  106. 106. 106   Continuous Integration (CI)
  107. 107. "  CI is a software development practice where members of a team integrate their work frequently (at least daily). "  Each integration is verified by an automated build (including test) to detect integration errors as quickly as possible. What is CI? 107   Source: Martin Fowler
  108. 108. "  Discuss how this apply to your environment. "  Identify 3 ways to reduce integration issues on your projects. "  Write them down. Why is CI important? 108   Timebox: 3 minutes
  109. 109. Scenario 1: Wait until the end Team  A   Team  B   Team  C   Code Integrate 109  
  110. 110. Scenario 2: Integrate daily Team  A   Team  B   Team  C   Code Integrate 110  
  111. 111. 111   Continuous Delivery (CD)
  112. 112. "  Release at anytime (on demand) "  Team can deploy to production throughout the cycle "  Automated tests are essential 112   Continuous Delivery Deploy   Test   Build  
  113. 113. "  Interdependence between software development and IT Ops "  Close collaboration for everyone involved in the delivery process DevOps (Development + Operations) 113  
  114. 114. 114   Defining the Customer
  115. 115. "  Who are our stakeholders? "  What is their level of interest and influence? "  What are their personas? (Demographics and Psychographics) Stakeholders 115  
  116. 116. "  Who is our target audience? (Demographics) "  Why would they buy our product? (Psychographics) "  What are their goals? Personas Name: Joe Role: Student Profile: Joe is a freshman in college who is curious about learning. He likes to spend time reading and share new articles with friends on social media. Goals: -  Learn online and share interesting information with his friends -  Rate classes 116  
  117. 117. 117   User Involvement
  118. 118. 1994 2011 2012 - 2013 User Involvement Executive management support Executive Management Support Executive management support User Involvement Clear Statement of Requirements Clear business objectives Optimization Proper Planning Emotional maturity Skilled resources Realistic Expectations Optimization Project management expertise Smaller Project Milestones Agile process Agile Process Competent Staff Project management expertise Clear Business Objectives Ownership Skilled resources Emotional Maturity Clear Vision & Objectives Execution Execution Hard-working, Focused staff Tools & Infrastructure Tools & Infrastructure Source:  Standish  Group  CHAOS  Manifesto  2013   Success factors 118  
  119. 119. Agile Principle #4 Business people and developers must work together daily   throughout the project.   119  
  120. 120. " Identify the right users (High interest/high influence) " Establish a user group with a point of contact " Build a team culture with a defined purpose "  Ask for their input/ feedback Increasing User Involvement 120  
  121. 121. 121   User Feedback
  122. 122. Feedback Loop Defined A process has a feedback loop when the results of running the process are allowed to influence how the process itself works in the future. 122  
  123. 123. 123   When do we get feedback here?
  124. 124. "  Where do you see the feedback loops in Agile practices? "  What are the benefits of shorter feedback loops vs. longer feedback loops? Exercise Timebox: 3 minutes 124  
  125. 125. Feedback Loops 125   Customer Are we there yet? Need more work Agile Principle #4: Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Team Iteration Planning and throughout the iteration Daily Standups Iteration Reviews (The most feedback)
  126. 126. Evolving Product When do we stop? 126   Credit:  Jeff  PaRon  
  127. 127. Is the Product good enough? Do we have budget? No Yes STOP STOP No Yes Continue When do we stop? 127  
  128. 128. 128   Planning Planning is essential. Plans are useless. - Eisenhower
  129. 129. Misconceptions about Agile 129  
  130. 130. "  How much it will cost? "  When will we be done? "  What resources do we need? "  When can we release our product? Why do we plan? 130  
  131. 131. Levels of Planning Credit: Mike Cohn What do we plan to do as a team to fulfill our iteration commitments? What is preventing us from getting there? What slice of value will we deliver over the next 2-4 weeks? Strategy Product Vision Product Roadmap Release Plan Iteration Plan Daily Plan What features will we deliver over the next 6-12 weeks? What are we trying to accomplish by building this product? How does this align with the overall organization goals? What will be build when over the next 6-12 months? 131  
  132. 132. During the product vision session, we address the following question: "  What are we trying to accomplish by building this product? "  What problem are we trying to solve? Product Vision 132  
  133. 133. "  Understand ‘what we are trying to accomplish?’ "  Define who the team members are and how they will work together "  Establish roles and responsibilities and level set the expectations "  Decide if the project is a ‘go’ or ‘no-go’ Project Charter 133  
  134. 134. During the product roadmap session, we address the following questions: "  What gets build first? (Priorities) "  What are the desired outcomes? Product Roadmap 134  
  135. 135. During the release planning, we address the following questions: " What features will be delivered in this release? (Priorities) " What is our success criteria? (Outcomes) " When can we release? (Timeline) " What can prevent us from delivering? (Risk) Release Plan 135  
  136. 136. Iteration Plan During the Iteration plan, we address the following questions: " What stories will be delivered this iteration? (Priorities) " What is our iteration goal? (Outcomes) " What’s preventing us from reaching our goal? " Is this getting us closer to our release? (Risk) 136  
  137. 137. During the daily standup, we address the following questions: "  What is our goal for today? (Priority) "  What will we work on to reach the goal? (Outcomes) "  What’s in our way of achieving our goal or making making progress? (Risk) Daily Plan Timebox: 15 minutes 137  
  138. 138. Traceability Vision   Goal   Goal   Feature   Feature   Feature   EPIC   Story   Story   EPIC   138  
  139. 139. User Stories As a <role>, I want to <goal> so that I can <benefit> " User Stories has 3 main elements: &  Card: written on an index card as a placeholder for future… &  Conversation: exchange of thoughts, opinions and feelings &  Confirmation: what are the acceptance tests 139  
  140. 140. Attributes of a User Story Source:  Bill  Wake   INVEST   Independent   (can  be   scheduled  and   implemented  in   any  order)   Nego,able   (capture  the   essence  not  the   details)   Valuable  (needs   to  add  value  to   the  customer)   Independent  (can   be  scheduled  and   implemented  in   any  order)    Es,matable  (just   enough  es,mate   to  help  the   customer  rank   and  schedule)   Small  (can  be   planned  and  fit   into  an   itera,on)   Testable  (The   story  can  be   verified  and   tested)   140  
  141. 141. Write user stories in the format of ‘As a <role>, I want to <goal> so that I can get <benefit>’ for the learning game Exercise WHAT •  User stories •  Check the stories against the INVEST model OUTCOMES 141   Timebox: 15 minutes
  142. 142. "  Also called ‘Conditions of Satisfaction’ by Mike Cohn "  Are specific to a given product backlog item and define what must be true for that product backlog item to be considered done "  Example of Acceptance criteria: &  User is logged in only when proper credentials are provided &  User can request a password reminder &  User is locked out after three failed attempts Acceptance Criteria 142  
  143. 143. " Is an agreed upon set of things that must be true before any product backlog item is considered complete " Example of Definition of Done: & The code is well written & The code is checked in & The code has been inspected & The feature the code implements has been documented as needed Definition of Done Source: Mike Cohn 143  
  144. 144. 144   Estimation It’s better to be roughly right than precisely wrong John Maynard Keynes
  145. 145. "  How much effort do we put into estimation to increase accuracy "  An estimate is just an estimate Law of Diminishing Returns 145  
  146. 146. Absolute vs. Relative Estimating How tall is this building in feet? How did you come up with the estimate? Assume this building is 350 ft, what’s your estimate of the tall building? 146  
  147. 147. "  Estimate items (tasks or user stories) relative to other items rather than separately. "  Estimate size, derive duration. Relative Estimating Fibonacci sequence 147  
  148. 148. Ideal time vs. elapsed time Ideal time Elapsed time How long does an activity take without any interruptions? How long does an activity take from start to finish? Football game: 1 hour (4x 15 minutes quarters) Football game: 4 hours (including commercials) Source:  Mike  Cohn   148  
  149. 149. "  Velocity is a measure of a team’s rate of progress "  Velocity is a predictability measure NOT a productivity measure Velocity 149  
  150. 150. Estimate the stories you came up with during the story writing exercise Exercise WHAT •  Estimated stories in points using 0,1,2,3,5,8 OUTCOMES 150   Timebox: 10 minutes
  151. 151. 151   Tracking and Reporting What’s measured improves. – Peter Drucker
  152. 152. "  How are we doing? (Project, team and process health) "  What’s preventing us from making progress? "  What’s our planned vs. estimated pace? (velocity) Agile Metrics 152  
  153. 153. Burn Up charts Burn Up charts give an indicator whether the team will deliver the functionality or need to add more iterations. Storypoints Iteration Expected velocity: 10 points/iteration Iteration Expected Actual 0 0 0 1 10 10 2 20 19 3 30 20 4 40 35 5 50 50 6 60 58 7 70 63 8 80 63 9 90 78 10 100 90 11 110 100 12 120 105 Velocity   Forecasted   Addi:onal  itera:ons:  2   153  
  154. 154. Burn down charts shows the points remaining at the beginning of each iteration Burn down charts Expected velocity: 10 points / Iteration Iteration Expected Actual 0 120 120 1 110 120 2 100 110 3 90 100 4 80 97 5 70 95 6 60 80 7 50 70 8 40 62 9 30 45 10 20 37 11 10 25 12 0 20 Velocity   Addi:onal  itera:ons:  2   Forecasted   154  
  155. 155. " A cumulative flow diagram (CFD) shows the status of work in different queues (Analysis, Development, Testing, Deployment) " It also shows if there is a bottleneck that needs to be addressed Cumulative Flow Diagram The widening area may be an indication of bottlenecks (work items are not being moved to the next queue This area hasn’t changed and it may indicate a bottleneck with Dev tasks 155  
  156. 156. Bug Tracking Source: Scrumage.com Bug tracking give team indicators such as: 1.  Escaped defects (Bugs that were not caught in testing) 2.  How long does it take to fix bugs? Most importantly, investigate why bugs are getting through and what can we do to catch them early in the process 156  
  157. 157. Team Assessment Radar Chart "  A good tool for the team to assess their practices. "  It is a participatory indicator on how the team are following their own practices. "  This may be subjective Itera:on   157  
  158. 158. 158   Process Adaptation The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn. –Alvin Toffler
  159. 159. "  A series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end. "  In our context, the Process is the way the project is delivered to build a product or service. Process What’s the problem with our processes today? 159  
  160. 160. "  Identify 3 ways on how we change our process today. "  Are these ways participatory or mandatory? "  Identify 2 approaches to make it participatory Exercise 160  
  161. 161. Inspect & Adapt Agile Principle # 12: At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. Image  credit:  growingagile.co.za   161  
  162. 162. Adapting over Conforming Jim Highsmith explains that: "  Delivering great products requires exploration, not tracking against a plan. "  Have the courage to explore into the unknown and the humility to recognize mistakes and adapt to the situation. 162  
  163. 163. When: At regular intervals (Usually at the end of each sprint) Retrospectives Who: The team Why: Reflect on how to become more effective, then tune and adjusts its behavior accordingly Regardless of what we discover, we understand and truly believe that everyone did the best job they could, given what they knew at the time, their skills and abilities, the resources available, and the situation at hand. - Retrospective Prime Directive. Norm Kerth 163  
  164. 164. Conducting a Retro •  Establish purpose/focus of the retrospective. •  Share the plan for the meeting.Set the stage •  Create a shared pool of data (based on the focus/purpose). •  Ground the retrospective in facts, not opinions.Gather data •  Observe patterns. •  Build shared awareness.Generate insights •  Move from discussion to ACTION. •  Focus on what the team can accomplish not what’s important (1-2 actions) Decide what to do •  Reiterate actions and follow up. •  Appreciate contributions. Close the retrospective Source: Esther Derby 164  
  165. 165. A Good Retrospective "  Discuss any personal, team or process issues openly. "  Discuss what worked and what needs to change. "  Agree on top action items to be addressed and fixed. "  Review these action items at the beginning of the next retrospective. "  Change it up (Innovation games). "  Add the “Appreciation” game every now and then. 165  
  166. 166. How  big  is  the  system  to   develop?   How  many  lives  lost  if  the   system  fails  or  how  many   billions  of  dollars  lost?     How  is  the  project   remunerated  for  its  effort?   How  much  of  a  stable   architecture  exist  at  the   start  of  the  project?   How  is  the  team   distributed?  (Collocated,   virtual,  outsourced,  etc.)   How  long  has  the  system   been  around?  (evolu,on  of   legacy,  maintenance)   How  stable  are  the   requirements  and   surrounding  business   environment?     What  are  the  external  rules   imposed  to  the  project  to   control    its  trajectory  and   how  formal  they  are?   Source(s): SoftEd; Agility in context. Kruchten 2011. Context Matters 166  
  167. 167. 167   Agile in context
  168. 168. "  Think about a time where you had to learn a new skill (Pick one) "  Write down what it took to master it (The steps) 168   Exercise Timebox: 3 minutes
  169. 169. Stages of Learning SHU   Follow  the   Rule   “Obey”   HA   Break  the   Rule   “Detach”   RI   Be  the   Rule   “Separate”   169  
  170. 170. Stages of Learning SHU (Follow the Rule “Obey”) 170  
  171. 171. Stages of Learning HA (Break the Rule “Detach”) 171  
  172. 172. Stages of Learning RI (Be the Rule “Separate”) 172  
  173. 173. 173   Wrap-up/Questions
  174. 174. “The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing.” Albert  Einstein   174  
  175. 175. 175