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Introduction to Risk Management

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Introduction to Risk Management

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Introduction to Risk Management

  1. 1. Presented to:By:Date:Federal AviationAdministrationAirworthiness orOperationsPositive Safety CultureR1Introduction to RiskManagementFundamentals
  2. 2. Federal AviationAdministration2•Risk Management– Used for years– Used in many industries environments– Used to anticipate the effects of hazards becoming events.– Used to approach aviation tasks with increased awareness– It can be applied to almost all activities, even non-aviation.Risk Management Fundamentals
  3. 3. Federal AviationAdministration3• This briefing of hazards and risk will include:– Is it safe? The need for better risk management– Definitions, terms, and basic concepts– Making better decisions– Applying Risk ManagementRisk Management Fundamentals
  4. 4. Federal AviationAdministration4• Purpose of this briefing:– Provide a common foundation of riskmanagement fundamentals– Suggest how to integrate risk managementinto your organizationRisk Management Fundamentals
  5. 5. Federal AviationAdministration5Briefing Objectives• After this briefing, you will be able to:– Recognize the importance of hazards awareness and riskmanagement– Describe what a hazard is, what Risk Management is, andwhat the benefits are of using risk management– Describe the three levels of Risk Management– Use the risk management process to make informeddecisions
  6. 6. Federal AviationAdministration6ANY QUESTIONS BEFORE WE BEGIN?Risk Management Fundamentals
  7. 7. Federal AviationAdministration7Question: What is safe?a) Freedom from harm or riskb) Trustworthy and reliablec) Some risk but acceptabled) In compliance with regulations andrequirements
  8. 8. Federal AviationAdministration8Question:Why do smart, well-trained, intelligent people likeourselves, our friends, and our colleaguescontinue to have maintenance accidents?Whats missing?What can we do?
  9. 9. Federal AviationAdministration9What Are We Missing?Systematic and standardized way to identifyand manage risk.– Not everyone has learned to actively seek out the hazards thatcan hurt and to determine what level of risk the hazardsrealistically represent.– Need to make better decisions –• easier• more comprehensive• more justifiable.
  10. 10. Federal AviationAdministration11Definitions & Basic Concepts• Hazard• Risk• Risk Assessment
  11. 11. Federal AviationAdministration12Definitions & Basic Concepts• Risk Control• Risk Management
  12. 12. Federal AviationAdministration13Risk & Risk AssessmentRisk is an expression of possible loss (consequences)in terms of severity and probability (likelihood).To first perceive the hazards in a given situation,ask yourself:1.What can happen? What if ?2. What are the consequences?3. How likely is it?All aviation operations involve risk and requiresdecisions to be based on common sense, bestpractices, and well managed risk.
  13. 13. Federal AviationAdministration14ImprobableRemoteOccasionalProbableFrequentNegligibleMarginalCriticalCatastrophicLikelihoodSeverityRISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX123456 10781211 159131614181917 20
  14. 14. Federal AviationAdministration15Severity Scale DefinitionsCatastrophicResults in fatalities and/or loss of the system.CriticalSevere injury and/or major system damage.MarginalMinor injury and/or minor system damage.NegligibleLess than minor injury and/or less than minor system damage.
  15. 15. Federal AviationAdministration16Likelihood Scale DefinitionsFrequentLikely to occur often.ProbableWill occur several times.OccasionalLikely to occur sometime.RemoteUnlikely to occur; but possible.ImprobableSo unlikely, it is presumed that it will never occur.
  16. 16. Federal AviationAdministration17QUESTIONQUESTION• Based on this Risk Matrix, what would beBased on this Risk Matrix, what would bethe level of risk if the likelihood wasthe level of risk if the likelihood wasprobable and the severity was marginal?probable and the severity was marginal?Risk level 6.Risk level 6.ImprobableRemoteOccasionalProbableFrequentNegligibleMarginalCriticalCatastrophicLikelihoodSeverityRISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX123456 10781211 159131614181917 20
  17. 17. Federal AviationAdministration18AnswerAnswer• Assessment Results = 9Assessment Results = 9Risk level 6.Risk level 6.ImprobableRemoteOccasionalProbableFrequentNegligibleMarginalCriticalCatastrophicLikelihoodSeverityRISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX123456 10781211 159131614181917 20
  18. 18. Federal AviationAdministration19USING THE RISK MATRIX• Provides a relationship of probability and severity• Risk levels are determined so that educated decisioncan be made about acceptability of the hazard/risk• Level of risk determines who in the organizationshould make the “accept” decision
  19. 19. Federal AviationAdministration20Rule #1When selecting the severity level, you mustalways consider the worst that can happen …regardless of the likelihood.
  20. 20. Federal AviationAdministration21If the risk level is determined to be high, whoshould make the acceptability decision?A. The person currently manning the front linemanager position.B. Top level management.C. You can make the decision as long as itdoesn’t interrupt any traffic.RESPONSE ITEMRESPONSE ITEM
  21. 21. Federal AviationAdministration22QUESTIONQUESTION• When choosing a severity category, whatWhen choosing a severity category, whatmust you consider?must you consider?ANSWERANSWER• You must always consider the ______ thatcan happen if the hazard becomes anoccurrence
  22. 22. Federal AviationAdministration23Manage the RiskYouve assessed the risk!Congratulations!! Now what?There are only four things you CAN dowith risk:TransferEliminateAcceptMitigate
  23. 23. Federal AviationAdministration24Risk PrinciplesRisk management has five governing principles.1. Accept risk only when benefits outweigh the cost2. Accept no unnecessary risk3. Anticipate and manage risk by planning4. Make risk decisions at the right level5. Document all risk decisions
  24. 24. Federal AviationAdministration25Making the ‘accept’ decisionAccepting risk may not be a simple matter and can bea difficult concept.Several points to keep in mind:(1)Risk is a fundamental reality(2) Risk management is a process(3) Quantifying risk doesnt guarantee safety(4) Risk is a matter of perspective
  25. 25. Federal AviationAdministration26Making Better Risk Decisions• Risk management is an aid to making betterdecisions and to plan better.• The three levels of risk management decisions:1. Time-Critical2. Deliberate3. In-Depth
  26. 26. Federal AviationAdministration27Three Levels of Decisions• Time Critical—An “on-the-run” mental or oralreview; e.g.,– What can cause me to fail the mission (hazard)?– What can I do about it (control measure)?– How am I going to make the control measure work(implementation and supervision)?• Deliberate—Application of the complete five-stepprocess primarily using past experience andbrainstorming. Documentation is paramount.• In Depth—A thorough approach to an eventinvolving research of available data, formal testing,or long-term tracking of information.
  27. 27. Federal AviationAdministration28Residual RiskResidual risk is risk that we accept.– It is the risk remaining after we do risk management– It consists of the acceptable risk and the unidentified riskUnidentified
  28. 28. Federal AviationAdministration29Factors For Safety• Develop personal and/or organizational minimums forcommon tasks and operations• Minimums are by definition "minimums"• Plan for what is safe, not for the minimums
  29. 29. Federal AviationAdministration30Factors For Safety• Be prepared to:– stop– reevaluate– reprioritize• Always have a back up plan or a way out.• Understand the "why" of a rule, regulation, orpolicy, not just what it is.
  30. 30. Federal AviationAdministration31Putting It All TogetherRisk management is a five-step process
  31. 31. Federal AviationAdministration32Step 1: Identify The Hazards• Identifying hazards is the most importantpart of our risk management process• Possible ways to help you identify hazards:1. Task Analysis2. "What if?" Tool3. Change Analysis
  32. 32. Federal AviationAdministration33Step 2: Assess The Risk• For each hazard identified in Step 1, assess the risk• Risk accounts for the likelihood of an eventoccurring and the severity of the outcome• Use a risk assessment matrix to determine the levelof risk
  33. 33. Federal AviationAdministration34Step 3: Make Risk Decisions• Risk controls are meant to change risk by loweringthe likelihood of occurrence and/or decreasing theseverity of a risk.• Control Options fall into three categories:1. Engineering2. Administrative3. Personal Protective Equipment
  34. 34. Federal AviationAdministration35Step 3: Make Risk Decisions• Use common sense when determining appropriatecontrol measure• Its usually preferred to engineer out a hazard than toadd a new procedure• Start with the most serious risk first• Reduce the risk to a minimum consistent with thebenefits
  35. 35. Federal AviationAdministration36Step 4. Implement Controls• Act to control the risk• May involve several factors, depending on the situation.– Assets may have to be acquired or made available.– Documentation is always required.– People may have to be notified and responsibilities assigned.– Communication throughout the organization is a must.• Be realistic in the selection and implementation of controls.• To be fully effective, the controls must be documented,sustained and periodically reevaluated.
  36. 36. Federal AviationAdministration37Step 5: Monitor• Well developed metrics might reveal additionalhazards that will require additional controls.• Three things to look for:– Are the risk controls effective?– Is there a need for further assessment?– What additional information can be learned?• Last step of the risk management process– this is a cyclic process– Review old hazards, risks, and controls regularly
  37. 37. Federal AviationAdministration38Risk Management Process ReviewFive-step process– Each step as a building block for the next step.– A cycle that is continuously seeking new hazards.Step 1: Identify HazardsStep 2: Assess RiskStep 3: Make Risk DecisionsStep 4: Implement ControlsStep 5: Monitor
  38. 38. Federal AviationAdministration39What are the two elements of a “risk”A. The pilot and the mechanicB. The hazard frequency and severityC. Good and BadRESPONSE ITEMRESPONSE ITEM
  39. 39. Federal AviationAdministration41QUESTIONQUESTION• What are the five steps for Risk Management?What are the five steps for Risk Management?ANSWERANSWER
  40. 40. Federal AviationAdministration42BRIEFING SUMMARY• After identifying a hazard, the next step is toanalyze it for risk level• Risk level has two components– Likelihood– Severity• You must always consider the worstseverity• If the residual risk is high, the acceptdecision must be made by top management
  41. 41. Federal AviationAdministration43QUESTIONQUESTION• You have found an electric cord that crosses theYou have found an electric cord that crosses thepilot lounge. There is nothing to keep someonepilot lounge. There is nothing to keep someonefrom tripping on it. Based on this risk matrix, whatfrom tripping on it. Based on this risk matrix, whatrisk level would you assign this hazard ? Why.risk level would you assign this hazard ? Why.ImprobableRemoteOccasionalProbableFrequentNegligibleMarginalCriticalCatastrophicLikelihoodSeverityRISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX123456 10781211 159131614181917 20
  42. 42. Federal AviationAdministration45ANY QUESTIONS BEFORE WE END?
  43. 43. Federal AviationAdministration46Did we meet the Objectives ?• You should now be able to:– Recognize the importance of hazards awareness and riskmanagement– Describe what a hazard is, what Risk Management is, andwhat the benefits are of using risk management.– Describe the three levels of Risk Management– Use the risk management process to make informeddecisions.
  44. 44. Federal AviationAdministration47Conclusion• Comments or Questions?• FAA Safety Team• www.faasafety.gov• AMT Awards Program• GA Award Program• WINGS• Feedback Wanted:• http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/stakeholder_feedback/afs/field/sf_faasteam/

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