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Urban Planning and Settlements

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Urban Planning and Settlements

  1. 1. Urban Planning and Settlements Morales, George Mercado, Michael Ildefonso, Sorbi
  2. 2. Overview
  3. 3. What is Settlement? <ul><li>A  settlement  is a general term used in archaeology, geography, landscape history and other subjects for a permanent or temporary community in which people live, without being specific as to size, population or importance. A settlement can therefore range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Kinds of Settlements according to size <ul><li>A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area.  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kinds of Settlements according to shape <ul><li>A  nucleated  settlement is where the buildings are grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>A  linear  shape is where the settlement has developed along a line. </li></ul><ul><li>A  dispersed  settlement is where the buildings are spread apart. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Kinds of Settlements according to function <ul><li>Industrial Towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has railways and canals for transports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has housing and industry mixed together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer industrial town planning ensures the housing and industry are apart. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Kinds of Settlements according to function <ul><li>Market Towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in fertile farming sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many services e.g. shops and offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good transport links – often they are route centers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Kinds of Settlements according to function <ul><li>Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found where there are sheltered harbours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat land for building on nearby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern ports need deeper water for today’s larger ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ports has gone through a lot of redevelopment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Kinds of Settlements according to function <ul><li>Seaside Resorts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to industrial areas with large populations, with good rail and roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the sea−front are hotels and entertainments such as pubs and bingo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guest houses are found inland where the land is cheaper to buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing found further inland, with industry on the outskirts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promenades pedestrian roads along the front of the resort </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Rural Settlements vs Urban Settlements <ul><li>Urban and rural settlements differ in demographics, land area and usage, population density, transportation networks and economic dependencies. These characteristics are the defining differences that geographers and city planners observe between rural and urban centres. (US Census 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Urban settlements contain a heterogeneous population consisting of different ages, cultures and ethnicities, whereas rural areas contain a more homogenous population based on family, similar ethnicities and fewer cultural influences. </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area and Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Urban settlements are more expansive and contain a wide range of land uses. For instance, major metropolitan areas use density zoning to indicate different levels of development. In contrast, rural settlements are more or less self-contained and may not use zoning controls or have limited planning and development regulations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rural Settlements vs Urban Settlements <ul><li>Population Density </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Census Bureau defines urban settlements as areas with more than 50,000 people and at least 1,000 people per square mile; including contiguous census tracts or blocks with at least 500 people per square mile. In contrast, rural settlements contain less than 2,500 people, at a density between one and 999 people per square mile. </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Network </li></ul><ul><li>Rural transportation networks consist of local and county roads with limited interconnectivity to rail and bus lines. Urban settlements contain highway infrastructure as well as airports and light or heavy commuter rail. </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas are dependent on a global economy of import and export, whereas rural economies rely on a local and agricultural-based economy with dependencies on services, such as hospitals and educational establishments in nearby urban centres. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Urban Settlements <ul><li>Most governments define urban settlements based on one or a combination of criteria, including population size, population density, and social and economic factors, such as the proportion of the labor force engaged in non-agricultural activities; the administrative or political status of a locality, such as national, provincial, or district capitals, or census designations. (Hardoy et al., 2001) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rapid Urbanization of the developing world <ul><li>The developing world as a whole has been predominantly rural but is rapidly becoming urban. In 1975, only 27% of the people in the developing world lived in urban areas. In 2000, the proportion was 40% and projections suggest that by 2030, the developing world will be 56% urban. Although the developed world is already far more urban, at an estimated 75% in 2000, urban areas of developing countries are growing much faster and their populations are larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid urban growth reflects migration of people to cities as well as natural population increase among urban residents. Rural areas have virtually stopped gaining population. Among the regions as a whole, only in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania will rural population grow at all in the future. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Megacities <ul><li>As the population increases, more people will live in large cities. Many people will live in the growing number of cities with over 10 million inhabitants, known as megacities. As the map &quot;Largest Urban Agglomerations&quot; shows, just three cities had populations of 10 million or more in 1975, one of them in a less developed country. Megacities numbered 16 in 2000. By 2025, 27 megacities will exist, 21 in less developed countries. (Population Reference Bureau) </li></ul>
  15. 17. Megacities <ul><li>Growth of Urban Agglomerations, 1950–2025 </li></ul><ul><li>(United Nations,  World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision .) </li></ul>
  16. 18. The Urban Poor <ul><li>According to Baker and Schuler (2004), “while the dimensions of poverty are many, there is a subset of characteristics that are more pronounced for the poor in urban areas and may require specific analysis.” They are the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commoditization (reliance on the cash economy); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overcrowded living conditions (slums); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental hazard (stemming from density and hazardous location of settlements, and exposure to multiple pollutants); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social fragmentation (lack of community and inter-household mechanisms for social security, relative to those in rural areas); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crime and violence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traffic accidents; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural disaster </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. The Urban Poor <ul><li>The World Bank estimates that, worldwide, 30% of poor people live in urban areas. By 2020 the proportion is projected to reach 40%, and by 2035 half of the world’s poor people are projected to live in urban areas. (Ravallion, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the urban poor live in slums and squatter settlements, without adequate access to clean water, sanitation, and health care. While health and child survival rates are better in urban than rural areas on average, they often are worse for the poor than for other urban residents. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Population Reports (2002) published by the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, there are three problems commonly encountered by the Urban Poor. They are the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient Incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Housing and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Burdens </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Current and Future Urban Challenges <ul><li>Demographic, environmental, economic and socio-spatial factors must be studied to fully understand the development of 21 st century cities and utilize these information for future urban planning. It also needs to recognize the changing institutional structure of cities and the emerging spatial configurations of large, multiple-nuclei or polycentric, city-regions. (Global Report on Human Settlements 2009, UN Habitat) </li></ul>
  19. 21. Demographic Challenges <ul><li>A key problem is that most of the rapid urban growth is taking place in countries least able to cope – in terms of the ability of governments to provide, or facilitate the provision of, urban infrastructure; in terms of the ability of urban residents to pay for such services and in terms of resilience to natural disasters. The outcome of this has been the rapid growth of urban slums and squatter settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Close to 1 billion people or 32 % of the world’s current urban population, live in slums in inequitable and life-threatening conditions, and are directly affected by both environmental disasters and social crises. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Environmental Challenges <ul><li>It is predicted that with urbanization, climate change will negatively affect access to water and that hundred of millions of people will be vulnerable to coastal flooding and related natural disasters as global warming increases. The poorest countries and people will be the most vulnerable to this threat and who will suffer the earliest and the most. </li></ul><ul><li>The dependence on oil of urban settlements is also a major environmental concern. Sprawling and low-density settlements prove to encourage the use of fossil fuel compared to high-density communities. Vehicle emissions contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions and hence global warming. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Case Studies on Settlements Karachi Slovenia Singapore
  22. 24. Pakistan Indicators 1998 Total Population (‘000) 132,352 Annual Pop. Growth (%) 2.69 Population Density (Per Sq Km) 166.3 Land Area (Sq Km) 796.096 Number of Households (‘000) 20,374.970 Private Households (% 86.6 Average Private Household Size (persons) No data Labour Force Participation Rate (%) 31.98 Source: Pakistan Federal Bureau of Statistics
  23. 25. Karachi : A tale of two cities <ul><li>Karachi is one of the world’s fastest growing megacities. In 2010 it housed over 15 million people. It is also Pakistan’s commercial centre and only international port. But however fast pace of commerce in the city, it can’t mask the fact that Pakistan is still one of the world’s poorer countries, where 72 per cent of the population live on under US$2 a day and over half a million children under-five years old die every year. (IIED, 2010) With poverty and thousands of people flooding in to the city every month, it is unsurprising that Karachi is home to hundreds of informal settlements, known as  katchi abadis . Many are marginalised and vulnerable to forced evictions, which are ever more common as part of urban ‘upgrading’. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Karachi : A tale of two cities <ul><li>As a result, Karachi is increasingly demarcated into rich and poor areas. It is, in effect, becoming a city divided. The problem is acute. In his book  Participatory Development , Karachi architect-planner Arif Hasan notes that nearly 24,000 houses and shops were demolished by various government agencies between 1992 and 2007. In the course of that, over 188,000 people were displaced. Not only were they offered no compensation or alternative; the evictions were also carried out by police or paramilitaries. The trend shows no sign of abating, as commercial interests and affluent individuals vie for city lands </li></ul>
  25. 27. Urban Density in Asia: Karachi <ul><li>To reveal the dynamics of Urban Density and outline potential solutions, Architect-planner Arif Hasan from the International Institute for Environment and Development, researched four communities in the city. Hasan and his team shows that there are socially and environmentally sustainable solutions to achieving high density in inner-city housing for all. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Khuda Ki Basti <ul><li>Khuda Ki Basti 3  is a 10-year-old settlement within Khuda Ki Basti, Karachi, consisting of 1237 plots each of 67 square metres. The settlement is 25 kilometres from the city centre and was planned according to the Karachi Building Control Authority (KBCA) regulations for a density of 1250 persons per hectare. It has already reached a density of 501 persons per hectare </li></ul><ul><li>People in Khuda Ki Basti 3 are building and extending their own homes. The density is increasing and like other similar settlements will soon be much higher than originally planned . Some 30 per cent of the households carry out some form of economic activity in their homes and an additional 60 per cent would also like to do so. The NGO Saiban created this settlement and supports it by linking it up with service providing NGOs and government departments. As such, the settlement has comparatively good social sector facilities. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Khuda Ki Basti – Location in Karachi
  28. 30. Khuda Ki Basti – Immediate vicinity
  29. 31. Khuda Ki Basti – Existing built-up area with heights
  30. 32. Khuda Ki Basti – Existing land use
  31. 33. Khuda Ki Basti – Remodelled land use plan
  32. 34. Khuda Ki Basti <ul><li>Khuda Ki Basti 3 was remodelled, recognising the advantages of organic growth and incremental densification, but also considering how this growth could have been improved upon. It was found that roadways and community spaces could be combined in order to increase the area available for parks, amenities, and commercial and educational facilities. Individual plots could be smaller if residents were allowed to build additional floors on each house. In the resulting high-density settlement, the price of a plot is estimated to fall by 41 per cent. The remodelled density is 1,755 persons per hectare. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Nawalane <ul><li>Nawalane  was an informal settlement that was regularised in 1976. It is over 250 years old, and is centrally located in downtown Karachi. Before regularisation the houses in the settlement were single or double storey. Today, the majority of them are ground floor plus two floors to ground plus four or five and they continue to rise. Parks and playgrounds are almost non-existent and densities are high at over 3300 persons per hectare. </li></ul><ul><li>The population is growing and since the residents are poor they do not have any other option but to densify. The average family size is 13 and an average of two families live on one plot. Only 18 per cent of the population use their homes for economic activity; Nawalane is a traditional working-class area and does not have a tradition of entrepreneurship. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Nawalane <ul><li>The residents of Nawalane do not have a support organisation like the NGO Saiban in Khuda Ki basti 3. This probably helps to explain why social sector facilities are lacking. If there was such an organisation, the situation would perhaps be different. </li></ul><ul><li>The remodelling shows that the site’s residential area could be scaled down and space for amenities increased, as directed by Karachi bylaws, while maintaining a density close to that of the present settlement and well over twice the prescribed maximum. The remodelled density is 3157 persons per hectare. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Nawalane – Existing built-up with height
  36. 38. Nawalane – Existing land use
  37. 39. Nawalane– Remodel from the south
  38. 40. Fahad Square <ul><li>Fahad Square  is different from the other three cases as it is not a settlement consisting of houses on individual plots but a developer-built apartment complex. The complex is located in a suburban project designed by the Karachi Building Control Authority (KBCA) on 10,526 hectares. It occupies an area of 0.60 hectare and consists of 248 apartments and 56 shops. The apartments are a walk-ups of ground plus four floors and have a density of 2329 persons per hectare. </li></ul><ul><li>The apartment housing unit are also different from housing in the other case studies. Each has balconies, attached bathrooms and American-style kitchens. It projects a picture of a different culture and a different way of living which is developer induced. The other major difference between Fahad Square and the other case studies is that amenities and health and education institutions are available to it in a planned manner in the Karachi Development Authority developed neighbourhood. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Fahad Square – Existing built-up with height
  40. 42. Fahad Square – Existing land use
  41. 43. Fahad Square – Remodel land use plan
  42. 44. Paposh Nagar <ul><li>Paposh Nagar  was created as a plot settlement in 1954 for migrants from India. It was designed as 417 plots of 38.5 square metres each. The houses consisted of two rooms, a kitchen and a toilet. However, over time they have grown and many of them are now ground plus one to ground plus three structures. The residents have also increased the size of their plots by encroaching on the roads. These were planned as 3.6 to 4.2 metres wide but today are only 1.2 metres. Secondary roads have also decreased to half their original size. The density of Paposh Nagar is about 1200 persons per hectare. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and clinics in the settlement are all private enterprises. Many of the houses are spacious and well ventilated. The residents are a mix of working-class and white-collar workers. They are teachers, drivers, maids, paramedics, tailors and beauticians. If there had been a formal organisation to monitor the development of Paposh Nagar, encroachments on the roads would probably not have taken place and densification would have been accommodated in building upwards. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Paposh Nagar – Existing built-up with height
  44. 46. Paposh Nagar– Existing land use
  45. 47. Paposh Nagar– Remodel land use plan
  46. 48. Conclusions of the Study <ul><li>Except for KKB-3, all settlements had densities that were in excess of the KBCA requirements for apartment complexes. </li></ul><ul><li>All respondents and interviewees in the four settlements wanted to own a place to live. The distance from the place of work mattered, but was the secondary issue. </li></ul><ul><li>The respondents preferred a place that could grow incrementally to house some of their children after marriage since they were ware that finding accommodation for them was not an affordable option. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of the respondents wanted the possibility of carrying out some income generating activity within their home. This was an important consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Apartment living forces a different lifestyle and culture on residents such as in Fahad Square. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Conclusions of the Study <ul><li>The existence of a controlling authority and/or one that gives advcise on development, helps the settlements to grow in an organised manner. Such an authority prevents encroachments on street and public space and helps in the creation of education and health facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Design and technical support for house construction is essential if an improved physical and social environment is to be created and sustained. </li></ul><ul><li>Streets in low income plot settlements are planned for vehicular traffic but are not used as such. They can be integrated into parks and open spaces as a result of which space for residential areas can be considerably increase without adversely affecting access and safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation of roads, their widths and the ultimate height of buildings and their relationship to each other are important to provide a climatically comfortable environment so that they can be used in the heat and humidity. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Slovenia Indicators 2002 Total Population (‘000) 1,964.036 Annual Pop. Growth (%) 2.6 Population Density (Per Sq Km) 99.6 Land Area (Sq Km) 20,273 Number of Households (‘000) 685.023 Private Households (‘000) 684.847 Average Private Household Size (persons) 2.8 GDP per Capita 18,674.21 Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
  49. 51. Slovenia: Background <ul><li>The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. </li></ul>
  50. 52. Slovenia: Background <ul><li>Dispersed and Decentralised Settlement System (Cerne, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Large dispersion of settlements </li></ul><ul><li>2 million in 6000 settlements with only two have more than 100,000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Almost half of the population lives in rural areas but only 4% survive on farming alone </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting factors: Natural conditions and historical developments </li></ul>
  51. 53. Slovenia <ul><li>Diversity of regions -> irregular population diversity </li></ul>Area Type Area Size (%) Population Density (per Sq Km) Concentration Areas 75 237 Stagnation areas 8 37 Decreasing areas 18 35
  52. 54. Slovenia <ul><li>Between 1966-1994, Slovenia had no “towns” since the term was abandoned in the 60’s after the introduction of the “communal” system. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all Slovenian towns are either medieval cities or medieval market towns or local rural centres. Some towns are built as industrial or mining cities in the 19 th century. Two towns were built after WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, there are 73 large settlements, 58 are true towns, and 15 urbanised settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 180 settlements that can be determined according to these criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of inhabitants (>2,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built up areas and density (at least 3 hectares with 50 persons per ha) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Settlement Patttern of Slovenia in the 60’s
  54. 56. Settlement Pattern of Slovenia in the 90’s Source: National Office of Physical Planning
  55. 57. Slovenia : challenges for the settlement system <ul><li>The urban network structure lacks centres of adequate size </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of uneven spatial distribution of economic and social infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Poor accessibility to individual areas and settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient, expensive and deficient infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Poor accessibility to high-level services is common in border areas </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive daily migration </li></ul>
  56. 58. Slovenia : origins of the problems <ul><li>Typical dispersed settlement pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified use of natural resources on various locations </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the extent of transport </li></ul><ul><li>Functional division of towns is inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive degrade mining, industrial, </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior housing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Non-structural growth of towns </li></ul><ul><li>Unreasonable use of building and transport areas </li></ul><ul><li>Partial urban planning </li></ul>
  57. 59. Slovenia: Issues on housing <ul><li>Stagnation in housing standard results from insufficient offer of non-profitable, subsidised and proprietorial housings and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Too slow revitalisation and inefficient substitution of substandard housing </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient financing </li></ul><ul><li>Undeveloped land policy </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate quality or architecture and urban planning </li></ul><ul><li>Renovation and maintenance of public utility facilities and installations </li></ul>
  58. 60. Slovenia : Recent developments <ul><li>Decentralisation and recentralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Reurbanisation and suburbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Deindustrialisation and relocation of production and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery </li></ul><ul><li>The periphery, near the city borders, are being urbanised </li></ul>
  59. 61. Singapore Indicators 2009 Total Population (‘000) 4,987.6 Annual Pop. Growth (%) 3.1 Population Density (Per Sq Km) 7,022 Land Area (Sq Km) 710.3 Number of Households (‘000) 1,119.6 Average Household Size (persons) 3.5 Resident Households living in HDB 4-Room or Larger Flats or Private Housing (%) 74.5 Labor Force Participation Rate 65.4 Source: Singapore Department of Statistics
  60. 62. Singapore: History <ul><li>In the late thirteenth century, a trading settlement began to form in Singapore. This was Temasek (Tan-ma-hsi), whose people were Malays, Orang Laut and Chinese. (Lee, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malays - ruling class, opened the port to foreign trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orang Laut - &quot;Sea People&quot; manned the war fleets and harvest products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Chinese traded silk, cotton, ceramics, iron and other goods with the Malays. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung-ya-men = Dragon's Tooth Strait </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore river was the main artery of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Singa Pura = &quot;Lion City“ </li></ul><ul><li>In 1819, it became a British trading post of the East India Company </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Stamford Raffles formulated the Raffles Plan that divided Singapore into different ethnic functional sub divisions. </li></ul>
  61. 63. Singapore: History <ul><li>In 1826, Malacca and Penang, the two British settlements in Malay Peninsula, together with Singapore became the Straits Settlements, under the control of British India. Singapore had became the centre of government for the three areas by 1832. Under the jurisdiction of Colonial Office in London, the Straits Settlements became a Crown Colony on 1 April 1867. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 19th century, Singapore became a centre for trade of tin, rubber and petroleum. The Japanese also established commercial shops that primarily offered Japanese textile. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore was renamed Syonan-to ( Light of the South) after it fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942. The Japanese occupation lasted for three and a half years. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Second World War, Singapore was reconstituted as an English Colony and was still considered inseparable from Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore was granted self-rule status from Britain in 1959. It then joined the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In 1965, it became fully independent. </li></ul>
  62. 64. Post-war Singapore <ul><li>Control over land allocation and buildings was considered important due to several reasons. (Yuen, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of law and order given the multi-ethnic, multi-language, multi-religion nature of Singapore’s immigrant population. Separate housing areas were identified for the different ethnic communities of settlers: the Europeans, Bugis, Arabs, Chinese, Indians and Malays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In allocating land, first preference would be given to merchants, second to artisans and third to farmers. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 65. Post-war Singapore <ul><ul><li>The island’s geographical constraints of limited land area, which promoted the need for the government to control the use of such space and to arbitrate between competing uses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third reason is the rising value of land to the new land and property owners, and their wish to do with it as they liked. The situation led to competing areas of self-interest between property owners and business, and the resultant need to protect the collective community interest. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 66. Post-independence Singapore <ul><li>High unemployment (>13%) </li></ul><ul><li>High population growth (4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Housing shortage and overcrowding – about 250,000 people were living in degenerated slums and another 300,000 in squatter areas </li></ul><ul><li>Labor strikes – the unions had strong communist influence </li></ul><ul><li>Civil riots among different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Water shortage, flooding and water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Food shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity shortage </li></ul>
  65. 67. Singapore in 1969
  66. 69. Singapore River (1960’s)
  67. 70. Post-independence Singapore <ul><li>In 1961, the Economic Development Board was setup. Its job was to attract foreign companies coming to Singapore and to find out what industry Singapore should set up. </li></ul><ul><li>The national trade congress and arbitration courts were setup to promote peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of new Industrial estates such as Jurong. The area it occupied were reclaimed swamplands, thus it needed new roads and railways. It also have its own port, reservoirs and power stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore began to clean up its rivers from 1977 to 1987. With this ten year coordinated program with environment and land sectors, they made the rivers clean.  </li></ul><ul><li>To tackle flood problem, they put in draining systems and working together with land sector and build up lands so that they can make use of flood.  All these efforts are based on the belief that dirty rivers wouldn't attract investors. In order to attract investors, they must clean up the rivers. </li></ul>
  68. 71. Post-independence Singapore : Housing <ul><li>By deliberate urbanization (McGee, 1976), the low-rise, predominantly shop house colonial buildings was replaced by an entirely new townscape of high-rise, high-density buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>The new government chose an interventionist approach towards urban development, adopting a strategy of integrating social, economic, political and spatial visions though the process of planning and legitimizing its control through performance in the provision of public goods. </li></ul><ul><li>The government established the Housing and Development Board (HDB) in 1960. The HDB built many one-room flats are rented them out at affordable prices. In 1964, a home ownership scheme enabled people to buy their own flats. </li></ul><ul><li>The Urban Redevelopment Authority was created. It is Singapore’s national land use planning and conservation agency. </li></ul>
  69. 72. Telok Ayer Market (1960’s)
  70. 73. The first of the new flats built in Singapore to re-house people from Kampongs (small villages) being demolished at that time.(1966 )
  71. 74. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>“ Given the small land area of 648km 2 , and projected large population size, over 4.5 million people, Singapore has no choice but to go for high-rise, high density public housing, if we are serious about providing good housing for every citizen.” Liu Thai Ker, former CEO of Singapore’s HDB (Delius, 2000) </li></ul>
  72. 75. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>The Singapore’s Sustainable Development Model (excerpt from the speech of Minister for National Development Mah Bow Tan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore’s overall goal is to grow in an efficient, clean, and green way. We want to develop without squandering resources and causing unnecessary waste. We want to develop without polluting our environment. We want to develop, while preserving greenery, waterways, and our natural heritage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean? Under our long-term, integrated planning approach , we align our policies – from energy to transport to industry and urban planning – and take a long-term, holistic view of our needs and circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We also adopt a pragmatic and cost-effective approach . We recognise our strengths and weakness. We aim to achieve economic growth without degrading the environment. We strive to do so in the most cost-effective way, recognising that public resources are finite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to be nimble and flexible . The task of maintaining economic growth and a good environment is always work-in-progress. We have to remain adaptable, and adjust flexibly to changes in technology and in the global environment. We will invest in building our capabilities today to give us more options to respond to challenges tomorrow. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 76. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>Sustainable Public Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Housing and Development Board is the largest housing developer in Singapore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of the residential housing developments in Singapore are publicly governed and developed and about 75% of Singaporeans live in such houses. They are called HDB flats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDB flats are affordable for the masses and their purchase can be financially-aided by the Central Provident Fund. The apartment flats are not actually purchased but leased in a 99 year lease-hold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These flats are located in housing estates, which are self-contained satellite towns with schools, supermarkets, clinics, hawker centres, as well as sports and recreational facilities. These planned and developed homes promote the building of a cohesive community and offers a quality living environment. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 77. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>“ In Singapore, high density presents not only the most viable housing solution but also creates an opportunity to generate some of the most innovative sustainability ideas. One of the best practices that emerged is the incorporation of high-rise greenery into high density housing. Such incorporation not only creates additional social interaction spaces to replace lost ground, but also brings a unique balance of built and natural environments. The incorporation of greenery also serves to reduce heat gain on the roofs and allows natural rain harvesting.”, say Tai Lee Siang, President of the Singapore Institute of Architects (Carbona, 2009) </li></ul>
  75. 78. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>Environmental Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization of land use -> HRHD buildings integrated with lush green areas and landscaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-sufficiency of each town -> complete community and reduces the need to commute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient transport network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the Green Mark Scheme under the Building and Construction Authority. It promotes the adoption of green building design and technologies. Buildings are assessed on energy and water efficiency, indoor environmental quality and environmental protection. Target: 80% of all buildings in Singapore by 2030. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDB’s Building Research Institute undertakes R&D on green building technologies . </li></ul></ul>
  76. 79. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>Economic Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The public housing budget is only within one percent of Singapore’s GDP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generous housing subsidies allow Singaporeans to service their mortgage loans over a long term and using their Central Provident Fund account. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDB offers a wide range of flat types for different population segments with different budget. </li></ul></ul>
  77. 80. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>Social Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ethnic Integration Policy , which in contrast with the Raffles Plan, seeks to prevent the formation of racial enclaves by setting the maximum allowable proportion for each ethnic group in every HDB neighbourhood and block. This ensures a balanced mix of residents of different ethnic groups to encourage interaction and foster cohesion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The housing estates are designed physically to promote interaction of households with varying income and social profiles . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community involvement in upgrading and development of public housing thru solicitation of public feedback and community events . </li></ul></ul>
  78. 81. Singapore : Best Practices <ul><li>Abundant Green Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently the city has 2,3400 hectares of parks and green areas and about 3,000 hectares of nature reserves . When Singapore bagan to develop rapidly in the early 1970’s, city planners formed a “garden city action committee” with members from each of the main ministries. This group ensure the city’s long-term commitment to setting aside and maintaining nearly one hectare of green space for every 1,000 people . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently, it has embarked on a campaign to provide 245 hectares of “park connectors” – green corridors that will eventually connect every park and reserve on the island. The corridors will contain bike paths and hiking trails, affording residents more options for getting around the city. (Population Reports, 2002) </li></ul></ul>
  79. 82. Present-day Singapore
  80. 83. Settlements in Philippine Context
  81. 84. History of Settlements in the Philippines : Pre- Colonial <ul><ul><li>“ Migration through land bridges” Theory (H. O. Beyer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabon Cave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22,000-20,000BC : Tabon Man </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50,000-10,000BC : Cutting Tools and burial jars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>200-500 AD : Ethnic groups established numerous city-states formed by the assimilation of several small political units known as barangay each headed by a Datu which was answerable to a Rajah </li></ul><ul><li>Trading links with Sumatra, Borneo, Thailand, Java, China, India, Arabia, Japan flourished during this era </li></ul><ul><li>Each barangay consisted of about 100 families. Some barangays were big, such as Zubu (Cebu), Butuan, Maktan (Mactan), Mandani (Mandaue), Lalan (Liloan), Irong-Irong(Iloilo), Bigan (Vigan), and Selurong (Manila). Each of these big barangays had a population of more than 2,000. </li></ul>
  82. 85. History of Settlements in the Philippines <ul><li>Spanish Occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cebu  - Following Magellan, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailing from Mexico arrived in 1565 and established a colony in the island of Cebu. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to &quot;Villa del Santíssimo Nombre de Jesús&quot; (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus). Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intramuros - It was built to protect the seat of the Spanish government from hostile native revolts, and raiding Chinese sea pirates. The plans for Intramuros were based on King Philip II of Spain's Royal Ordinance issued on July 3, 1573 in San Lorenzo, Spain. Its design was based upon a star fort or trace italienne and covered 64 hectares of land, surrounded by 8 feet thick stones and high walls that rise 22 feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binondo - Founded in 1594, Binondo was created by Spanish Governor Luis Pérez Dasmariñas as a permanent settlement for converted Chinese immigrants (called sangleys) across the river from the walled city of Intramuros where the Spaniards resided. </li></ul></ul>
  83. 86. History of Settlements in the Philippines <ul><li>American Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baguio - The region around Baguio was first settled primarily by the Kankana-eys and the Ibalois. In the nearby town of La Trinidad, Spaniards established a commandante or military garrison, although Kafagway, as Baguio was once known, was barely touched. In 1901 Japanese and Filipino workers hired by the Americans built Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Kafagway with the lowlands of Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Kafagway was Naguilian Road. On September 1, 1909 Baguio was declared a chartered city. The famous American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners, laid a meticulous plan for the city in 1904. His plan was, nevertheless, realized only to a small extent, primarily due to growth of the city well beyond its initial planned population of 25,000 people. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 87. Government offices on housing and settlements
  85. 88. The HUDCC <ul><li>The Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) was created by then President Corazon C. Aquino by virtue of Executive Order No. 90 dated 17 December 1986.  The EO, which also abolished the Ministry of Human Settlements, placed HUDCC under the direct supervision of the Office of the President to serve as the highest policy making body for housing and coordinate the activities of the government housing agencies to ensure the accomplishment of the National Shelter Program. </li></ul>
  86. 89. The HUDCC <ul><li>Vision &quot;As the highest policy making and coordination body on housing and urban development, HUDCC shall facilitate access to a variety of housing options that are decent, affordable and responsive to the diverse and changing needs of homeless and underprivileged Filipino families.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Mission &quot;We envision HUDCC to provide overall direction for the promotion of decent and affordable housing opportunities and sustainable human settlements for families belonging to the lowest income strata of our society.&quot; </li></ul>
  87. 90. The HUDCC <ul><li>The Council is composed of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>The Heads of four (4) Key Shelter Agencies (KSAs), namely: the National Housing Authority (NHA), the Home Guaranty Corporation (HGC), the National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation (HGC), and the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB); </li></ul><ul><li>The Heads of three (3) funding agencies, namely: the  Social Security System (SSS), the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) and the Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF); </li></ul><ul><li>The Heads of seven (7) government support agencies, which include the  Presidential Management Staff (PMS), the Department of Finance (DOF), the Department of Budget and Management (DBM), the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA); and </li></ul><ul><li>Two (2) private sector representatives from Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and private developers.  </li></ul>
  88. 91. The HLURB <ul><li>The Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) is a national government agency tasked as the planning, regulatory and quasi-judicial body for land use development and real estate and housing regulation. These roles are done via a triad of strategies namely, policy development, planning and regulation.  </li></ul>
  89. 92. The HLURB : History <ul><li>Executive Order No. 419 (1973) created the Task Force on Human Settlements (TFHS) under the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) Presidential Decree No. 933 (1976) renamed the TFHS into Human Settlements Commission (HSC). </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 1396 (1978) renamed HSC as the Human Settlements Regulatory Commission (HSRC) and was designated as the regulatory arm of the Ministry of Human Settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Order No. 648 (1981) reorganized the HSRC and transferred the implementation of P.D. No. 957 (Subdivision and Condominium Buyer's Protective Decree) from NHA to HSRC </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Order No. 90 (1986) renamed the HSRC as the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) and was designated as the regulatory body for housing and land development under the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC). </li></ul>
  90. 93. The HLURB : Functions <ul><li>HLURB has the twin roles of enhancing and reinforcing rational housing and real estate service delivery via a triad of strategies namely; policy, planning and regulation.  Such rules are enunciated and defined in Presidential Decrees (PD), Letters of Instruction (LOI), Republic Acts (RA), Executive Orders (EO), Office of the President Memorandum Circulars (OP-MC) and Batas Pambansa (BP). </li></ul>
  91. 94. The HLURB : Development Role <ul><ul><li>Extend planning assistance to Local Government Units (LGUs) (LOI No. 729, EO No. 648); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review and ratify land use plans of Metro Manila cities and municipalities, provinces, highly urbanized cities and independent component cities (EO No. 72); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce zoning regulations (EO No. 648); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate and adjudicate complaints (EO No. 648); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist local government units assume devolved functions via training and consultation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate land reclassification clearance system (MC No. 54); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update and revise rules, guidelines and standards on land use (EO No. 648); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update and revise National Urban Development and Housing Framework (RA No. 7279). </li></ul></ul>
  92. 95. The HLURB : On Real Estate and Housing Regulations <ul><ul><li>Enforce laws, rules, standards and guidelines through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval of condominium plans (PD No. 957); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivision Plans: HLURB's foremost function is to protect buyers of housing units and home lots, and condominium units against unscrupulous practices in the industry; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issuance of License to Sell (PD No. 957). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist LGUs perform the devolved function of processing and approving the subdivision plans via training and consultation (EO No. 71) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue sales and mortgage clearances for the protection of rights of tenants in the urban and land reform zones and areas for priority development (PD No. 1517) </li></ul></ul>
  93. 96. The HLURB : On Real Estate and Housing Regulations <ul><ul><li>Update and revise rules guidelines and standards on housing and real estate for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential subdivisions and condominiums (PD No. 957) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and socialized housing projects (BP 220) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approve expansion of a condominium corporation or integration of a condominium project with another project upon the affirmative vote of a simple majority of registered owners (RA No. 7899) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance of completion of projects (PD No. 957) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation and adjudication of complaints (PD No. 957) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance of compliance to balanced housing development requirement (Sec 18, R.A. 7279) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced housing development (RA No. 7279) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other types of subdivision and condominium projects (EO No. 648 and related laws) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 97. The HLURB : On Real Estate and Housing Regulations <ul><li>Operate as the lead agency for the HUDCC for the Socialized Housing One-stop Processing Centers (SHOPCs) and issuance of permits, clearances, certifications and licenses for the implementation of socialized housing projects (EO No. 184) </li></ul><ul><li>Approve any amendment to or revocation of the enabling or master deed of a condominium project already decided upon by a simple majority of all registered owners (RA No. 7899) </li></ul><ul><li>Approve expansion of a condominium corporation or integration of a condominium project with another project upon the affirmative vote of a simple majority of registered owners (RA No. 7899) </li></ul>
  95. 98. The HLURB : Quasi Judicial Functions <ul><li>Quasi-Judicial Functions Designated Housing and Land Use Arbiters (HLAs) at the Central Office, in each of the Regional Field Offices and for special assignments, hear and decide on complaints against violation of pertinent legislation's and HLURB rules and regulations. The HLURB Rules of Procedures for adjudication of cases provides for just speedy and inexpensive proceedings, amicable settlements, summary resolution and other legal tools.  The aggrieved party in a resolved case may file a petition for review or appeal the decision of the HLA to the Board of Commissioners. The decision of the Board is appealable to the Office of the President which decisions shall be final subject only to review by the Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  96. 99. The HLURB : Devolved Functions <ul><li>In January 2000, Republic Act No. 8763 transferred to HLURB the functions of the Home Guaranty Corporation with respect to Homeowners Associations.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuant to the prescription of RA No. 7160 (local Government Code of 1991) and as detailed under EO No. 71 and EO No. 72, certain HLURB functions were devolved to the LGU's:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sangguniang Bayan or Sanguniang Panglungsod shall, subject to national law, process and approve subdivision plans for residential, commercial, industrial or other development purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sangguniang Panlalawigan shall review and approve the comprehensive land use plans of component cities and municipalities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities and municipalities with CLUPs reviewed and approved in accordance with EO 72 shall issue locational clearance to locally significant projects. </li></ul></ul>
  97. 100. The HLURB : Recent Board Resolutions <ul><li>Resolution No. 737, which authorizes developers to enter into joint venture projects as a mode on compliance to the balanced housing development provision of RA 7279, which requires that all subdivisions must have a socialized housing component equivalent to 20% on the projects cost or project area;  </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution No. 739, which approved the purchase of HGC special series bonds as a mode of compliance to the 20% socialized housing requirements under RA 7279;  </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution No. 725-A, which deleted the DAR Exemption Clearance as a requirement for the issuance of the Development Permit and License to Sell for subdivision on and condominium projects;  </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution Nos. 748 and 750, which removes the DAR Conversion Clearance as a pre-condition but as a post requirement for the issuance of a License to Sell for residential subdivisions and farmlots, respectively; and  </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution No. 756, which removes the Building Permit as a prior requirement for the License to Sell and Certificate of Registration and make it as a post requirement instead.  </li></ul>
  98. 101. The NHA <ul><li>The National Housing Authority is a government-owned and -controlled corporation under the administrative supervision of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council and classified under the Infrastructure Utilities Group. </li></ul>
  99. 102. The NHA <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>We provide responsive housing programs primarily to homeless low-income families with access to social services and economic opportunities with excellence while ensuring corporate viability. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>A viable and self-sustaining corporate institution committed to provide homes to low-income and homeless Filipino families and contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of our beneficiaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide and maintain adequate housing for the greatest possible number of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To undertake housing development, resettlement or other activities that would enhance the provision of housing to very Filipino. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To harness and promote private participation in housing ventures in terms of capital expenditures, land, expertise, financing and other facilities for the sustained growth of the housing industry. </li></ul></ul>
  100. 103. The NHA : History <ul><li>14 October 1938 : The People’s Homesite Corporation (PHC), first government housing agency was created. </li></ul><ul><li>September 1945 : The National Housing Commission (NHC), was created. </li></ul><ul><li>4 October 1947 : The People’s Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC), was created, merging the functions and resources of the PHC and NHC. </li></ul><ul><li>1947 – 1975 : Six more housing agencies were created, namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Assistant on Housing and Resettlement Agency (PAHRA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tondo Foreshore Development Authority (TFDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Institute for Training and Relocation of Urban Squatters (CITRUS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Committee for Housing and Urban Resettlement (PRECHUR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sapang Palay Development Committee (SPDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-Agency Task Force to Undertake the Relocation of Families in Barrio Nabacaan, Villanueva, Misamis Oriental </li></ul></ul>
  101. 104. The NHA : History <ul><li>15 October 1975 : The National Housing Authority (NHA), was created, merging the functions and resources of the PHC and NHC.was organized as a government owned and controlled corporation under PD 757 dated 31 July 1975. The NHA took over and integrated the functions of the abolished agencies – PHHC and the 6 other housing agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>1978 : The Ministry of Human Settlements (MHS), was created and the NHA was attached to the MHS. </li></ul><ul><li>26 March 1986 : Executive Order No. 10,abolished the MHS placed the NHA and other agencies under the administrative supervision of the Office of the President. </li></ul><ul><li>17 December 1986 : Executive Order No. 90, created the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) and mandated the NHA to be the sole government agency to engage in housing production . </li></ul><ul><li>28 May 2001 : Executive Order No. 20 reaffirmed mass housing as a centerpiece program in the poverty alleviation efforts of government and reaffirmed HUDCC’s administrative supervision over all housing agencies including the NHA. </li></ul>
  102. 105. The NHA : Mandates <ul><li>Under PD 757dated 31 July 1975. NHA was tasked to develop and implement a comprehensive and integrated housing program which shall embrace, among others, housing development and resettlement, sources and schemes of financing, and delineation of government and private sector participation. Under EO 90 dated 17 December 1986. NHA was mandated as the sole national government agency to engage in shelter production focusing on the housing needs of the lowest 30% of the urban population . </li></ul><ul><li>Under RA 7279 (UDHA) dated 24 March 1992. NHA was tasked to provide technical and other forms of assistance to local government units (LGUs) in the implementation of their housing programs; to undertake identification, acquisition and disposition of lands for socialized housing; and to undertake relocation and resettlement of families with local government units. </li></ul>
  103. 106. The NHA : Mandates <ul><li>Under RA 7835 (CISFA) dated 08 December 1994. NHA was tasked with the implementation of the following components of the National Shelter Program – the Resettlement Program, Medium Rise Public and Private Housing, Cost Recoverable Programs and the Local Housing Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Under EO 195 dated 31 December 1999. NHA was mandated to focus on sociliazed housing through the development and implementation of a comprehensive and integrated housing development and resettlement; fast-tracking the determination and development of government lands suitable for housing; and ensuring the sustainability of socialized housing funds by improving its collection efficiency, among others. </li></ul>
  104. 107. The HGC <ul><li>The Home Guaranty Corporation (HGC) is the government-owned-and-controlled-corporation (GOCC) mandated by law (Republic Act 8763) to promote sustainable home ownership by providing risk coverage or Guarantees and tax/fiscal incentives to banks and financial institutions/investors granting housing development loans/credits, and home financing. </li></ul>
  105. 108. The HGC : Mandates <ul><li>To guarantee the payment of any and all forms of mortgages,loans and other forms of credit facilities and receivables arising from financial contracts exclusively for residential purposes and the necessary support facilities, (provided they have been issued HGC Guarantees); </li></ul><ul><li>To assist private developers to undertake socialized, low and medium cost mass housing projects by encouraging private funds to finance such housing projects through a viable system of long-term mortgages, guaranties and other incentives. </li></ul>
  106. 109. The HGC : Mandates <ul><li>To promote homebuilding and landownership, giving primary preference to the homeless and underprivileged sectors of the society; </li></ul><ul><li>To promote housing by the aided self-help method; </li></ul><ul><li>To pursue the development and sustainability of a secondary mortgage market for housing. (RA 8763) </li></ul><ul><li>To administer the Cash Flow Guaranty System of the Abot-Kaya Pabahay Fund. (RA 6846) </li></ul><ul><li>To supervise and regulate building and loan associations. (RA 8763 and RA 8791) </li></ul>
  107. 110. The HGC : Abot Kaya Pabahay Fund <ul><li>The Abot Kaya Pabahay Fund (FUND), otherwise known as the Social Housing Support Fund Act, was created under Republic Act No. 6846 on January 24, 1990, in support to the National Shelter Program (NSP) of the government to implement a continuing program on social housing that shall make available to low income families affordable houses and/or lots by establishing a financial support system that shall encourage the active participation of the private sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the said law, the Home Guaranty Corporation (HGC) is mandated to administer the Cash Flow Guaranty component of the FUND, while the other two components - the amortization support and developmental financing are under the trusteeship of National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation (NHMFC). </li></ul><ul><li>The FUND has a budgetary appropriation amounting to P 2.5 Billion. Under R.A. No. 7835, the scope and usage of the Abot Kaya Pabahay Fund were expanded and correspondingly, its budgetary allocation was increased from P2.5 to P5.5 Billion. </li></ul>
  108. 111. The HDMF <ul><li>The Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF), more popularly known as the Pag-IBIG Fund, was an answer to the need for a national savings program and an affordable shelter financing for the Filipino worker. The Fund was established on 11 June 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1530 primarily to address these two basic yet equally important needs. Under the said law, there were two agencies that administered the Fund. The Social Security System handled the funds of private employees, while the Government Service Insurance System handled the savings of government workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Pag-IBIG is an acronym which stands for Pagtutulungan sa Kinabukasan: Ikaw, Bangko, Industria at Gobyerno. </li></ul>
  109. 112. The HDMF Law of 2009 <ul><li>President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law Republic Act No. 9679 or the Home Development Mutual Fund Law of 2009 on 21 July 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the new HDMF law, membership to the Pag-IBIG Fund is made mandatory for all SSS- and GSIS-covered employees; uniformed members of the AFP, BFP, BJMP and PNP; as well as Filipinos employed by foreign-based employers. Now more than ever, Filipino workers will enjoy the benefits that are available only to Pag-IBIG members. </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise, the law grants the HDMF exemption from tax payments like other government provident institutions. With its tax-exempt status reinstated, Pag-IBIG will have more funds to finance housing and short-term loans as well as investments in government securities. Income from these endeavors is distributed exclusively to Pag-IBIG members in the form of dividends. </li></ul>
  110. 113. The HDMF Law of 2009 <ul><li>Likewise, the law grants the HDMF exemption from tax payments like other government provident institutions. With its tax-exempt status reinstated, Pag-IBIG will have more funds to finance housing and short-term loans as well as investments in government securities. Income from these endeavors is distributed exclusively to Pag-IBIG members in the form of dividends. </li></ul><ul><li>The HDMF Law of 2009 also gives the Board of Trustees the authority to set the contribution rates, thereby paving the way for members to save more for their future. Similarly, this will bolster the Fund's resources for home financing. </li></ul>
  111. 114. Philippine Laws on Settlements <ul><li>Laws that Ensure Rational Land Use and Sustainable Urban and Regional Development  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order No. 72  - Providing for the Preparation and Implementation of the Comprehensive Land Use Plans of Local Government Units Pursuant to the Local Government Code of 1991 and Other Pertinent Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorandum Circular No. 54  - Prescribing the Guidelines of Sec. 20, R.A. 7160, Authorizing Cities/Municipalities to Reclassify Lands into Non-Agricultural Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order No. 124  - Establishing Priorities and Procedures in Evaluating Areas for Land Conversion in Regional Agricultural/Industrial Centres, Tourism Development Areas Sites for Socialized Housing </li></ul></ul>
  112. 115. Philippine Laws on Settlements <ul><li>Laws that Regulate the Relationship between Sellers, Developers and Buyers of Subdivision Lots and Condominium Units, and provide Quasi-Judicial and Criminal Remedies for Breach of Statutory and Contractual Obligations  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivision and Condominium Buyer's Protective Decree Presidential Decree No. 957 (As Amended By P.D. 1216)  - Regulating the Sale of Subdivision Lots and Condominiums, Providing Penalties For Violations Thereof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 1216  - Defining &quot;Open Space&quot; in Residential Subdivision and Amending Sec. 31 of Pd 957 Requiring Subdivision Owners to Provide Roads, Alleys, Sidewalks and Reserve Open Space for Parks or Recreational Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Decree No. 1344  - Empowering the NHA to Issue Writ of Execution in the Enforcement of its Decisions Under P.D. 957 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batas Pambansa 220  - An Act Authorizing the Ministry of Human Settlements to Establish and Promulgate Different Levels of Standards and Technical Requirements for Economic and Socialized Housing Projects in Urban and Rural Areas from Those Provided Under Presidential Decrees Numbered Nine Hundred Fifty-Seven, Twelve Hundred Sixteen, Ten Hundred Ninety-Six and Eleven Hundred Eighty-Five </li></ul></ul>
  113. 116. Philippine Laws on Settlements <ul><ul><li>Republic Act 7279  -  Urban Development and Housing Act . An Act to Provide For a Comprehensive and Continuing Urban Development and Housing Program, Establish the Mechanism for its Implementation, and for Other Purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic Act 4726  -  The Condominium Act . An Act to Define Condominium, Establish Requirements for its Creation, and Govern its Incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic Act 7899  - Amending Sections 4 and 6 of R.A. 4726 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 71  - Devolution of HLURB Function to Approved Subdivision Plan of LGUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 184  - Creating Socialized Housing One-Stop Processing Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic Act 6552  - Realty Installment Buyer Protection Act </li></ul></ul>
  114. 117. FAQs on PD957 and BP220 <ul><li>What are the latest price ceilings?   The current price ceilings as set by the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) as per MC No. 5 Series of 2007 Re: Redefinition of Loan Ceilings/Packages  are as follows:  Socialized housing = PHP 400,000.00 and below  (per HUDCC MC No. 1, Dec. 11, 2008) ;  Low Cost  - Level 1 = above PHP 300,000.00 to PHP 1,250, 000.00 (BP 220 standard);  - Level 2 = above PHP 1,250,000.00 to PHP 2,000,000.00 (PD 957 standard);  Medium cost = PHP 2,000,000.00 up to PHP 4,000,000.00;  Open Housing = above PHP 4,000,000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Are the revised IRRs for PD 957 and BP 220 already in effect?   The revised IRRs which were approved per Board Resolutions No. 699 and 700, Series of 2001 took effect last 06 May 2002. Amendments approved per Board Resolution No. 725, Series of 2002 took effect on 26 July 2002.  </li></ul>
  115. 118. What are the latest minimum design standards ?  <ul><li>Under BP 220   </li></ul><ul><li>Under PD 957   </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum lot area   Single Detached - 72 sqm for economic housing; 64 sqm for socialized housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex/Single Attached - 54 sqm for economic housing; 48 sqm for socialized housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Rowhouse - 36 sqm for economic housing; 28 sqm for socialized housing (per BR 824, s. 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum floor area  22 sqm for economic housing; 18 sqm for socialized housing </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum lot area   Single Detached - 120 sqm for open market; 100 sqm for medium cost </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex/Single Attached - 96 sqm for open market housing; 80 sqm for medium cost housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Rowhouse - 60 sqm for open market housing; 50 sqm for medium cost housing </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum floor area  42 sqm for open market housing; 30 sqm for medium cost housing </li></ul>
  116. 119. References: <ul><li>Carbona, Vicente. 2009. Singapore: a model for sustainable development? Urban World. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerne, Andrej. 2004. Dispersed and Decentralised Settlement System </li></ul><ul><li>Delius, Christina. 2000. Urban Planning in Singapore – An Interview with Mr. Liu. Pacific News Nr. 14 August 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Hasan, Arif. 2010. IIED Density Study 04 Cases of Housing in Karachi – Fianl Report January 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Ooi Giok Ling. 2005. Sustainability and Cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore’s experiences in sustainable water management. August 24, 2007. People’s Daily Online. </li></ul><ul><li>Thornley, Andy. 1999. Urban Planning and Competitive Advantage: London, Sydney and Singapore. Yuen, Belinda. 2007. Guiding Spatial Changes: Singapore Urban Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Baker, J. and Schuler N. 2004. Analyzing Urban Poverty: A Summary of Methods and Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Hardoy, J., Mitlin D., and Satterthwaite, D. 2001 Environmental problems in an urbanizing world — Finding solutions for cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>Ravallion, M. 2001. On the urbanization of poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Population Reports. Volume XXX, Number 4, Fall 2002. John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Land Use Planning Guidebook Volume 1. 2007. HLURB </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ua/ua_2k.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.prb.org/Educators/TeachersGuides/HumanPopulation/Urbanization.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>http://hlurb.gov.ph/faqs/ </li></ul>
  117. 120. Thank you very much!