According to UNEP (1996) Cleaner Production is “The
continuous application of an integrated preventative
environmental strategy applied to processes, products, and
services to increase overall efficiency and reduce risks to
humans and the environment.”
Production processes: conserving raw materials and energy,
eliminating toxic raw materials, and reducing the quantity and toxicity
of all emissions and wastes.
Products: reducing negative impacts along the life cycle of a product,
from raw materials extraction to ultimate disposal.
Services: incorporating environmental concerns into designing and
Cleaner Production is one of the key ways to ensure
sustainable development—there is or should be a close link
between Cleaner Production and sustainable development.
Cleaner Production aims to increase production and corporate
productivity through the more efficient use of raw materials,
water and energy in order to reduce wastes and emissions of
any kind at source rather than simply to deal with them
afterwards, and to contribute to improved product designs for
products which will be more environment-friendly and cost-
effective over the whole of their life-cycles.
Cleaner Production of cleaner products and sustainable
production and consumption are key elements of sustainable
Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
Four basic guiding principles are implied in the conception of cleaner
a) The precaution & preventative principle.
Precaution is not simply a matter of avoiding breaking the
law, it is also about ensuring that workers are protected from
irreversible ill-health and that the plant is protected from
The preventative principle is to look to upstream changes
in the causal network of the system of production and
consumption. The preventative nature of cleaner production
calls for the new approach to reconsider product design,
consumer demand, patterns of material consumption, and
indeed the entire material basis of economic activity.
b) The integration Principle
Integration involves adopting a holistic view of the production
By reducing the need for emission into the environment of such
substances, these measures thereby provide for an integrated
protection of all environmental media.
c) The comprehensive or democratic principle
The comprehensive or democratic principle involves people,
workers and local residents, in the way where production and
consumption are organized.
d) The continuity principle
Cleaner production is a no-end process. Its implementation calls
for the ever-lasting efforts of governments, industries and
1) Planning and Organization Phase.
In this phase a project team are establish, and
assessment goal are set. At this phase, the participation
and commitment of the owners and workers were
confirmed because they determine the success of CP
2) Preliminary Assessment Phase
The purpose of the preliminary assessment phase is to gain
an understanding of the processes at each site, to identify the
major inputs and outputs, and to quantify and then to compare
This phase is carried out to know basic information about the
enterprise. This phase is conducted to acquire qualitative
review including a description of the company and identification
of all stages of the production process. 8/27
3) Detailed Assessment Phase
During the detailed assessment phase CP ideas were generated to
reduce, either directly or indirectly, the quantity and toxicity of the
focus waste streams. More detailed knowledge of the processes that
generate the focus wastes was required.
it include assessment of various waste and collection of quantitative
4) Feasibility Assessment Phases
The identified Cleaner Production options were then subjected to a
feasibility analysis in the feasibility assessment phase. Options that
were deemed feasible may then be implemented and monitored.
Cleaner Production Practices
Cleaner Production offers several complementary techniques or practices, ranging
from no cost or low cost solutions to advanced clean technologies that demand
high investment levels.
Good housekeeping involves every phase of industrial operations
and should apply throughout the entire premises, indoors and out.
Take appropriate managerial and operational actions to prevent:
Leaks, Spills, to enforce existing Operational instructions
It involves Replacement of input materials by less toxic or renewable
materials or by adjunct materials which have a longer service lifetime in
Better Process Control
Better process Control includes modification in Operational procedures,
Equipment instructions and Process record keeping in order to run the
processes more efficiently and at lower waste and emission generation rates.
It Modify the existing production equipment and utilities in order to run the
processes at higher efficiency, lower waste and emission generation rates.
Design change refers to modifications or changes made to the equipment
used for processes and activities. It may bring about significant results if
Technology change involves replacement of; the technology,
Processing sequence, Synthesis pathway in order to minimise
waste and emission generation during production.
There are many materials that can be reuse or recycle in the
industry. It may be from the process, offices and from any part of
the premise. It includes Reuse of the wasted materials in the same
process for another useful application within the company
Production of a useful by-product
Consider transforming waste into a useful by-product, to be sold as
input for companies in different business sectors. It is the process of
Modification in the waste generation process in order to transform
the wasted material into a material that can be reused or recycled for
another application within or outside the company.
It is achieved by modify the product characteristics in order to
Minimise the environmental impacts of the product during or after its
use (disposal) and Minimise the environmental impacts of its
Barriers to Cleaner Production
Resistance to change
Lack of information, expertise and adequate training
Lack of communication within enterprises
Competing business priorities – in particular, the pressure for
short – term profits
Perception of risk
Difficulty in accessing cleaner technology
Accounting systems which fail to capture environmental costs and
Difficulty in accessing external finance
The failure of existing regulatory approaches
Perverse economic incentives
To overcome the identified barriers, a number of policy options to
promote Cleaner Production were researched through the informal
discussions/seminars and questionnaires with representatives from
enterprises and the departments of the central as well as local
According to policy functions, the mechanisms of the policy options were
divided into four categories:
(1) Regulatory mechanisms;
(2) Supportive mechanisms;
(3) Economic incentive mechanisms; and
(4) Social pressure mechanisms.
Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the Textile Mill (Luthra
Dyeing and Printing Mills, Surat, INDIA).
They Produces Printed and dyed fabric of polyester, cotton, rayon.
The Cleaner Production Team was formed and The Boiler House was
taken as focus area.
A Textile Processor has to be Lean, Efficient and Innovative
Lean - Good housekeeping, Conservation, Control
Efficient - “Right in First Time” Approach, Mechanical/Chemical/Water/
Energy/ Audits, optimization/Rationalization.
Innovative - Reuse, Recovery, and Recycle Initiative Process Change,
“Informed” Equipment Selection.
Probable Causes of waste generated
Boiler Flue Gases
- Air-fuel ratio is not maintained
- No monitoring of relevant parameters (O2 or
- No device/method for heat recovery
- Air ingress through various portion
- Air quantity and pressure is not sufficient
- Distribution of primary air through grate
- Sizing of coal not proper
- Design of grate not appropriate
- Firing rate is not uniform
- Manual ash removal
- Poor fuel quality and combustion is not proper
Table 1 : CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM 
Probable Causes of waste generated
- Bad Boiler feed water quality
- Condensate is not recovered
- Boiler drum TDS is not maintained as required
- Un-insulated portions of boiler
Table 1: CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM 
These are the Cleaner Production technique used in Luthra Dyeing and
Printing Mills, Surat, INDIA:
Good House Keeping
Raw Material Substitution
New Product Design
Onsite Recycle & Reuse
Waste Stream CP Options
Heat Loss due to - Install air heater for recovery of waste heat
- Plug all the air leakages into boiler furnace
Unburnt in Ash - Conversion of existing boiler to the FBC boiler
- Replacing existing boiler to FBC Boiler
- Optimize the coal sizing by proper crushing & sieving
- Modify the existing grate by reducing the gaps between the rods
- Optimize the firing rate by use of stoker firing
Blow down loss - Install water treatment system (RO) plant
- Change the water used in the boiler from tanker water to Municipal -
- Install conductivity meter to check boiler drum water quality and
therefore optimize the blow down rate
- Recover flash steam from boiler blow down
- Re-circulate condensate from steam separator and wherever possible
Radiation Loss - Insulate all the bare and damaged portions
- Insulate the flanges (125 Flanges)
- Installation of Steam Traps ( Thermo Dynamic Traps)
Table 2: Cleaner Production Options in Various Waste Stream
Net annual savings
Reduction in GHG emissions
1300 Tons per year
Table 3: Results of the Cleaner Production Option Implementation 
Overall Benefits of Cleaner production
Cleaner Production improves products and services
Cleaner Production lowers down the risks (liability)
Cleaner Production improves company image
Cleaner Production improves worker’s health and safety conditions
Cleaner Production reduces waste treatment and disposal costs
Cleaner Production can be integrated with the business
Environmental Management Systems.
Cleaner Production saves costs on raw material, energy and water.
Cleaner Production makes companies more profitable and
Cleaner Production can help implementing MEAs
Cleaner production is an approach to reduces pollutant
generation at every stage of the production process Cleaner
production can be achieved through, good operating practices,
process modification, technology changes, raw material
substitution, redesign and/or reformulation of product.
It also observed that Cleaner production technologies exercises
are not only desirable from the environmental point of view as a
preemptive strategy, but also make good economic sense.
It is encouraging to note that in most cases where cleaner
production technologies were implemented, the cost benefit is
large, both quantitatively and qualitatively
1. Benefits of Adopting Cleaner Production and Energy Efficiency in Textile Industries, APPCB
Information Bulletin, Publication 119, April 2004.
2. Cleaner Production- A do-it-yourself manual, Department Of Environment Ministry Of Natural
Resources & Environment Malaysia First Edition 2010.
3. Dumitrescu I., Mocioiu A.M., Visileanu E.,( August 2008) Cleaner production in Romanian textile
industry: a case study, International Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 65, No. 4, , 549–562.
4. Good Housekeeping in Industry, Published by the Department of Labour, Wellington, New
5. Introduction To Cleaner Production (CP) Concepts And Practice, For UNEP, Division of
Technology, Industry, and Economics, Prepared by the Institute of Environmental Engineering
(APINI) Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
6. Khuriyati N., Wagiman, Kumalasari D., ( 2015 ) , Cleaner Production Strategy for Improving
Environmental Performance of Small Scale Cracker Industry, Agriculture and Agricultural Science
Procedia 3 102 – 107.
7. Lei S.H.I., Ruirui L.I., Xianghua W.E.N., Industrial Pollution Prevention Strategy - Cleaner
Production, Point Source of Pollution: Local Effects and its Control Vol- 1.
8. Manual on the Development of Cleaner Production Policies - Approaches and Instruments
Guidelines for National Cleaner Production Centres and Programmes, UNIDO CP Programme,
Vienna, October 2002
9. Mugwindiri K., Madanhire I., Masiiwa T., (2013), Design of a Cleaner Production Framework for
Engineering Company: DrinkCo Beverages, International Journal of Science and Research
(IJSR), Vol- 2 1-17.
10. National Cleaner Production Centre Sri Lanka (http://www.ncpcsrilanka.org/)
11. Reddick J. F., Blottnitz V.H., Kothuis B., (2008), Cleaner Production In The South
African Coal Mining And Processing Industry: A Case Study Investigation,
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization, 28: 224–236.
12. Saravanabhavan S., Thanikaivelan P., Rao J.R., Ramasami T., (2006), Reversing the
Conventional Leather Processing Sequence for Cleaner Leather Production,
Environ. Sci. Technol. 40: 1069-1075.
13. Schaltegger S., Bennett M., Burritt R.L., Jasch C., (2008), Environmental
Managemnet Accounting For Cleaner Production, Eco-Efficiency In Industry And
Science, Vol- 24.
14. Swart M.M., Coetzee F., Blignaut J., (2008), Sustainable Development in the South
African Mining Industry: The Role of Cleaner Production and EMA, Vol-24 169-191.
15. Taizo Nishikawa, Ph.D., National Cleaner Production Centre Programme UNIDO,
Head of ITPO Tokyo
16. United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology Industry and Economy,
Applying Cleaner Production To Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Case
Studies and Success Stories, Session 10.
17. United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology Industry and Economy,
Applying Cleaner Production To Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Basics of
Cleaner Production, Session 2.
18. UNIDO /UNEP Guidance Manual: How to Establish and Operate Cleaner Production
Centres Understanding Cleaner Production Part 1.