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R.S Ranaganathan's Colon.pptx

  1. S.R. Ranganathan, the author of CC, was well aware that a scheme of classification should be able to meet the challenge of ever growing universe of knowledge and it should be able to accommodate, at an appropriate place, any new subject without disturbing the arrays already formed. Introduction :
  2. Genesi s: • Dr. S. R. Ranganathan become the Librarian of Madras University and soon deputed and got a chance to visit Britain to experience Library Practices in the year 1924. existing Librar y • Realization and Findings of the limitation in Classification Schemes. • Evolution of the Idea of Colon Classification(CC) • Making the Idea of CC into Invention.
  3. Genealogy of Colon Classification Edition Year 1 1933 2 1938 3 1950 4 1952 5 1957 6 1960 6(Revised ) 1963 7 1987 Rigidly Faceted Freely Faceted • Rigidly-Faceted Classification - that is, Classification with the Pre-determined Facets • Freely Faceted Classification - that is, Analytico-Synthetic Classification guided by Postulates and Principles.
  4. Edition 1: It has three Distinct part: 127 pages of rules explaining the underlying principles 135 pages of schedules and 106 pages Of index. Edition 2: Added a Part 4 which contained about 3000 examples , which were illustrative of the rules given in 1st part. A new main class 8 Spiritual experience and Mysticism came into exist. Edition 3: Different kinds of phase relation each with specific connecting symbol were introduced. Edition 4: The five fundamental categories along with the separate connecting symbols were used for facet analysis. Edition 5: A new schedules giving details for phase and Inter-facet relation was given as Chapter-7. Empty and emptying digits were introduced. Edition 6: A main class NZ Language and Literature was introduced. Greek letters representing some main classes were replaced by Roman Capitals. Edition 7: The present volume CC7 is comprised of 5 Parts Part. A Introduction Part. B Guidance to the Beginner Part. C General Rules Part. D General Division and Common Isolate Part E Special Isolate
  5. Structure of Colon Classification Mapping of (US) in CC Broad format: z,1,2,3,4 and 8 are in the base of the triangle. Ascension phase: • The MS falling between B and M are known as Natural sciences • The MS (D, F, J) are applied sciences. So, It has been placed near to Natural Sci. • The M holds all the residual applied sciences. The Peak: ∆ (spiritual experience and mysticism)It’s the climax point where ascending and descending phases meet. Descension Phase: The MS (N to Z) have been arranged according to decreasing naturalness and increasing artificiality.
  6. Basic Principles in CC “The CC, like- other schemes of classification, starts with a set of main classes which form the first order array, of classes. Each main class is divided into facets. All facets are regarded as manifestations of five fundamental categories.” • Postulates of Basic Facet • Planes of Work • Rounds and Levels • Postulates of Facet Sequence
  7. BPC L Permane nt staff D L A L T A L A Temporar y staff Traine e Worker s guard s Main classes: The main class in CC are like disciplines in DDC and theoretical subjects in UDC. They are the traditional subjects, like mathematics, physics, history, political science and so on. Array: “Asystematic arrangement of numbers or symbols in an orderly manner”. The numbers, in a classification refer to a division of a subject on the basis of a single characteristics. Example: In Medicine, the organs of the human body form the array of organs. Facet: A facet is a characteristics by which a class is divided/grouped. Each main class is divided into facets to signify the whole series of arrays based on, a set of related characteristics of division. Example: In main class Literature, all enumerated languages are the language facet of that class. And all literary forms (poetry, drama, fiction, etc.) constitute another facet. univers e mainclas s
  8. Fundamental Category Personalit y Matter Symbol [P] [M] Connecting Symbol , (Comma) ; (Semi colon) Energy [E] : (Colon) Space [S] . (dot) Time [t] ‘ (inverted comma) Fundamental categories (FC) : There are 5 FC, Personality [P], Matter [M], Energy [E], Space [S], and Time[T], PMEST for short. According to Ranganathan, in any given subject, there may be a maximum of 5 FC. There can be less, but in no case more than five. They also come in order of PMEST a/c to their decreasing concreteness. Again each FC is represented by a distinct symbol and connecting symbol representing it. These are:
  9. Time and Space: A century, a decade, a year, a month, a day, an hour Indicators of time Continent, country, city, village, etc. Indicators of space Example1: Economics conditions of India in the 19th century Example2: Economic condition during the reign of Akbar ( here FC time is concealed, but identifiable). Energy: Energy refers to some type of Action. Examples: In MS Medicine- diagnosis or treatment falls under energy facet. Similarly, In MS Agriculture- ploughing In MS Education- Teaching is energy.
  10. Matter: With a major change in the 7th ed., Matter is distinguished as Matter property [MP], Matter material [MMt], Matter Method [MM]. Matter property almost replaced the FC Energy. In MS Library sci.- classification, cataloguing and In MS Education- thinking, reasoning etc. are treated as manifestation of [MP] In MS Technology, Product, and in MS Biology substance are manifestation of [MMt] In MS Fine arts, under the class drawing, ink drawing, cartoon drawing are considered as manifestation of [MM] Personality: Recognize Personality by the method of residue, i.e., when it can not be any other FC, it is assigned to personality. Apart from this, its possible to identify a core concept in compound subject, such as- ‘Human Body’ in Medicine.
  11. 1. Postulates of Basic Facet: Once we determine the different Fundamental Categories, they are to be attached to a Basic class in the order of P M E S T.A basic Facet in the traditional meaning stands for Main classes or Basic class existed in CC. originally there were 30 Main classes, which rose to 47 in the 6th edition. Examples: Philosophy, psychology, chemistry, literature, history, etc.. 2. Planes of Work: Basic Principles in CC
  12. 3.Round and Levels The FC (P M E) may manifest themselves more than one in a subject in different round and levels. ROUND: [1P] Round 1 personality [2P] Round 2 personality [1M] Round 1 Matter [2M] Round 1 Matter [1E] End Round 1 [2E] End Round 2 LEVELS: [1P1] Round 1 level 1 personality facet [1M1] Round 1 level 1 matter facet [1P2] Round 1 level 2 personality facet [1M2] Round 1 level 2 matter facet [2P1] Round 2 level 1 personality facet [2M1] Round 2 level 1 matter facet  [S] and [T] manifest only in the last round but, may be in different levels of a subject: [S1] Level 1 space facet [T1] Level 1 Time facet [S2] Level 2 space facet [T2] Level 1 Time facet Basic Principles in CC
  13. Exampl e: Hamlet by Shakespeare Isolates are Literature English Drama Shakespeare Hamle t (Basic facet) [P1] [P2] [P3] [P4] (Literature) O 111 2 J64 1 Now the Sequence is: Basic facet [1P1] [1P2] [1P3] [1P4] 1st round 1 level 1st round 2nd level 1st round 3rd level Number is : O1112J64 1
  14. 4.Postulates of Facet Sequence 1. Postulate of First Facet In any Compound subject, the first facet should be the Basic facet. Means, there should be a Basic class or Main class even if it is not stated explicitly in the title of the document. Example: If we take Treatment of cancer as our subject, the Basic facet is not stated. But by implication, the facet in this case is Medicine Basic Principles in CC
  15. (Basic Facet) [E ] [T ] [S ] [P ] [M] Agricultur e Orang e Fungus Disease Preventio n Nagpu r The five fundamental Categories appears in the sequence of P M E S T Only. For Example: Prevention of Fungus Diseases in Oranges in Nagpur. 4.2 Postulate of Concreteness
  16. 4.3 Postulate of Facet Sequence Within a Round (Basic Facet) [E ] [P ] [M] Agricultur e Grape s Soi l Preparatio n In a Compound Subject, if any P,M and E occur in any round, they should be arranged in the order of P,M, E. For Example: Preparation of soil for growing grapes And the sequence of the facets will be: Agriculture (BF), Grapes [P], Soil [M], and Preparation [E].
  17. 4.4 Postulate of Facet Sequence Within the last Round (Basic Facet) [P] [M] [S] [T ] Psycholo gy Adult s Emotion s US A The 4th postulate states that in the last round of facets of a compound subject, in which each of the Fundamental categories other than Energy may occur, and occur only once, the sequence of facets should be P,M, S, T. For Example: A Study of Emotions of adults in 20th century,USA 20th Century In this, there is no manifestation of energy. Hence, the sequence should be: Psychology (BF), Adults [P], Emotions [M], USA [S], 20th Century [T].
  18. It states that different levels of the same fundamental category within a round should be kept together. Example: Succession rights of minors in Hindu law Law(BF) Hindu Law[1P1] Minor[1P2] succession [1P3] 4.5 Postulate of level cluster:
  19. Notation used in CC 1. Mixed Notation- Indicator Digits: It consists of 1) Indo-Arabic numerals, 1-9 2)Roman alphabet -both capitals and lower case, A to Z and a to z. 1.3) Parentheses ( } 1.4) Indicator digits 2. Empty Digit: To increase the capacity of an array, CC has introduced what is called an Empty digit. It has no semantic value, but it retains the ordinal value. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91, 92, 93 . . . . . .98 991, 992, 993 . . . . .998 and so on. 9 (empty digit) a b c d e f g h . . . . . . z A B C D E . . . . . .T U V X Z
  20. Digit/Symbol Name of the indicator digit Role of the indicator digit * Asterisk indicates agglomeration and Interpolation ← Backward arrow indicates backward range " Double inverted comma indicates common isolates & Ampersand indicates phase relation ‘ Single inverted comma indicates time facet . Dot indicates space facet : Colon indicates energy facet ; Semi-colon indicates matter facet , Comma indicates personality facet - Hyphen indicates spectator of kind 1 = Equal sign indicates speciator of kind 2 + Plus sign and, addition → Forward arrow indicates forward range The Indicator digits used in the 7th ed. Of CC
  21. Devices The purpose of a device is to form a new isolate or to sharpen an existing isolate in an array. This method has considerably reduced the size of the scheme. The 4 major devices used in CC are: 1) Chronological device 2) Geographical device 3) Subject device 4) Alphabetical device
  22. 1) Chronologicaldevice Used in Library science, mathematics, medicine, fine arts, psychology, education, economics, etc. Mechanism: employing a chronological number from schedule of time isolates All numbers of authors in (MS) Literature derived through this device. Example: The number for Rabindranath Tagore is O, 157, 1M61’ 1861( Yr. of birth)
  23. 2) Geographicaldevice Mechanism: employing a geographical number from schedule of space isolates Example: The formation of an isolate using this device is as follows: 152= d4437 means Rajasthani Hindi, where 152 is Hindi = is the connecting symbol d is the symbol for dialect 4437 is Rajasthan from the schedule of space isolates
  24. 3) Subjectdevice Mechanism: To form a facet by adding to it (facet) another class number elsewhere in the scheme. Part of the No. derived by the subject device should be enclosed in parenthesis i.e., (). Example1: Medical college library is 2, J3 (L) where, 2, J3 is ‘college libraries’ from MS Library sci. & L is added from MS Medicine Example2: Hindu law is Z, (Q,2) where, Z is Law and (Q,2) is Hindu religion from MS Q Religion
  25. 4) Alphabeticaldevice Mechanism: Taking the 1st or the 1st two or three letters of the names of persons, or objects, or products widely accepted as such. Examples: O, 157, 3M61, G Gora, a novel by Rabindranath Tagore D93C M Maruti motor car. D93C is for motor cars and M stands for Maruti.
  26. PhaseRelations S1 interact with S2 or S1 interact with S2 or more Interdisciplinary subject A phase relation may occur between 2 or more main classes; within 1 and the same facet of a main class; or within one and the same array isolates. inter-subject Phase relation intra-facet Phase relation intra-array Phase relation
  27. Besides, there are 6 kinds of phase relations indicated in CC. Connecting symbols composed of ‘&’ and a relation indicator as shown in the below table: Kind of phase relation Inter-subject Intra-facet Intra-array General a j t Bias b k u Comparison c m v Difference d n w Tool e p x Influencing g Examples to show the diff. kinds of phase relation:  A general study of special and university libraries- type: intra-facet, Kind: general, No. 2,14&jK  Psychology for teachers- Type: inter-subject, Kind: Bias, No. S&bT  Comparison of Jainism and Buddhism- Type: intra-facet, Kind” comparison, No. 61,3&m4  Difference between UG and PG education- Type: intra-array, Kind: difference, No. T, 181&w2
  28. Merits and demerits of colon classification Merits: i) provision of a helpful order in each class ii) facility in locating a given topic whether it is simple, compound or complex. Demerits: i. There exists no machinery to keep up the revision work as in the case of DDC and UDC. ii. The guidance provided in the recently published 7th ed. is not enough and lacks clarity at places.
  29. Practical work in CC Transplanting rice seedlings in India in the monsoon Agricultur e Rice Seedling Transplantin g India Monsoon - J(main class BS/BF) - Plant [1PI] - 381 - Organ [IP2] - 91 - Action or energy [E] - D - Space [S] - 44 - Time [T] - v The number is, therefore J,381,91:D.44 `v Treatment for headaches Medicine - Head - Disease - Ache - Treatment - L(BS/BF0 Organ[1P1] Property[MP]-4 Pain(part of the disease)- 17 Action[E]-6 Hence, the final 'number is L,18; 417:6 Literatur e Languag e Form Author Wor k William Shakespeare : Merchant of Venice - O(BS/BF) - English'[IP1] - III (from the language schedule) - Drama [1P2] - 2 - Shakespeare, 1564 [1P3] - J64 (chronological device) - Merchant of Venice [1P4] - M+V (alphabetical device) The final number is, therefore 0,111,2J64, M+V 67