PREAMBLE OF INDIA
Preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets
out the guiding purpose and principles of the document, and it indicates the
source from which the document derives its authority, meaning, the people.
The hopes and aspirations of the people as well as the ideals before our nation are
described in the preamble in clear words.
It may be considered as the soul of Constitution. The preamble can be referred to
as the preface which highlights the entire Constitution.
It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into
effect on 26th January, 1950.
PREAMBLE OF INDIA
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved
to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST,
SECULAR ,DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to
all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought , expression, belief, faith and
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to
promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual
and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth
day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT
AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. ”
The enacting words, "We, the people of India ...in our constituent assembly ...do
here by adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution", signify the democratic
principle that power is ultimately rested in the hands of the people.
It also emphasizes that the constitution is made by and for the Indian people and
not given to them by any outside power (such as the British Parliament).
The phrase "we the people" emphasizes the concept of popular sovereignty as laid
down by J. J. Rousseau: All the power emanates from the people and the political
system will be accountable and responsible to the people.
It means free from the control of any foreign power and internally has a free
government which is directly elected by the people and makes laws that govern
the people. She allies in peace and war.
Citizen of India also enjoy sovereign power to elect their representatives through
elections held for the parliament, state legislature and local bodies as well. People
have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No
external power can dictate the government of India.
India’s membership of the commonwealth or of the United Nations does not
impose any external limit on her sovereignty. The Commonwealth is a free
association of sovereign Nations. The sovereignty empowers India to
either acquire a foreign territory or cede a part of its territory in favor of a
Before the term was added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the Constitution had
a socialist content in the form of certain Directive Principles of State Policy.
Achievement of socialistic goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-
A mixed economy in which both Public sector and Private sector run together as
two wheels of economic development.
By the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the term "Secular" was also incorporated in the
Preamble. Secularism is the basic structure of the Indian constitution.
The Government respects all religions. It does not uplift or degrade any particular
religion. There is no such thing as a state religion for India.
In S.R. Bommai vs UOI (1994) "A state which does not recognize any religion as the
state religion, it treats all religions equally".
Indian secularism guarantees equal freedom to all religion. It stands for the right to
freedom of religion for all citizens.
The first part of the preamble “We, the people of India” and, its last part “give to
ourselves this Constitution” clearly indicate the democratic spirit involved even in
the Constitution. India is a democracy.
The people of India elect their governments at all levels (Union, State and local)
by a system of universal adult franchise; popularly known as "one man one vote".
Every citizen of India, 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by
law, is entitled to vote.
Every citizen enjoys this right without any discrimination on the basis of caste,
creed, color, gender, religious intolerance or education. The word 'democratic' not
only refer to political but also to social & economic democracy.
In a republic form of government, the head of the state is an elected person and
not a heredity monarch . This word denotes a government where no one holds a
public power as proprietary right .
As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on hereditary
basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne.
A democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or
indirectly, for a fixed tenure.
The President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years.
The post of the President of India is not hereditary. Every citizen of India is eligible
to become the President of the country.
The leader of the state is elected by the people.
The ideal of justice implies a system where individuals can realize their full
Political and legal justice is a myth unless accompanied by social and economic
Social justice implies that all social discriminations like caste or untouchability must
Economic justice implies that economic exploitations should be ended. However,
social and economic justice still remains unrealized dreams.
The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian nationals.
This establishes that there are no unreasonable restrictions on Indian citizens in
term of what they think, their manner of expressions and the way they wish to
follow up their thoughts in action.
This is found to be an important tool in ensuring democratic framework. However,
liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the
This envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and
individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination.
All are equal in front of law.
Equality - Political, Economic & Civic.
This refers to a feeling of brotherhood & a sense of belonging with the country
among its people.
It embraces psychological as well as territorial dimensions of National Integration.
It leaves no room for region, community, caste etc. which hinders the Unity of the
The inclusion of the word "Fraternity" is proposed by Dr. B.R Ambedkar.
In Berubari Case (1960), Supreme Court had held that Preamble cannot be a part of
the constitution but later in Kesavanada Bharati VS Kerala state Case (1973), the
Supreme Court gave a comprehensive verdict.
It said that Preamble is Part of Constitution and is subject to the amending power
of the parliament as any other provisions of the Constitution, provided the basic
structure of the constitution is not destroyed.
It has been clarified by the Supreme Court of India that being a part of
Constitution, the Preamble can be subjected to Constitutional Amendments
exercised under article 368, however, the basic structure cannot be altered.
42 nd AMENDMENT
The preamble has been amended only once so far.
On 18 December 1976, during the Emergency in India, the Indira
Gandhi government pushed through several changes in the Forty-second
Amendment of the constitution.
A committee under the chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh recommended that
this amendment be enacted after being constituted to study the question of
amending the constitution in the light of past experience.
Through this amendment the words "socialist" and "secular" were added
between the words "Sovereign" and "democratic" and the words "unity of the
Nation" were changed to "unity and integrity of the Nation".