HIGH RISE STRUCTURES
MOHD. SAMEER MALIK
SATYA PRIYA PANDEY
TUSHAR ANIL BHOITE
INTRODUCTION TO HIGH RISE BUILDING
"A MULTI-STORY STRUCTURE BETWEEN 35–100 METERS TALL, OR A
BUILDING OF UNKNOWN HEIGHT FROM 12–39 FLOORS.“
Buildings higher than 100m is termed as skyscraper.
Buildings 300m or higher is termed as super tall and buildings 600m or
taller is termed as mega-tall.
DEMANDS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDING
•SCARCITY OF LAND IN URBAN AREAS.
•INCREASING DEMANDS OF RESIDENTIAL AND BUSSSINESS SPACE.
•INNOVATIONS IN STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS.
•DESIRE FOR AESTHETICS IN URBAN SETTINGS.
•CONCEPT OF CITY SKYLINE.
•CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PRESTIGE.
•HUMAN ASPIRATION TO BUILD HIGHER.
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH RISE BUILLDINGS
The exterior walls of these buildings
consisted of stone or brick, although
sometimes cast iron was added for
The columns were constructed of
cast iron, often unprotected.
• Steel and wrought iron was used for
• the beams.
• The floors were made of wood.
•The second generation of tall buildings, includes the :
1. Metropolitan Life Building (1909),
2. The Woolworth Building (1913),
3. The Empire State Building (1931).
•These all are frame structures, in which a skeleton of welded- or riveted-steel
columns and beams.
•These all are often encased in concrete, runs through the entire building.
•This type of construction makes for an extremely strong structure, but not such
attractive floor space. The interiors are full of heavy, load-bearing columns and walls.
Buildings constructed from after World War II
until today make up the most recent generation
of high-rise buildings.
Within this generation there are those of
steel-framed construction( core construction
and tube construction ), reinforced concrete
construction(shear wall), and steel-framed
reinforced concrete construction .
Hybrid systems also evolved during this time.
These systems make use more than one type
of structural system in a building.
30 St Mary Axe, also known as Swiss
Re Building (London, UK, 41
stories, 181 m)
Material /Configuration :
• Steel framed tube type
• Triangular steel frame
generates the tube
• Beams are supported by
diagonal steel member
• Requires less steel then
conventional steel frame
Triangular grids are exposed in façade
Triangular steel frame
• A type of rigid frame construction.
• The shear wall is in steel or concrete to provide
greater lateral rigidity. It is a wall where the entire
material of the wall is employed in the resistance of
both horizontal and vertical loads.
• Is composed of braced panels (or shear panels) to
effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind &
earthquake loads are the most common among
• For skyscrapers, as the size of the structure
does the size of the supporting wall. Shear walls
tend to be used only
in conjunction with other support systems.
SHEAR WALL SYSTEM
• Buildings undergoes
• Building is subjected
to inertia forces that
act in opposite
direction to the
• These inertia forces,
called seismic loads,
are usually dealt with
by assuming forces
external to the
CONCRETE:- cellular concrete of clay-gypsum and
invention of light weight concrete.
FERRO CONCRETE:-it is layer of fine mesh saturated
GUNITE:- it is also known as shot .
Shot Crete is frequently used against vertical soil or
rock surfaces, as it eliminates the need for formwork.
GLASS:- float glass with double glass is used in tall
Tempered glass is used in tall buildings instead of
plain glass, as that would shatter at such height.
Materials used for high rise buildings: concrete, steel, glass, cladding material,
high alumina cement used for roofs & floors. It contains bauxite instead of clay,
cement, Portland cement of lime stone, silica.
Easy in casting
Can be cast in situ
Cost of form
Difficulty in pouring
• Raft foundation: one of the most common foundation. It is known for its load
distributing capability. With the usage of this type of foundation the enormous load
of the building gets distributed & helps the building stay upright and sturdy. Loads
are transferred by raft into the ground.
• Pile foundation: used for high rise construction. load
of building is distributed to the ground with the help
of piles. Transfer the loads into the ground with an
Adequate factor of safety.
• Combined raft-pile: is the hybrid of 2 foundation. It
Consists of both the pile and raft foundation. Useful
in marshy sandy soil that has low bearing capacity.
LOAD DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM :
All type of loads can be considered
•Vertical load &
Vertical loads transfer
Lateral loads transfer through_
• Shear wall
• Slab Core
• Beam Core/Column
• Diagonal Frame
Beam is a rigid structural member designed to
carry and transfer loads across spaces to
A rigid relativity slender structural member
designed primarily to support axial
compressive loads applied at the member
In high rise buildings it can be use as mega
column, concrete filled tubular(CFT) etc.
A vertical diaphragm or wall acting as a
thin, deep cantilever beam in loads to the
It is a structural element for positioning,
supporting, strengthening or restraining
the member of a structural frame.
Core is one of the most important structural and
functional elements of the high rise building.
The core of a building is the area reserved for elevators’
stairs, mechanical equipment and the vertical shafts that
are necessary for ducts, pipes and wires.
Its wall are also the most common location for the vertical
The placement of the service core stems from four generic
types which are :
- Central core
- Split core
- End core
- Atrium core
Central core End core Atrium coresplit core
1. Rigid Frames:
860 & 880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Chicago,
USA, 26 stories, 82 m)
• The moment-resisting frame
(MRF) consists of horizontal
(girder) and vertical (column)
members rigidly connected
together in a planar grid form.
• The size of the columns is mainly
controlled by the gravity loads.
• The size of the girders, on the
other hand, is controlled by
stiffness of the frame in order to
ensure acceptable lateral sway of
The two basic types of lateral load-
resisting systems in the category of
interior structures are the
moment-resisting frames and
shear trusses/shear walls.
SHEAR WALL HINGED FRAME
• Reinforced concrete planar solid or
coupled shear walls have been used for
high-rise construction to resist lateral forces
caused by wind and earthquakes.
• Treated as vertical cantilevers fixed at
• When two or more shear walls in the same
plane are interconnected by beams or
slabs the total stiffness of the system
exceeds the sum of the individual wall
stiffness. Hinged frames are used for this
• The connecting beam forces the walls to act
as a single unit by restraining their
individual cantilever actions. These are
known as coupled shear walls.
1. Tube system
• Concept is based on the idea that a
building can be designed to resist
lateral loads by designing it as a
hollow cantilever perpendicular to
• In the simplest incarnation of the
tube, the perimeter of the exterior
consists of closely spaced
columns that are tied together
with deep spandrel beams
through moment connections.
• This assembly of columns and
beams forms a rigid frame that
amounts to a dense and strong
structural wall along the exterior
of the building.
The different tubular systems are-
Tube in tube
• In a framed tube system, which is the basic tubular form, the building has closely spaced
columns and deep spandrel beams rigidly connected together throughout the exterior
• Exterior column spacing should be from 5 to 15ft (1.5 to 4.5m) on centers. Practical spandrel
beam depths should vary from 24 to 48in (600 to 1200mm)
• The axial forces in the corner columns are the greatest and the distribution is non-linear for both
the web frame (i.e., frame parallel to wind), and the flange frame (i.e., frame perpendicular to
• This is because the axial forces in the columns toward the middle of the
flange frames lag behind those near the corner due to the nature of a framed
tube which is different from a solid-wall tube. This phenomenon is known as
• The purpose is to limit the shear lag effect and aim for more cantilever-
type behavior of the structure.
• A reasonable and practical limits can be a cantilever deflection of 50 to 80
percent of the total lateral sway of the building.
The framed tube becomes progressively inefficient over 60 stories since the
web frames begin to behave as conventional rigid frames. Consequently,
beam and column designs are controlled by bending action, resulting in
large size. In addition, the cantilever behavior of the structure is thus
undermined and the shear lag effect is aggravated.
• A braced tube overcomes this problem by stiffening the perimeter
frames in their own planes.
• This concept stems from the fact that instead of using closely spaced
perimeter columns, it is possible to stiffen the widely spaced columns
by diagonal braces to create wall-like characteristics.
• The braces also collect gravity loads from floors and act as inclined
• The diagonals of a trussed tube connected to columns at each joint
effectively eliminate the effects of shear lag throughout the tubular
• Therefore, the columns can be more widely spaced and the sizes of
spandrels and columns can be smaller than those needed for framed
tubes, allowing for larger window openings than in the framed tubes
John Hancock Center (Chicago, USA, 100 stories
Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril
Braced Frame material
/configuration : STEEL
Onterie Center (Chicago, 58 stories,
Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril
Braced Frame material
/configuration : CONCRETE
• A bundled tube is a cluster of
individual tubes connected
together to act as a single unit.
• For such a structure, the three-
dimensional response of the
structure could be improved for
strength and stiffness by providing
cross walls or cross frames in the
• Also allowed for wider column
spacing in the tubular walls, which
made it possible to place interior
frame lines without seriously
compromising interior space
planning of the building.
• It is possible to add diagonals to
them to increase the efficient
Sears Tower (Chicago, USA, 108 stories, 442 m)
Material /Configuration : STEEL
Section A-A Section B-B
• 9 steel framed tubes are bundled
at the base.
• Some of which are terminated at
various levels with two tubes
continuing between the 90th
floor and the roof.
Carnegie Hall Tower (New York, USA, 62 stories, 230.7 m)
Material /Configuration : CONCRETE
TUBE IN TUBE
• The stiffness of a framed tube can also be
enhanced by using the core to resist part
of the lateral load resulting in a tube-in-
• The floor diaphragm connecting the
core and the outer tube transfer the
lateral loads to both systems.
• The core itself could be made up of a solid
tube, a braced tube, or a framed tube.
Such a system is called a tube-in-tube.
• It is also possible to introduce more than
one tube inside the perimeter tube.
• The inner tube in a tube-in-tube structure
can act as a second line of defense against
a malevolent attack with airplanes or
Architect: Norman Foster
• The exterior columns & beams are spaced
so closely that the façade has the
appearance of a wall with perforated
• The entire building acts as a hollow tube
cantilevering out of the ground.
• The interior core increases the stiffness of
the building by sharing the loads with
the façade tube.
2. DIAGRID SYSTEM
• With their structural efficiency as a varied version of the tubular
• For diagrid structures, almost all the conventional vertical columns are
• This is possible because the diagonal members in diagrid structural
systems can carry gravity loads as well as lateral forces due to their
triangulated configuration in a distributive and uniform manner.
• Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in the diagonal members
but have Complicated joints.
Space truss structures are modified
braced tubes with diagonals
connecting the exterior to interior.
In a typical braced tube structure, all
the diagonals, which connect
vertical corner columns in general,
are located on the plane parallel to
However, in space trusses, some
diagonals penetrate the
interior of the building.
3. SPACE TRUSS STRUCTURE
• A super frame is composed of mega columns comprising braced
frames of large dimensions at building corners, linked by
multistory trusses at about every 15 to 20 stories.
• The concept of super frame can be used in various ways for tall buildings,
such as the 56-story tall Parque Central Complex Towers of 1979 in
Caracas, Venezuela and the 168-story tall Chicago World Trade Center
proposed by Fazlur Khan in 1982 (Ali, 2001; Iyengar, 1986).
• In exoskeleton structures, lateral load-resisting systems are placed
outside the building lines away from their facades. Examples include
Hotel de las Artes in Barcelona.
• Due to the system’s compositional characteristics, it acts as a primary
building identifier – one of the major roles of building facades in
• Fire proofing of the system is not a serious issue due to its location
outside the building line.
• However, thermal expansion/contraction of the system, exposed to the
ever-changing outdoor weather, and the systemic thermal bridges
should be carefully considered during design.
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