O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Design highrise

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 47 Anúncio
Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Semelhante a Design highrise (20)

Anúncio

Mais recentes (20)

Design highrise

  1. 1. HIGH RISE STRUCTURES MOHD. SAMEER MALIK SATYA PRIYA PANDEY SOMYAA JAIN SONAL JAIN TUSHAR ANIL BHOITE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO HIGH RISE BUILDING "A MULTI-STORY STRUCTURE BETWEEN 35–100 METERS TALL, OR A BUILDING OF UNKNOWN HEIGHT FROM 12–39 FLOORS.“ Buildings higher than 100m is termed as skyscraper. Buildings 300m or higher is termed as super tall and buildings 600m or taller is termed as mega-tall.
  3. 3. DEMANDS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDING •SCARCITY OF LAND IN URBAN AREAS. •INCREASING DEMANDS OF RESIDENTIAL AND BUSSSINESS SPACE. •ECONOMIC GROWTH. •TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS. •INNOVATIONS IN STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS. •DESIRE FOR AESTHETICS IN URBAN SETTINGS. •CONCEPT OF CITY SKYLINE. •CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PRESTIGE. •HUMAN ASPIRATION TO BUILD HIGHER.
  4. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH RISE BUILLDINGS EARLY TIME The exterior walls of these buildings consisted of stone or brick, although sometimes cast iron was added for decorative purposes. The columns were constructed of cast iron, often unprotected. • Steel and wrought iron was used for • the beams. • The floors were made of wood.
  5. 5. SECOND GENERATION •The second generation of tall buildings, includes the : 1. Metropolitan Life Building (1909), 2. The Woolworth Building (1913), 3. The Empire State Building (1931). •These all are frame structures, in which a skeleton of welded- or riveted-steel columns and beams. •These all are often encased in concrete, runs through the entire building. •This type of construction makes for an extremely strong structure, but not such attractive floor space. The interiors are full of heavy, load-bearing columns and walls.
  6. 6. WORLD TRADE CENTRE CONSTRUCTION
  7. 7. Buildings constructed from after World War II until today make up the most recent generation of high-rise buildings. Within this generation there are those of steel-framed construction( core construction and tube construction ), reinforced concrete construction(shear wall), and steel-framed reinforced concrete construction . Hybrid systems also evolved during this time. These systems make use more than one type of structural system in a building. THIRD GENERATION
  8. 8. 30 St Mary Axe, also known as Swiss Re Building (London, UK, 41 stories, 181 m) Material /Configuration : STEEL • Steel framed tube type structural system • Triangular steel frame generates the tube • Beams are supported by diagonal steel member • Requires less steel then conventional steel frame Triangular grids are exposed in façade Triangular steel frame
  9. 9. SHEAR FRAME STRUCTURE
  10. 10. • A type of rigid frame construction. • The shear wall is in steel or concrete to provide greater lateral rigidity. It is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads. • Is composed of braced panels (or shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind & earthquake loads are the most common among the loads. • For skyscrapers, as the size of the structure increases, so does the size of the supporting wall. Shear walls tend to be used only in conjunction with other support systems. SHEAR WALL SYSTEM
  11. 11. BRACED FRAME STRUCTURES
  12. 12. OUTRIGGER BRACED SYSTEM
  13. 13. CORE STRUCTURE SYSTEM
  14. 14. HIGH-EFFICIENCY MEGA BRACED STRUCTURE
  15. 15. STRUCTURAL LOAD ON A HIGH RISE BUILDING.
  16. 16. • Gravity loads – Dead loads – Live loads – Snow loads • Lateral loads – Wind loads – Seismic loads • Special load cases – Impact loads – Blast loads
  17. 17. Seismic Load: • Buildings undergoes dynamic motion during earthquake. • Building is subjected to inertia forces that act in opposite direction to the acceleration of earthquake excitations. • These inertia forces, called seismic loads, are usually dealt with by assuming forces external to the building.
  18. 18. CONCRETE:- cellular concrete of clay-gypsum and invention of light weight concrete. FERRO CONCRETE:-it is layer of fine mesh saturated with cement. GUNITE:- it is also known as shot . Shot Crete is frequently used against vertical soil or rock surfaces, as it eliminates the need for formwork. GLASS:- float glass with double glass is used in tall buildings . Tempered glass is used in tall buildings instead of plain glass, as that would shatter at such height. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Materials used for high rise buildings: concrete, steel, glass, cladding material, high alumina cement used for roofs & floors. It contains bauxite instead of clay, cement, Portland cement of lime stone, silica.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES  Plasticity  Easily availability  Easy in casting  Non corrosive  Can be cast in situ DISADVANTAGES  Cost of form  Dead weight  Difficulty in pouring
  20. 20. • Raft foundation: one of the most common foundation. It is known for its load distributing capability. With the usage of this type of foundation the enormous load of the building gets distributed & helps the building stay upright and sturdy. Loads are transferred by raft into the ground. • Pile foundation: used for high rise construction. load of building is distributed to the ground with the help of piles. Transfer the loads into the ground with an Adequate factor of safety. • Combined raft-pile: is the hybrid of 2 foundation. It Consists of both the pile and raft foundation. Useful in marshy sandy soil that has low bearing capacity. FOUNDATION TYPES
  21. 21. FOUNDATIONS
  22. 22. FOUNDATION DIAGRAM FOR RESISTING SEISMIC LOAD
  23. 23. LOAD DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM : All type of loads can be considered as_ •Vertical load & •Lateral load Vertical loads transfer through_ •Bearing wall •Column •Core •Diagonal frame Lateral loads transfer through_ • Shear wall • Slab Core • Beam Core/Column • Diagonal Frame
  24. 24. Structural member: Beam : Beam is a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer loads across spaces to supporting elements. Column : A rigid relativity slender structural member designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the member ends. In high rise buildings it can be use as mega column, concrete filled tubular(CFT) etc. Shear wall: A vertical diaphragm or wall acting as a thin, deep cantilever beam in loads to the ground foundation. Bracing : It is a structural element for positioning, supporting, strengthening or restraining the member of a structural frame.
  25. 25. Core : Core is one of the most important structural and functional elements of the high rise building. The core of a building is the area reserved for elevators’ stairs, mechanical equipment and the vertical shafts that are necessary for ducts, pipes and wires. Its wall are also the most common location for the vertical wind bracing. The placement of the service core stems from four generic types which are : - Central core - Split core - End core - Atrium core Central core End core Atrium coresplit core
  26. 26. INTERIOR STRUCTURE 1. Rigid Frames: 860 & 880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Chicago, USA, 26 stories, 82 m) • The moment-resisting frame (MRF) consists of horizontal (girder) and vertical (column) members rigidly connected together in a planar grid form. • The size of the columns is mainly controlled by the gravity loads. • The size of the girders, on the other hand, is controlled by stiffness of the frame in order to ensure acceptable lateral sway of the building. The two basic types of lateral load- resisting systems in the category of interior structures are the moment-resisting frames and shear trusses/shear walls.
  27. 27. SHEAR WALL HINGED FRAME • Reinforced concrete planar solid or coupled shear walls have been used for high-rise construction to resist lateral forces caused by wind and earthquakes. • Treated as vertical cantilevers fixed at the base. • When two or more shear walls in the same plane are interconnected by beams or slabs the total stiffness of the system exceeds the sum of the individual wall stiffness. Hinged frames are used for this interconnection. • The connecting beam forces the walls to act as a single unit by restraining their individual cantilever actions. These are known as coupled shear walls.
  28. 28. EXTERIOR STRUCTURE 1. Tube system • Concept is based on the idea that a building can be designed to resist lateral loads by designing it as a hollow cantilever perpendicular to the ground. • In the simplest incarnation of the tube, the perimeter of the exterior consists of closely spaced columns that are tied together with deep spandrel beams through moment connections. • This assembly of columns and beams forms a rigid frame that amounts to a dense and strong structural wall along the exterior of the building. The different tubular systems are-  Framed tube  Braced tube  Bundled tube  Tube in tube
  29. 29.  FRAMED TUBE • In a framed tube system, which is the basic tubular form, the building has closely spaced columns and deep spandrel beams rigidly connected together throughout the exterior frames. • Exterior column spacing should be from 5 to 15ft (1.5 to 4.5m) on centers. Practical spandrel beam depths should vary from 24 to 48in (600 to 1200mm) • The axial forces in the corner columns are the greatest and the distribution is non-linear for both the web frame (i.e., frame parallel to wind), and the flange frame (i.e., frame perpendicular to wind).
  30. 30. • This is because the axial forces in the columns toward the middle of the flange frames lag behind those near the corner due to the nature of a framed tube which is different from a solid-wall tube. This phenomenon is known as shear lag.
  31. 31. • The purpose is to limit the shear lag effect and aim for more cantilever- type behavior of the structure. • A reasonable and practical limits can be a cantilever deflection of 50 to 80 percent of the total lateral sway of the building. The framed tube becomes progressively inefficient over 60 stories since the web frames begin to behave as conventional rigid frames. Consequently, beam and column designs are controlled by bending action, resulting in large size. In addition, the cantilever behavior of the structure is thus undermined and the shear lag effect is aggravated.
  32. 32.  BRACED TUBE • A braced tube overcomes this problem by stiffening the perimeter frames in their own planes. • This concept stems from the fact that instead of using closely spaced perimeter columns, it is possible to stiffen the widely spaced columns by diagonal braces to create wall-like characteristics. • The braces also collect gravity loads from floors and act as inclined columns. • The diagonals of a trussed tube connected to columns at each joint effectively eliminate the effects of shear lag throughout the tubular framework. • Therefore, the columns can be more widely spaced and the sizes of spandrels and columns can be smaller than those needed for framed tubes, allowing for larger window openings than in the framed tubes (Khan, 1967).
  33. 33. John Hancock Center (Chicago, USA, 100 stories 344 m) Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril Braced frame Braced Frame material /configuration : STEEL
  34. 34. Onterie Center (Chicago, 58 stories, 174 m) Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril Braced frame Braced Frame material /configuration : CONCRETE
  35. 35.  BUNDLED TUBE • A bundled tube is a cluster of individual tubes connected together to act as a single unit. • For such a structure, the three- dimensional response of the structure could be improved for strength and stiffness by providing cross walls or cross frames in the building. • Also allowed for wider column spacing in the tubular walls, which made it possible to place interior frame lines without seriously compromising interior space planning of the building. • It is possible to add diagonals to them to increase the efficient height limit.
  36. 36. Sears Tower (Chicago, USA, 108 stories, 442 m) Material /Configuration : STEEL Section A-A Section B-B Section C-C Two additional tube omitted Section D-D • 9 steel framed tubes are bundled at the base. • Some of which are terminated at various levels with two tubes continuing between the 90th floor and the roof.
  37. 37. Carnegie Hall Tower (New York, USA, 62 stories, 230.7 m) Material /Configuration : CONCRETE Bundle Tubes
  38. 38.  TUBE IN TUBE • The stiffness of a framed tube can also be enhanced by using the core to resist part of the lateral load resulting in a tube-in- tube system. • The floor diaphragm connecting the core and the outer tube transfer the lateral loads to both systems. • The core itself could be made up of a solid tube, a braced tube, or a framed tube. Such a system is called a tube-in-tube. • It is also possible to introduce more than one tube inside the perimeter tube. • The inner tube in a tube-in-tube structure can act as a second line of defense against a malevolent attack with airplanes or missiles.
  39. 39. Millennium Tower Architect: Norman Foster • The exterior columns & beams are spaced so closely that the façade has the appearance of a wall with perforated window opening. • The entire building acts as a hollow tube cantilevering out of the ground. • The interior core increases the stiffness of the building by sharing the loads with the façade tube. Inner Tube (Core) Outer Tube
  40. 40. 2. DIAGRID SYSTEM • With their structural efficiency as a varied version of the tubular systems. • For diagrid structures, almost all the conventional vertical columns are eliminated. • This is possible because the diagonal members in diagrid structural systems can carry gravity loads as well as lateral forces due to their triangulated configuration in a distributive and uniform manner. • Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in the diagonal members but have Complicated joints.
  41. 41.  Space truss structures are modified braced tubes with diagonals connecting the exterior to interior.  In a typical braced tube structure, all the diagonals, which connect vertical corner columns in general, are located on the plane parallel to the facades.  However, in space trusses, some diagonals penetrate the interior of the building. 3. SPACE TRUSS STRUCTURE
  42. 42. 4. SUPERFRAMES • A super frame is composed of mega columns comprising braced frames of large dimensions at building corners, linked by multistory trusses at about every 15 to 20 stories. • The concept of super frame can be used in various ways for tall buildings, such as the 56-story tall Parque Central Complex Towers of 1979 in Caracas, Venezuela and the 168-story tall Chicago World Trade Center proposed by Fazlur Khan in 1982 (Ali, 2001; Iyengar, 1986). Parque Central Complex Towers Chicago World Trade Center
  43. 43. 5. EXO-SKELETON • In exoskeleton structures, lateral load-resisting systems are placed outside the building lines away from their facades. Examples include Hotel de las Artes in Barcelona. • Due to the system’s compositional characteristics, it acts as a primary building identifier – one of the major roles of building facades in general cases. • Fire proofing of the system is not a serious issue due to its location outside the building line. • However, thermal expansion/contraction of the system, exposed to the ever-changing outdoor weather, and the systemic thermal bridges should be carefully considered during design.

×