Intelligence : “The capacity to learn and solve problems.”
Artificial Intelligence : Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the simulation
human intelligence by machines.
1) The ability to solve problems.
2) The ability to act rationally.
3) The ability to act like humans.
The central principles of Al include :
1) Reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning and communication.
2) Perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
3) It is the science and engineering of making
intelligent machines, especially intelligent
Computers with the ability to mimic or duplicate the functions of
the human brain.
Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines and the
branch of computer science which aims to create it.
"The branch of computer science that is concerned with the
automation of intelligent behaviour" (Luger and Stubblefield.
A medical clinic can use AI systems
to organize bed schedules, make a
staff rotation and provide medical
AI has also application in fields of cardiology
(CRG), neurology (MRI), embryology (sonography),
complex operations of internal organs, etc
It also has an application in Image guided surgery
and image analysis and enhancement.
Scientists are trying to make the
computer emulate the activities
of the skillful musician.
Composition, performance, music
theory, sound processing are some
of the major areas on which research
in music and AI are focusing on.
Eg : chucks, smartmusic, etc.
Many telecommunications companies
make use of heuristic search in the
management of their workforces.
For example BT Group has deployed
heuristic search in a scheduling
application that provides the work
schedules of 20000 engineers.
A ROBOT is a mechanical or virtual
artificial agent, usually an electro
mechanical machine that is guided
by a computer program or electronic
Robots can be autonomous or
A robot may convey a sense of
intelligence or thoughts of its own.
In the earlier days gaming technology
was not broadened.
Physicist Willy Higinbotham created the
the first video game in 1958.
It was called “Tennis For Tow” and was
But, now AI technology has become vast
and standard has also been increased.
For Eg : Sudoku, Fear, Fallout, etc
Organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage
In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated
financial trading competition.
Some other applications include loan investigation,
ATM design, safe and fast banking, etc.
Information management and retrieval
AI and expert systems embedded in products
Help desk and assistance
Employee performance evaluation
In space workstation maintainance
More powerful and more
New and improved interfaces.
Solving new problems.
Better handling of
Conversion of information
Difficulty with software
development - slow and
Few practical products have
reached the market as yet.
Looking at the features and its wide application we may definitely stick to
artificial intelligence. Seeing at the development of Al is it that the future
world is becoming artificial.
Biological intelligence is fixed, because it is an old, mature paradigm but
the new paradigm of non-biological computation and intelligence is
The memory capacity of the human brain is probably of the order often
thousand million binary digits. But most of this is probably used in
remembering visual impressions, and other comparatively wasteful ways.
Hence we can say that as natural intelligence is limited and volatile too
world may now depend upon computers for smooth working.
Sophia is a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong based
company Hanson Robotics.
Sophia was activated on April 19,2015.
She made her first public appearance at South by Southwest Festival in
mid-March 2016 in United States.
In October 2017 Sophia became a Saudi Arabian citizen, the first robot
to receive citizenship in any country.
Since Al is applicable in almost all fields,
they become the needs of our life. It is the reason behind the explosive growth
The growth can be divided into two parts based on the
application area and what purpose they serve, they are as
Growth in positive sense (useful to society)
Growth in negative sense (harmful to society)
Till now we have discussed in brief about Artificial Intelligence.
We have discussed some of its principles, its applications, its
The ultimate goal of institutions and scientists working on Al is to
solve majority of the problems or to achieve the tasks which we
humans directly can't accomplish.
It is for sure that development in this field of computer science
will change the complete scenario of the world. Now it is the
responsibility of creamy layer of engineers to develop this field.
Types of Artificial Intelligence (AI):
AI can be classified in any number of ways there are two types of main
1.Weak AI or Narrow AI: It is focused on one narrow task, the phenomenon that
machines which are not too intelligent to do their own work can be built in such a way
that they seem smart.
An example would be a poker game where a machine beats human where in
which all rules and moves are fed into the machine. Here each and every possible
scenario need to be entered beforehand manually. Each and every weak AI will
contribute to the building of strong AI.
2. Strong AI: The machines that can actually think and perform tasks on its own
just like a human being. There are no proper existing examples for this but some
industry leaders are very keen on getting close to build a strong AI which has resulted
in rapid progress.
Type2(based on functionalities):
1.Reactive Machines: This is one of the basic forms of AI. It doesn’t have
past memory and cannot use past information to information for the future
actions. Example:- IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the
2.Limited Memory: AI systems can use past experiences to inform future
decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in self-driving
cars have been designed this way. Observations used to inform actions
happening in the not so distant future, such as a car that has changed
lanes. These observations are not stored permanently and also Apple’s
3. Theory of Mind: This type of AI should be able to understand
people’s emotion, belief, thoughts, expectations and be able to interact
socially Even though a lot of improvements are there in this field this kind of
AI is not complete yet.
4. Self-awareness: An AI that has it’s own conscious, super intelligent, self-
awareness and sentient (In simple words a complete human being). Of
course, this kind of bot also doesn’t exist and if achieved it will be one of the
milestones in the field of AI.
The most important among them are as follows:
1.Machine Learning (ML): It is a method where the target(goal) is
defined and the steps to reach that target is learned by the machine
itself by training(gaining experience).
For example to identify a simple object such as an apple or orange. The
target is achieved not by explicitly specifying the details about it and
coding it but it is just as we teach a child by showing multiple different
pictures of it and therefore allowing the machine to define the steps to
identify it like an apple or an orange.
2. Natural Language Processing (NLP): Natural Language
Processing is broadly defined as the automatic manipulation of
natural language, like speech and text, by software. One of the well-
known examples of this is email spam detection as we can see how it
has improved in our mail system.
3. Vision: It can be said as a field which enables the machines to
see. Machine vision captures and analyses visual information using
a camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal
processing. It can be compared to human eyesight but it is not
bound by the human limitation which can enable it to see through
walls(now that would be interesting if we can have implants that
can make us see through the wall). It is usually achieved through
machine learning to get the best possible results so we could say
that these two fields are interlinked.
4. Robotics: It is a field of engineering focused on the design and
manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that
are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently. Examples
include car assembly lines, in hospitals, office cleaner, serving foods, and
preparing foods in hotels, patrolling farm areas and even as police officers.
Recently machine learning has been used to achieve certain good results in
building robots that interact socially(Sophia)
5. Autonomous Vehicles: This area of AI has gathered a lot of attention. the
list of vehicles includes cars, buses, trucks, trains, ships, submarines, and
autopilot flying drones etc.
The fields above in simple terms can be shown as below and we can see
why machine learning plays a major role in achieving AI.