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  4. 4. 4 A flying weapon that has its own engine so that it can travel a long distance before exploding at the place that it has been aimed at … Missiles have four system components: targeting and/or guidance, flight system, propulsion system and warhead.
  5. 5. 5  The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, literally meaning "to send".  They are basically rockets which are meant for destructive purposes only.  Missiles differ from rockets by virtue of a guidance system that steers them towards a pre-selected target.  Missiles are often used in warfare as a means of delivering destructive force (usually in the form of an explosive warhead) upon a target.  Aside from explosives, other possible types of destructive missile payloads are various forms of chemical or biological agents, nuclear warheads, or simple kinetic energy (where the missile destroys the target by the force of striking it at high speed).
  6. 6. HISTORY OF MISSILES  Rockets were invented in medieval China (1044 AD) but its first practical use for serious purpose took place in 1232 AD by the Chinese against the Mongols.  There after Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan (Sultan of Mysore in south India) perfected the rocket's use for military purposes, very effectively using it in war against British colonial armies.  At the Battle of Seringapatanam in 1792, Indian soldiers launched a huge barrage of rockets against British troops, followed by a huge massacre of British forces. 6
  7. 7. Portrait of Tipu Sultan Sultan of Mysore, present day Karnataka, India Unlike contemporary rockets whose combustion chamber was made of wood (bamboo), Tipu's rockets (weighing between 2.2 to 5.5 kg) used iron cylinder casings that allowed greater pressure, thrust and range (1.5 to 2.5 Km). The British were greatly impressed by the Mysorean rockets using iron tubes. 7
  8. 8. MISSILES IN MODERN INDIA  After regaining independence in 1947, India focused all its energy in nation building, primarily on economic and industrial development fully understanding the key role of science and technology.  Indian rocketry was reborn, thanks to the farsighted technological vision of Prime Minister Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru.  Professor Vikram Sarabhai took the challenge of realizing this dream. 8
  9. 9.  Hon. President of India Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam played a key engineering role in 9 realizing both the Indian SLV-3 space launcher as well as the Prithvi and Agni missiles.  Initial missile programs like Project Devil (a theatre ballistic missile) and Project Valiant (an intercontinental ballistic missile) were scattered and stymied by many issues. But the success of all our missile programs including BRAHMOS makes up for the shelved old projects. Agni missile. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  10. 10. Guided missiles are made up of a series of subassemblies. The major sections are carefully joined and connected to each other. They form the complete missile assembly. The major components of a missile are:  WARHEAD  FUSING  GUIDANCE SYSTEM  PROPULSION SYSTEM  FINS MISSILE COMPONENTS 10
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  12. 12. WARHEAD A warhead is an explosive device used in military conflicts, used to destroy enemy vehicles or buildings. Typically, a warhead is delivered by a missile , rocket or torpedo. It consists of the explosive material, and a detonator. Types of warhead :- Explosive: An explosive charge is used to disintegrate the target, and damage surrounding areas with a shockwave. Chemical: A toxic chemical, such as nerve gas is dispersed, which is designed to injure or kill human beings. Biological: An infectious agent, such as anthrax is dispersed, which is designed to sicken and kill humans. Nuclear: A runaway nuclear fission or fusion reaction causes immense energy release. 12
  13. 13. Fragmentation: Metal fragments are projected at high velocity to cause damage or injury. Shaped Charge: The effect of the explosive charge is focused onto a specially shaped metal liner to project a hypervelocity jet of metal, to perforate heavy armour. 13 Fig.- A NUCLEAR WARHEAD
  14. 14. FUSING It includes those devices and arrangements that cause the missile's payload to function in proper relation to the target. There are two general types of fuzes used in guided missiles •proximity fuzes and contact fuzes. Some common methods of fusing are:- Radio frequency sensing  The shell contains a micro transmitter which uses the shell body as an antenna and emits a continuous wave of roughly 180–220 MHz .  As the shell approaches a reflecting object, an interference pattern is created.  This causes a small oscillation of the radiated power and consequently the oscillator supply current of about 200–800 Hz, the Doppler frequency. This signal is sent through a band pass filter , amplified, and triggers the detonation when it exceeds a given amplitude. 14
  15. 15. Optical sensing  Based on the use of petoscope which is an optoelectronic device for detecting small, distant objects such as flying aircraft.  modern air-to-air missiles use lasers. They project narrow beams of laser light perpendicular to the flight of the missile. Magnetic sensing can only be applied to detect huge masses of iron such as ships. It is used in mines and torpedoes. Fuzes of this type can be defeated by degaussing, using non-metal hulls for ships (especially minesweepers) or by magnetic induction loops fitted to aircraft or towed buoys. 15
  16. 16. Acoustic sensing  used a microphone in a missile.  The characteristic frequency of an aircraft engine is filtered and triggers the detonation.  Naval mines can also use acoustic sensing, with modern versions able to be programmed to "listen" for the signature of a specific ship. Pressure wave sensing Some naval mines are able to detect the pressure wave of a ship passing overhead. 16
  17. 17. 17 GUIDANCE SYSTEM  Missiles may be targeted in a number of ways. The most common method is to use some form of radiation , such as infrared , lasers or radio waves , to guide the missile onto its target.  There are two types of guidance system i. fire-and-forget ii. Another method is to use a TV camera—using either visible light or infra-red—in order to see the target.
  18. 18. 18 Some methods of target detection are:- Laser Guidance - A laser designator device calculates relative position to a highlighted target. Most are familiar with the military uses of the technology on Laser-guided bomb. The space shuttle crew leverages a hand held device to feed information into rendezvous planning. The primary limitation on this device is that it requires a line of sight between the target and the designator.
  19. 19. Terrain contour matching (TERCOM)- This method uses a ground scanning radar to "match" topography against digital map data to fix current position. Used by cruise missiles such as the BGM-109 Tomahawk. Infrared homing : This form of guidance is used exclusively for military munitions, specifically air-to- air and surface-to-air missiles. The missile’s seeker head homes in on the infrared (heat) signature from the target’s engines (hence the term “heat-seeking missile”). 19
  20. 20. 20 Celestial navigation  It is a position fixing technique that was devised to help sailors.  The Sun is most often measured. Skilled navigators can use the Moon, planets or one of 57 navigational stars whose coordinates are tabulated in nautical almanacs.
  21. 21. Long-range Navigation (LORAN) : This was the predecessor of GPS and was (and to an extent still is) used primarily in commercial sea transportation. The system works by triangulating the ship's position based on directional reference to known transmitters. 21 Wire-Guidance -A wire-guided missile is a missile guided by signals sent to it via thin wires reeled out during flight.
  22. 22. Global Positioning System (GPS) GPS was designed by the US military. GPS transmits 2 signal types: military and a commercial. GPS is a system of 24 satellites orbiting in unique planes 10.9-14.4 Nautical miles above the earth. The Satellites are in well defined orbits and transmit highly accurate time information which can be used to triangulate position. 22
  23. 23. PROPULSION SYSTEM Guided missiles use some form of jet power for propulsion. 23
  24. 24. ATMOSPHERIC JET PROPULSION SYSTEM.—There are three types of atmospheric jet propulsion systems—the turbojet, pulsejet, and ramjet engines. Of these three systems, only the turbojet engine is currently being used in Navy air-launched missiles. The various methods are as follows:- TURBOJET –  The turbojet is the oldest kind of general-purpose air breathing jet engine.  Compared to turbofans, turbojets are quite inefficient if flown below about Mach 2 and are very noisy.  As a result, most modern aircraft use turbofans instead for economic reasons, although turbojets are still common in medium range cruise missiles, due to their high exhaust speed, low frontal area, and relative simplicity. 24
  25. 25. Fig.-TURBOJET Fig.-RAMJET 25
  26. 26. RAMJET –  Aramjet uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air, without a rotary compressor.  Ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed, thus they cannot move an aircraft from a standstill .  Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3. This type of engine can operate up to speeds of Mach 6.  Ramjets can be particularly useful in applications requiring a small and simple mechanism for high-speed use, such as missiles or artillery shells.  They have also been used successfully, though not efficiently, as tip jets on the end of helicopter rotors.  Ramjets employ a continuous combustion process. 26
  27. 27. PULSEJET - Apulse jet engine (or pulsejet) is a type of jet engine in which combustion occurs in pulses. Pulsejet engines can be made with few or no moving parts , and are capable of running statically. Pulse jet engines are a lightweight form of jet propulsion, but usually have a poor compression ratio , and hence give a low specific impulse. One notable line of research of pulsejet engines includes the pulse detonation engine which involves repeated detonations in the engine, and which can potentially give high compression and good efficiency. 27
  28. 28. ROCKET— Thermal jets include solid propellant, liquid propellant, and combined propellant systems. Liquid Propellant - Liquid fuel is used in space vehicles and satellites and that this fuel is put into the tanks of the space vehicles immediately before launching. A missile cannot wait to be fueled when it is needed for defense or offense-it must be ready. That is one of the reasons why solid propellants have replaced liquid propellants in most of our missiles. 28
  29. 29. Solid Propellant Engines- The combustion chamber of a solid propellant rocket contains the charge of solid propellant. Solid propellant charges are of two basic types: restricted burning and unrestricted burning. 29
  30. 30. HYBRID PROPULSION –  A hybrid engine combines the use of liquid and solid propellants.  The liquid is the oxidizer and the solid is the propellant.  Ignition is usually hypergolic, that is, spontaneous ignition takes place upon contact of the oxidizer with the propellant.  The combustion chamber is within the solid grain, as in a solid-fuel rocket; the liquid portion is in a tank with pumping equipment as in a liquid-fuel rocket.  Combustion takes place on the inside surface of the solid fuel, after the liquid fuel is injected, and the combustion products are exhausted through the nozzle to produce the thrust as in other rockets Liquid Propellant + Solid Propellant Engines = HYBRID PROPULSION 30
  31. 31. TRACKING :- PRINCIPLE OF WORKING  To target the missile by knowing the location of the target, and using a guidance system such as inertial navigation system (INS), TERCOM or GPS.  This job can also be performed somewhat crudely by a human operator who can see the target and the missile, and guides it using either cable or radio based remote-control, or by an automatic system that can simultaneously track the target and the missile. 31 GUIDANCE – It involves guiding the missile to the target
  32. 32. FLIGHT  The working of a missile is based on the Newton’s Third Law i.e. Action and reaction are equal and opposite  The propulsion of a missile is achieved with the help of a rocket engine. It produces thrust by ejecting very hot gaseous matter, called propellant.  The hot gases are produced in the combustion chamber of the rocket engine by chemical reactions.  The propellant is exhausted through a nozzle at a high speed. This exhaust causes the rocket to move in the opposite direction (Newton's third law). MISSILE AERODYNAMICS - Guided missiles launched from surface ships have their flight paths within the earth's atmosphere, so it is important that you understand some basic aerodynamic principles. Aerodynamics may be defined as the science that deals with the motion of air and other gases, and with the forces acting on bodies moving through these gases. 32
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  34. 34. MISSILE CLASSIFICATION Guided missiles are classified according to their range, speed, and launch environment, mission, and vehicle type. Range:- Long-range guided missiles are usually capable of traveling a distance of at least 100 miles. Short-range guided missiles often do not exceed the range capabilities of long-range guns. Speed:- The speed capability of guided missiles is expressed in Mach numbers. A Mach number is the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the medium through which the object is moving. Under standard atmospheric conditions, sonic speed is about 766 miles per hour (Mach 1.0). Guided missiles are classified according to their speed as shown below: • Subsonic—Up to Mach 0.8 • Transonic—Mach 0.8 to Mach 1.2 • Supersonic—Mach 1.2 to Mach 5.0 • Hypersonic—Above Mach 5.0 34
  35. 35. MISSILE DESIGNATION The Department of Defense established a missile and rocket designation sequence. The basic designation of every guided missile are letters, which are in sequence. The sequence indicates the following: 1. The environment from which the vehicle is launched 2. The primary mission of the missile 3. The type of vehicle Examples of guided missile designators common to the Aviation Ordnance man are as follows: Designator Meaning AGM Air-launched, surface-attack, guided missile AIM Air-launched, intercept-aerial, guided missile ATM Air-launched, training guided missile RIM Ship-launched, intercept-aerial, guided missile 35
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  39. 39. A design number follows the basic designator. In turn, the number may be followed by consecutive letters, which show a modification. For example, the designation of AGM-88C means the missile is an air-launched (A), surface-attack (G), missile (M),eighty-eighty missile design (88), third modification (C). In addition, most guided missiles are given popular names, such as Sparrow, Sidewinder, and Harpoon. These names are retained regardless of subsequent modifications to the original missile. MISSILE IDENTIFICATION The external surfaces of all Navy guided missiles , except random and antenna surfaces, are painted white. The color white has no identification color-coding significance when used on guided missiles. There are three significant color codes used on guided missiles and their components— yellow, brown, and blue. These color codes indicate the explosive hazard in the missile component. If components are painted blue on a practice missile and have a yellow or brown band painted on them, the component has an explosive component that doesn't have a comparable part in a service missile. 39
  40. 40. TYPES OF MISSILES ON THE BASIS OF MODE OF FIRE An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. Astra missile of Indian army F-22A Raptor ,. 40
  41. 41. An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft (bombers , attack aircraft, fighter aircraft or other kinds) and strike ground targets on land, at sea, or both. Silkworm , US . Storm Shadow by France 41
  42. 42. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. Ballistic missiles are used to deliver nuclear, chemical, biological or conventional warheads in a ballistic flight trajectory. The term "anti-ballistic missile" describes any antimissile system designed to counter ballistic missiles. However, the term is used more commonly for systems designed to counter intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). A Standard Missile Three (SM-3) ,U.S. Navy ballistic missile flight test. 42
  43. 43. 43 the Prithvi Air Defence(PAD)
  44. 44. Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Currently, only the United States, the former Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China are known to have developed these weapons. Standard Missile - 3 (SM-3) 44
  45. 45. Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial guidance and radar homing. RGM-84 surface -to-surface Harpoon missile. 45
  46. 46. An anti-submarine missile is a standoff weapon including a rocket designed to rapidly deliver an explosive warhead or homing torpedo from the launch platform to the vicinity of a submarine. Ikara dummy missile onboard HMAS Stuart(DE-48) off the New South Wales coast. The ship in the distance is a Japanese Guided Missile Destroyer, visiting for Australia's Bicentennial Naval Salute/Bicentennial Naval Review in September/October 1988. 46
  47. 47. An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily-armored military vehicles. Nag missile and the Nag missile Carrier Vehicle (NAMICA),Anti-tank Guided missile developed by DRDO. 47
  48. 48. Aland-attack missile is a naval surface-to-surface missile that is capable of effectively attacking targets ashore, unlike specialized anti-ship missiles, which are optimized for striking other ships. Some dual-role missiles are suitable for both missions. Cruise missile BrahMos shown on IMDS-2007, owned By India 48
  49. 49. Asurface-to-air missile (SAM), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles. It is one type of anti-aircraft system; in modern armed forces missiles have replaced most other forms of dedicated anti-aircraft weaponry, with the anti-aircraft cannon pushed into niche roles. Two SA-2 Guideline (S-75 Dvina) missiles in the National Museum of Military History in Sofia 49
  50. 50. Asurface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike targets on land or at sea. They may be fired from hand-held or vehicle mounted devices, from fixed installations, or from a ship. RPG-7 with warhead detached BGM-71 TOW , variant M220, SABER. U.S. Army 50
  51. 51. Awire-guided missile is a missile that is guided by signals sent to it via thin wires connected between the missile and its guidance mechanism, which is located somewhere near the launch site. A Stryker vehicle crew belonging to the 4th Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, fires a TOW missile during the brigade's rotation through Fort Polk's, Joint Readiness Training Center 51
  52. 52. Aballistic missile is a missile that follows a ballistic flight path with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target. Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere, while longer range ones are designed to spend some of their flight time above the atmosphere and are thus considered sub-orbital. United States Trident II (D-5) missile underwater launch. 52
  53. 53. Acruise missile is a guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target (a land-based or sea-based target) is conducted at approximately constant velocity; that relies on the dynamic reaction of air for lift, and upon propulsion forces to balance drag. Shaurya missile (left) and Brahmos- II(model) (top) by Government of India. 53
  54. 54. 54 ANY QUESTIONS ? Reference :-  www.google.com  GUIDED MISSILES , by - T V Karthikeyan & A K Kapoor , Scientists Defense Research &- Development Laboratory, Hyderabad , Defense Scientific Information & Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) , Ministry of Defense, DRDO  PRINCIPLES OF MISSILE FLIGHT AND JET PROPULSION  PRINCIPLES OF GUIDED MISSILES AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS, by BUREAU OF NAVAL PERSONNEL OF U.S NAVY ,Prepared and produced by the U. S. Navy Training Publications Center under direction of the Bureau of Naval Personnel