2. CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
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3. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
• Sensor networks have emerged as a promising tool for
monitoring the physical world, that can sense, process and
• A sensor network is a network of many tiny disposable low
power devices called nodes.
• A wireless sensor node (or simply sensor node) consists of
sensing, computing, communication, actuation, and power
• A WSN usually consists of tens to thousands of such nodes
that communicate through wireless channels for information
5. • Sensor nodes With limited capabilities deployed in the sensor field communicate to
a powerful BS that links them to the Internet and a central manager for processing
the sensed data.
• Communications to the BS have to go through several sensor nodes first, because
all sensor nodes will not be typically able to communicate directly with the BS.
• This may be due to limited communication range, distance from the BS,
intermittent sensor activity, and so on.
8. CHALLENGES IN WSN
• Fault Performance
• Production Cost
• Operation Environment
• Quality of Service
• Data Aggregation
• Data Compression
• Data Latency
9. Fault performance:
Some sensor nodes may fail due to lack of power, have physical
damage. The failure of sensor nodes should not affect the overall task of the
sensor network. This is the fault tolerant issue. Fault tolerant is the ability to
sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor
The number of sensor nodes deployed in the sensing area may be in
the order of hundreds, thousands or more and routing schemes must be
scalable enough to respond to events.
10. Production costs:
Since the sensor networks consists of large number of sensor
nodes, the cost of a single node is very important to justify the
overall cost of the networks and hence the cost of each sensor
node has to be kept low.
We can set up sensor network in the interior of large machinery,
at the bottom of an ocean, in a biologically or chemically
contaminated field, in a battle field beyond the enemy lines, in a
home or a large building, in a large warehouse, attached to
animals, attached to fast moving vehicles, in forest area for
habitat monitoring etc .
11. Quality of service:
The quality of service means the quality service required by the application, it
could be the length of the life time, the data reliable, energy efficiency,
Data aggregation is a combination of data from different sources by using functions
such as min, max, and average.
Reducing the size of the data is called data compression.
These are considered as the important factors that influence routing protocol
design. Data aggregation and multi-hop relays cause data latency
12. CLASSIFICATION OF WSNS
From network architecture point of view
• Flat Architecture – each node plays the same role in
performing sensing task and all sensor nodes are
• Hierarchical Architecture – sensor nodes are
organized clusters, where the cluster members send
their data to the sink.
16. INTERNET OF THINGS
• Before we begin with the IoT introduction, let's break
the term into Internet and Things and understand
these two terms first.
• Internet is “a global network connecting millions of
embedded hardware devices (computers,
smartphones and tablets) providing a variety of
information and communication facilities, consisting
of interconnected networks using standardized
17. • Things: Today, an average household has more
devices at home connected to the internet than the
number of people at the home.
• Each device on the internet is identifiable with a
unique ID, the IP address.
• “Things refers to any physical object with a device
that has its own IP address and can connect to a
network that also sends/receives data via network.”.
18. • IOT:
“A network of physical objects or ‘things’ that can
interact with each other to share information .
21. INTERNET OF THINGS
• WSNs are expected to be integrated into the “Internet of
Things”, where sensor nodes join the Internet dynamically,
and use it to collaborate and accomplish their tasks.
• However, when WSNs become a part of the Internet, we must
carefully investigate and analyze the issues involved with this
24. • Wearable devices (for example, shoes, watch, glasses,
belt, etc.) can be used to detect biometric information.
• Smart devices collect the information and
communicates with the control center and/or medical
server using the internet.
25. WSN IN IOT
• Connecting WSNs to the Internet is possible in
the three main approaches.
• The first proposed approach consists of
connecting both independent WSN and the
Internet through a single gateway.
27. • Showing an increasing integration degree, the second
approach forms a hybrid network, still composed of
independent networks, where few dual sensor nodes
can access the Internet.
28. • The third approach is inspired from current WLAN structure
and forms a dense 802.15.4 access point network, where
multiple sensor nodes can join the Internet in one hop.
29. • It is obvious that the ﬁrst approach presents a single
point of failure due to the gateway uniqueness.
• Gateway would break down the connection between
both WSN and the Internet. With several gateways and
access points, the second and third scenarios do not
present such weakness.
• To ensure network robustness, they would
consequently be preferred, if the application supports
this type of network structure.
31. •Size considerations
The Internet of objects would encode 50 to 100 trillion objects, and be able to follow
the movement of those objects.
•Ability to aggregate and analyze disparate data
•We are currently at the Internet of Thing. Every manufacturer is creating a single
product. We have to go across manufacturers and start talking to one another.
32. •25 to 50 billion connected devices which will connect via a mesh network.
•More and more devices are connected to each other via Pats' Connect all the things
that you want. Drive to your home, garage door opens without pressing a button.