3. 1. Communication- Definition and
Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas,
opinions or emotions by two or more persons.
Communication is defined as “the process of
passing information and understanding from one
person to another, it is essentially a bridge of
meaning between people. By using the bridge of
meaning a person can safely cross the river of
4. 2. A COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL
Reception Decoding Understanding
Communication begins with a thought/idea that a sender has.
refers to putting the thought/idea in a form, which can be understood
Channel to transmit the message:
Links the sender and the receiver.
Forms may be oral, written, a letter, a computer, a telegram, a fax,
Television or radio.
Two or more channels may be used at the same time.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL
8. Receiver of the message:
being ready for the message.
refers to conversion of the message into thoughts.
refers to interpreting the message i.e. attaching meaning.
Accurate communication can occur only when sender and receiver
attach same or similar meaning to the message.
Is anything, which hinders communication. It may in the sender, the
transmission or the receiver.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL (Contd.)
9. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL (Contd.)
Examples of noise:
Faulty due to use of ambiguous symbols.
Faulty telephone connection.
Faulty due to wrong meaning attached.
Can be obstructed by prejudices.
Gestures and posture.
10. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL (Contd.)
To check effectiveness of communication, a person must have
One can never be sure that the message has been encoded,
transmitted and decoded properly unless it is confirmed by
Example of the Communications Model
Encoder: The processing that takes Sara’s thought and converts
that to words and then into the pressing of keys on the computer
Message: The text of the email sent “Ali, can you meet me for lunch
on Tuesday? Regards, Sara.”
Channel: The email system
Decoder: Sara’s conversion of symbols seen on his
computer screen into an understanding that Sara
wants to know if Ali can meet her for lunch on
Consider the scenario: Sara wants to meet Ali for lunch on Tuesday, and
sends an email…
12. 3. CHARACTERISTICS
(i) A two-way traffic
It is a two-way traffic – upward and downward. Messages, directives,
opinions are communicated downward.
Likewise grievances, complaints, opinions, feelings, are communicated
upward along the line.
(ii) Continuous Process
It is continuous process. It is repeated to achieve the desired
results. It is not a one time shot.
(iii) A short-lived process:
It is complete as soon as the message is received and understood by the
receiver in the right perspective.
(iv) Needs proper understanding:
There may be numerous media of communication but the main purpose of
conveying the message is a proper understanding of the message by the
other party. For this purpose, it should be clearly and concisely worded.
13. 3. CHARACTERISTICS (Contd.)
(v) Leads achievement of the organizational objective:
Effective communication does this by creating the sense of object
orientation in the organization.
(vi) Dispels misunderstanding:
It provides clear understanding between persons and thus builds a
bridge of camaraderie among people.
14. 4. Purpose or Objectives of Communication
The main objectives are:
(i) Conveying the right message:
The main objective of communication is to convey the right message
to the right person, i.e., to the person for whom it is meant. The
message conveyed should be well understood and accepted by the
receiver in the right perspective.
(ii) Coordination of effort:
It is an effective tool for coordinating the activities of different
persons engaged in running a business. Coordination without
communication is a remote possibility. The individuals or groups
come to know what others are doing and what is expected from
them only through communication.
15. 4. Purpose or Objectives of Communication (Contd.)
(iv) Good Industrial relations:
Communication develops good industrial relations as it conveys the
feelings, ideas, opinions and viewpoints of one party to the other
party. The two parties-the management and the subordinates come
closer through communication. They understand each other and
dispel any misunderstanding. Thus, it promotes cooperation and
good industrial relations.
(v) Development of managerial skills:
Communication helps managers to understand human behavior at
work. Communication of facts, ideas, opinions, information, feelings
etc. add value to the knowledge of managers about various
happenings, in the organization and behavior of people. Thus,
communication is a process of learning.
16. 4. Purpose or Objectives of Communication (Contd.)
(vi) Effectiveness of policies:
The organization formulates policies and programmes to guide the
workforce. These should be conveyed properly to those who are
really responsible for the execution of work to achieve the
organizational objectives. Only effective communication can
translate the policies into action. Effectiveness of the policies can be
judged from the success which surely depends upon an effective