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Robotics
Robotic
History
Robotic
Technology
Types of
Robots
What is a Robot…?
A re-programmable, multifunctional, automatic
industrial machine designed to replace human in
hazardous ...
The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel
Capek(1890-1938) in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal ...
Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a
“zeroth law”.
Zeroth Law : A robot may not injure ...
`
The most common types of Robots are..
Mobile robots are of two types….
Rolling robots have wheels to move around.
They can quickly and easily search.
However th...
tonomous
Robots are not only used to explore areas or
imitate a human being. Most robots perform
repeating tasks without e...
A person can guide a robot by remote control. A
person can perform difficult and usually dangerous
tasks without being at ...
•Agriculture
•Automobile
•Construction
•Entertainment
•Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc.
•Lab...
Robots in Space
NASA Space Station
Robots in Hazardous Environments
TROV in Antarctica operating
under water
HAZBOT operating in atmospheres
containing combu...
Medical Robots
Robotic assistant for
micro surgery
Robots at Home
Sony AidoSony SDR-3X Entertainment Robot
Future of Robots: I
Garbage Collection CartRobot Work Crews
Autonomy
Future of Robots: II
HONDA Humanoid Robot
Humanoids
Sensors
Locomotion
Actuators
Controllers
Most industrial robots have at least the following five parts:
Structure
Power Su...
Sensor
Effector
Controller
Arm
Key Components
Base
Manipulator
linkage
Controller
Sensors Actuators
User interface
Power conversion
unit
Structure
●The structure of a robot is usually
mostly mechanical and can be called
a kinematic chain.
●The chain is formed...
Power Supply
●Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors
and associated circuitry
●Typical power requirement ranges...
Sensors: I
•Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell
provide us vital information to function and survive
•Robo...
Parts fitting and insertion: Robots
can do precise fitting and insertion of machine
parts by using force sensor. A robot c...
Infrared Ranging Sensor
KOALA ROBOT
•6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas
•Obstacle detection over a...
Tilt Sensor
Planar Bipedal Robot
Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robot
Sensors: IV
Example
Actuators: I
• Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of
different electro-mechanical devices
– Synchronous motor
–...
Hydraulic Motor Stepper Motor
Pneumatic Motor Servo Motor
Actuators: II
Pneumatic Cylinder
DC Motor
●DC Motors
oAs the name
suggests, a motor
which uses a DC
(Direct Current) power
oCan run in both
directions
oSpeed Contro...
●Stepper Motors
o Used for measured
rotation
o Can be held at a
particular position of the
shaft
o Ideal for many
autonomo...
ACTUATION
●Actuators are the "muscles" of
a robot, the parts which
convert stored energy into
movement.
●The most popular ...
Controller
 Provide necessary intelligence to control the
manipulator/mobile robot
 Process the sensory information and ...
Controller Hardware: I
Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the
control program and the state of the robot
system obtain...
Computational engine that computes the
control commands
BASIC Stamp 2 ModuleRoboBoard Robotics Controller
Controller Hardw...
MANIPULATION
●Robots which must work in the real world require
some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify,
destroy, o...
Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements
Inclined plane wedge
Slider-Crank
Cam and Follower
Gear, rack, pinion, etc.
Chain and...
LOCOMOTION
●It is concerned with the motion of the robot.
●Robot contains different types of drives:-
o Differential drive...
DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS
NON DRIVEN WHEELNON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL
DIF...
STEERING WHEELS STEERING WHEELS
DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS
ACKERMAN DRIVE
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powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
DRIVRN
FORWARD
DRIVEN
REVERSE
SKID STEER
DRIVE
www.free-
powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
SYNCHRONOUS
DRIVE
www.free-
powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
Pivot
Linear
Actuator
Articulated Drive
www.free-
powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
 Going to far away planets.
 Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food.
Plus they don't get bored.
 They can p...
www.free-
powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
 People can lose jobs in factories
 It needs a supply of power
It needs m...
FUTURE PROSPECTS
●Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will
exist by 2019 .
●Vernor Vinge has suggested t...
Robotics
Robotics
Robotics
Robotics
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Robotics

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Robotics

  1. 1. Robotics Robotic History Robotic Technology Types of Robots
  2. 2. What is a Robot…? A re-programmable, multifunctional, automatic industrial machine designed to replace human in hazardous work. It can be used as :- •An automatic machine sweeper •An automatic car for a child to play with •A machine removing mines in a war field •In space •In military , and many more..
  3. 3. The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Capek(1890-1938) in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots . Capek was reportedly several times a candidate for the Nobel prize for his works . The word "robotics", used to describe this field of study, was coined accidentally by the Russian –born , American scientist and science fiction writer, Isaac Asimov(1920-1992) in 1940s.
  4. 4. Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a “zeroth law”. Zeroth Law : A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm First Law : A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law Second Law: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law Third Law : A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.
  5. 5. ` The most common types of Robots are..
  6. 6. Mobile robots are of two types…. Rolling robots have wheels to move around. They can quickly and easily search. However they are only useful in flat areas. Robots on legs are usually brought in when the terrain is rocky. Most robots have at least 4 legs; usually they have 6 or more.
  7. 7. tonomous Robots are not only used to explore areas or imitate a human being. Most robots perform repeating tasks without ever moving an inch. Most robots are ‘working’ in industry settings and are stationary . Autonomous robots are self supporting or in other words self contained. In a way they rely on their own ‘brains’.
  8. 8. A person can guide a robot by remote control. A person can perform difficult and usually dangerous tasks without being at the spot where the tasks are performed. Virtual robots don’t exits In real life. Virtual robots are just programs, building blocks of software inside a computer.
  9. 9. •Agriculture •Automobile •Construction •Entertainment •Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc. •Laboratories: science, engineering , etc. •Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc. •Manufacturing •Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc. •Mining, excavation, and exploration •Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. •Utilities: gas, water, and electric •Warehouses Industries Using Robots
  10. 10. Robots in Space NASA Space Station
  11. 11. Robots in Hazardous Environments TROV in Antarctica operating under water HAZBOT operating in atmospheres containing combustible gases
  12. 12. Medical Robots Robotic assistant for micro surgery
  13. 13. Robots at Home Sony AidoSony SDR-3X Entertainment Robot
  14. 14. Future of Robots: I Garbage Collection CartRobot Work Crews Autonomy
  15. 15. Future of Robots: II HONDA Humanoid Robot Humanoids
  16. 16. Sensors Locomotion Actuators Controllers Most industrial robots have at least the following five parts: Structure Power Supply Manipulation
  17. 17. Sensor Effector
  18. 18. Controller Arm
  19. 19. Key Components Base Manipulator linkage Controller Sensors Actuators User interface Power conversion unit
  20. 20. Structure ●The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain. ●The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles), and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  21. 21. Power Supply ●Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors and associated circuitry ●Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V DC ●220V AC supply must be modified to suit the needs of our machine ●Batteries can also be used to run robots ●Robots are driven by different motors :- o DC Motors o Stepper Motors o Servo Motors www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  22. 22. Sensors: I •Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell provide us vital information to function and survive •Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, presence of toxic gas) •Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see) Accelerometer Using Piezoelectric Effect Flexiforce Sensor
  23. 23. Parts fitting and insertion: Robots can do precise fitting and insertion of machine parts by using force sensor. A robot can insert parts that have the phases after matching their phases in addition to simply inserting them. It can automate high-skill jobs. Force Sensor: e.g., parts fitting and insertion, force feedback in robotic surgery Sensors: II
  24. 24. Infrared Ranging Sensor KOALA ROBOT •6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas •Obstacle detection over a wide range from 15cm to 3m •16 built-in infrared proximity sensors (range 5-20cm) •Infrared sensors act as a “virtual bumper” and allow for negotiating tight spaces Sensors: III Example
  25. 25. Tilt Sensor Planar Bipedal Robot Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robot Sensors: IV Example
  26. 26. Actuators: I • Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of different electro-mechanical devices – Synchronous motor – Stepper motor – AC servo motor – Brushless DC servo motor – Brushed DC servo motor http://www.ab.com/motion/servo/fseries.html
  27. 27. Hydraulic Motor Stepper Motor Pneumatic Motor Servo Motor Actuators: II Pneumatic Cylinder DC Motor
  28. 28. ●DC Motors oAs the name suggests, a motor which uses a DC (Direct Current) power oCan run in both directions oSpeed Controllable www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  29. 29. ●Stepper Motors o Used for measured rotation o Can be held at a particular position of the shaft o Ideal for many autonomous robots requiring higher precision www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  30. 30. ACTUATION ●Actuators are the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. ●The most popular actuators are electric motors. www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  31. 31. Controller  Provide necessary intelligence to control the manipulator/mobile robot  Process the sensory information and compute the control commands for the actuators to carry out specified tasks
  32. 32. Controller Hardware: I Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the control program and the state of the robot system obtained from the sensors
  33. 33. Computational engine that computes the control commands BASIC Stamp 2 ModuleRoboBoard Robotics Controller Controller Hardware: II
  34. 34. MANIPULATION ●Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. ●Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. ●Some manipulators are: o Mechanical Grippers o Vacuum Grippers o General purpose effectors www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  35. 35. Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements Inclined plane wedge Slider-Crank Cam and Follower Gear, rack, pinion, etc. Chain and sprocket Lever Linkage
  36. 36. LOCOMOTION ●It is concerned with the motion of the robot. ●Robot contains different types of drives:- o Differential drive o Car type o Skid steer drive o Synchronous drive o Pivot drive o Articulated drive www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  37. 37. DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS NON DRIVEN WHEELNON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE 30www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  38. 38. STEERING WHEELS STEERING WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS ACKERMAN DRIVE www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  39. 39. DRIVRN FORWARD DRIVEN REVERSE SKID STEER DRIVE www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  40. 40. SYNCHRONOUS DRIVE www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  41. 41. Pivot Linear Actuator Articulated Drive www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com
  42. 42.  Going to far away planets.  Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food. Plus they don't get bored.  They can perform tasks faster than humans and much more consistently and accurately.  Revolution in medical science and health care systems.  New & wide scope in education & training.  A good help in nuclear industry.  Used tremendously in sports activities.  Play the role of an efficient assistance in research .  Can very well handle household business.
  43. 43. www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com  People can lose jobs in factories  It needs a supply of power It needs maintenance to keep it running . It costs money to make or buy a robot
  44. 44. FUTURE PROSPECTS ●Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019 . ●Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. ●In 2009, some robots acquired various forms of semi- autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own. ●The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence has researched on this problem. www.free- powerpointpresentation.blogspot.com

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