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What is a Robot…?
A re-programmable, multifunctional, automatic
industrial machine designed to replace human in
hazardous work. It can be used as :-
•An automatic machine sweeper
•An automatic car for a child to play with
•A machine removing mines in a war field
•In military , and many more..
The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel
Capek(1890-1938) in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots),
published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people
called robots . Capek was reportedly several times a candidate for the
Nobel prize for his works .
The word "robotics", used to describe this field of study, was
coined accidentally by the Russian –born , American scientist and
science fiction writer, Isaac Asimov(1920-1992) in 1940s.
Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a
Zeroth Law : A robot may not injure humanity, or, through
inaction, allow humanity to come to harm
First Law : A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction,
allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a
higher order law
Second Law: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except
where such orders would conflict with a higher order law
Third Law : A robot must protect its own existence as long as such
protection does not conflict with a higher order law.
Mobile robots are of two types….
Rolling robots have wheels to move around.
They can quickly and easily search.
However they are only useful in flat areas.
Robots on legs are usually brought in when
the terrain is rocky. Most robots have at least
4 legs; usually they have 6 or more.
Robots are not only used to explore areas or
imitate a human being. Most robots perform
repeating tasks without ever moving an inch.
Most robots are ‘working’ in industry settings
and are stationary .
Autonomous robots are self supporting
or in other words self contained. In a way
they rely on their own ‘brains’.
A person can guide a robot by remote control. A
person can perform difficult and usually dangerous
tasks without being at the spot where the tasks are
Virtual robots don’t exits In real life. Virtual robots are
just programs, building blocks of software inside a
•Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc.
•Laboratories: science, engineering , etc.
•Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc.
•Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc.
•Mining, excavation, and exploration
•Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc.
•Utilities: gas, water, and electric
Industries Using Robots
●The structure of a robot is usually
mostly mechanical and can be called
a kinematic chain.
●The chain is formed of links (its
bones), actuators (its muscles), and
joints which can allow one or more
degrees of freedom.
●Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors
and associated circuitry
●Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V
●220V AC supply must be modified to suit the needs
of our machine
●Batteries can also be used to run robots
●Robots are driven by different motors :-
o DC Motors
o Stepper Motors
o Servo Motors
•Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell
provide us vital information to function and survive
•Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition
and its environment and send such information to robot
controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position,
presence of toxic gas)
•Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human
senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny
amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that
is too small or fast for the human eye to see)
Using Piezoelectric Effect
Parts fitting and insertion: Robots
can do precise fitting and insertion of machine
parts by using force sensor. A robot can insert
parts that have the phases after matching their
phases in addition to simply inserting them. It
can automate high-skill jobs.
Force Sensor: e.g., parts
fitting and insertion,
force feedback in robotic
Infrared Ranging Sensor
•6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas
•Obstacle detection over a wide range from 15cm to 3m
•16 built-in infrared proximity sensors (range 5-20cm)
•Infrared sensors act as a “virtual bumper” and allow for
negotiating tight spaces
Planar Bipedal Robot
Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robot
• Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of
different electro-mechanical devices
– Synchronous motor
– Stepper motor
– AC servo motor
– Brushless DC servo motor
– Brushed DC servo motor
Hydraulic Motor Stepper Motor
Pneumatic Motor Servo Motor
oAs the name
suggests, a motor
which uses a DC
(Direct Current) power
oCan run in both
o Used for measured
o Can be held at a
particular position of the
o Ideal for many
●Actuators are the "muscles" of
a robot, the parts which
convert stored energy into
●The most popular actuators
are electric motors.
Provide necessary intelligence to control the
Process the sensory information and compute the
control commands for the actuators to carry out
Controller Hardware: I
Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the
control program and the state of the robot
system obtained from the sensors
Computational engine that computes the
BASIC Stamp 2 ModuleRoboBoard Robotics Controller
Controller Hardware: II
●Robots which must work in the real world require
some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify,
destroy, or otherwise have an effect.
●Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as
end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a
●Some manipulators are:
o Mechanical Grippers
o Vacuum Grippers
o General purpose effectors
Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements
Inclined plane wedge
Cam and Follower
Gear, rack, pinion, etc.
Chain and sprocket
●It is concerned with the motion of the robot.
●Robot contains different types of drives:-
o Differential drive
o Car type
o Skid steer drive
o Synchronous drive
o Pivot drive
o Articulated drive
DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS DRIVE WHEELS
NON DRIVEN WHEELNON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL NON DRIVEN WHEEL
Going to far away planets.
Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food.
Plus they don't get bored.
They can perform tasks faster than humans and
much more consistently and accurately.
Revolution in medical science and health care
New & wide scope in education & training.
A good help in nuclear industry.
Used tremendously in sports activities.
Play the role of an efficient assistance in research .
Can very well handle household business.
People can lose jobs in factories
It needs a supply of power
It needs maintenance to keep it running .
It costs money to make or buy a robot
●Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will
exist by 2019 .
●Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may
come when computers and robots are smarter than
●In 2009, some robots acquired various forms of semi-
autonomy, including being able to find power sources
on their own.
●The Association for the Advancement of Artificial
Intelligence has researched on this problem.