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Proximity sensor

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Proximity sensor

  1. 1. SHWETA JINDAL B.tech3rd year (EI) BTBTN12410 Roll no. - 7733
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TYPES OF PROXIMITY SENSOR CONSTRUCTION WORKING APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE CONCLUSION REFRENCES
  3. 3. A Proximity Sensor Detects An Object When The Object Approaches Within The Detection Range And Boundary Of The Sensor. Proximity Sensor Includes All The Sensor That Perform Non Contact Detection In Comparison To Sensors Such As Limit Switch ,That Detect The Object By Physically Contacting Them.
  4. 4.  INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SENSOR  CAPACITIVE PROXIMITY SENSOR  ULTRASONIC PROXIMITY SENSOR  OPTICAL PROXIMITY SENSOR
  5. 5.  An Inductive proximity sensor is an electronic proximity sensor , which detect metallic object without touching them.  Their operating principle is based on a coil and high frequency oscillator that creates a field in the close surrounding of the sensing surface .  The operating distance of the sensor depends on the coil’s size as well as the target ‘s shape, size and material
  6. 6.  The Main Components Of The Inductive Proximity Sensor Are. Coil, Oscillator, Detector And The Output Circuit  The Operating Distance Of The Sensor Depends On The Actuator's Shape And Size And Is Strictly Linked To The Nature Of The Material  The Coil Generates The High Frequency Magnetic Field In Front Of The Face. When The Metallic Target Comes In This Magnetic Field It Absorbs Some Of The Energy
  7. 7.  Hence the oscillator field is affected. The rise or fall of such oscillation is identified by a threshold circuit..that changes the output of the sensor.
  8. 8. ADVANTAGES  they are very accurate compared to other technologies.  Have high switching rate.  Can work in harsh environmental conditions. DISADVANTAGES  It can detect only metallic target.  Operating range may be limited.
  9. 9.  Capacitive Sensor Are Used For Non Contact Detection Of Metallic Object And Non Metallic Object(liquid, Plastic, Wooden Material Etc.)  Capacitive Proximity Sensors Use The Variation Of Capacitance Between The Sensor And Object Being Detected.  Capacitance Methods Are Very Sensitive , Distance Down To One Micro Inch Can Be Measured.
  10. 10.  The Main Components Of The Capacitive Proximity Sensor Are Plate, Oscillator, Threshold Detector And The Output Circuit.  The Plate Inside The Sensor Acts As One Plate Of The Capacitor And The Target Acts As Another Plate And The Air Acts As The Dielectric Between The Plates.  The Capacitive Sensor Can Detect Any Targets Whose Dielectric Constant Is More Than Air
  11. 11. Cont..  As the object comes close to the plate of the capacitor the capacitance increases and as the object moves away the capacitance decreases  an electronic circuit inside the sensor begins to oscillate. The rise or the fall of such oscillation is identified by a threshold circuit and based on that output switches.
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES  It can detect both metallic and non metallic targets.  Good stability  High Speed  Capacitive sensors are good in terms of power usage  Low cost DISADVANTAGES  They are affected by temperature and humidity  Difficulties in designing  Capacitive proximity sensors are not as accurate compare to inductive sensors.
  13. 13.  The Proximity Of The Object Is Detected By The Action Of The Travelling Light Move.  These Sensors Use Light Sensitive Elements To Detect Objects And Are Made Up Of An Transmitter (Light Source) And A Receiver  The Object Within The Range Of The Sensor Can Detect The Presence.
  14. 14.  The Light Emitted By The Transmitter Focuses On The Object Which Reflects To Be Received By The Receiver Photo Diode.  The Reflected Waves Travel Back And Received By The Solid State Photo Diode, Through The Receiver Lens.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES  They Are Useful And Can Help Many Security Problems. DISADVANTGES  They Can Easily Be Set Off And Cause Problems.  They Are Expensive Than Inductive And Capacitive Proximity Sensor APPLICATION  Optical proximity sensors mostly apply in automobile/process eng. For distance measurement, level sensing etc.
  16. 16.  Ultrasonic Sensor Are Some Type Used In Place Of Optical Sensors . Instead Of Using An Light Beam , A High Frequency Sound Wave Is Used.  This Sound Wave Is Above Normal Hearing Frequencies And Are Called Ultrasonic Frequencies Around 40 KHz Are Common.  The Ultrasonic Sensor Can Measure Distances In Centimeters And Inches. It Provides Good Readings In Sensing Large-sized Objects With Hard Surfaces.
  17. 17.  The ultrasonic sensor sends out sound and receives it back using the receiver. Together, the ultrasonic sensor's sender and receiver look like a pair of eyes, but it is not a sight sensor. Instead, those "eyes" are really more like a speaker and a microphone (a sound sensor).
  18. 18. CONT.  The Emitter And Detector Are 2 Separate Units. The Emitter Emits The Light Which Is Detected By The Detector. A Target Is Detected When It Passes In-between The Emitter And Detector.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES  Ultrasonic proximity sensors are not affected by atmospheric dust, snow, rain..etc  Can work in adverse conditions  Sensing distance is more compared to inductive or capacitive proximity sensors DISADVANTAGES  Ultrasonic sensors Has More Difficulties Reading Reflections From Soft, Curved, Thin Or Small Objects.
  20. 20.  The global market for these proximity sensors is expected to grow at a steady rate. Major industries using proximity sensors are machine tools, woodworking machines, packaging machines and other types of machinery.  Further applications of are automatic door units such as garage doors or doors inside buildings, elevator doors or doors inside railway coaches.  The building and automotive sector are further industries using high volumes of proximity sensors.
  21. 21. http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/l iterature/documents/ca/c116-ca502_-en-p.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proximity_sensor http://www.fargocontrols.com/sensors.html http://www.autonics.co.in/products/products_2.php?b ig=01&mid=01/01 http://www.ia.omron.com/support/guide/41/overview .html http://www.sensorcentral.com/photoelectric/proximity 01.php http://www.engineershandbook.com/Components/pro ximitysensors.htm

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