Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

# cell splitting and sectoring

cell splitting and sectoring in cell phones

• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Entre para ver os comentários

### cell splitting and sectoring

1. 1. Power point presentation on cell splitting and sectoring MADE BY: : SHWETANSHU GUPTA MIET (342/08)
2. 2. CELL?  LARGER AREA DIVIDED INTO SMALL NO. OF AREAS  SHAPE IS HEXAGONAL  EACH WITH ITS OWN BASE STATION AND SET OF FREQUENCIES.
3. 3. Why hexagonal cell ? square circular hexagonal
4. 4. FREQUENCY REUSE 6 5 Each cell is assigned a part of the available frequency spectrum. 7 1 4 3 6 5 4 2 6 5 1 7 1 4 3 2 3 same part of the frequency spectrum more than once. This is called frequency reuse.
5. 5. Reuse Distance For hexagonal cells reuse distance--D= R.√3N  Reuse factor--D/R= √3N 
6. 6. Channel capacity? C = MKN = MS C= capacity M= number of clusters K= allotted channel to a cell N= no of cells in a cluster.
7. 7. Why cell splitting and sectoring?  As users increases channel capacity decreases.  Techniques are needed to provide extra channels.  cell splitting and sectoring increases capacity.
8. 8. Cell splitting  The process of subdividing a congested cell into smaller cell.  Each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in antenna height.  leads to increase in capacity
9. 9. Limitations:  Handoffs are more frequent.  Channel assignments become difficult.  All cells are not split simultaneously so special care have to be taken for proper allocation of problem.
10. 10. Umbrella approach: Handoff issues must be addressed so that high speed and low speed traffic can be accommodated simultaneously.
11. 11. Cell sectoring:  To overcome some limitations like cochannel interference, cell sectoring is done.  Involves replacing an omni- directional antenna at the base station by several directional antennas,
12. 12. Different sectors:
13. 13. Advantages:  It improves S/I ratio.  It reduces interference which increases capacity.  It enables to reduce the cluster size and provides an additional freedom in assigning channels.
14. 14. Limitations:  Increased number of antennas at each base station.  Decrease in trunk efficiency.  Loss of traffic.  Since sectoring reduces the coverage area of a particular group of channels, the number of handoffs increases as well.