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  1. 1. Lecture 5 Dr. Khaled Bakro Engineering Drawing Introduction to Engineering and Profession Ethics
  2. 2. PART 4 – ENGINEERING GRAPHICAL COMMUNICATION In this chapter: we will explain 16- ENGINEERING DRAWINGS AND SYMBOLS Projection methods Orthographic projection Graphics language Engineering drawing
  4. 4. 1. Try to write a description of this object. 2. Test your written description by having someone attempt to make a sketch from your description. Effectiveness of Graphics Language The word languages are inadequate for describing the size, shape and features completely as well as concisely. You can easily understand that …
  5. 5. Graphic language in “engineering application” use lines to represent the surfaces, edges and contours of objects. A drawing can be done using freehand, instruments or computer methods. Composition of Graphic Language The language is known as “drawing” or “drafting” .
  6. 6. Freehand drawing The lines are sketched without using instruments other than pencils and erasers. Example
  7. 7. Instrument drawing Instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately. Thus, the drawings are usually made to scale. Example
  8. 8. Why and What? Why do we use sketching? To make a quick, graphic representation of an idea that can be easily communicated. How do we represent objects so that others will understand all essential features? Use a graphics “language”. It has its own rules and conventions so everybody can communicate.
  9. 9. How? How do we represent a real object (3D) on paper (2D)? The graphics language has conventions for different types of 2D “views.” How do we develop the skill to read representations made by other people? Understand the “language” and practice using it.
  10. 10. Computer drawing The drawings are usually made by commercial software such as AutoCAD, solid works etc. Example
  11. 11. Engineering Drawing
  12. 12. Engineering Drawing Definition A language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.
  13. 13. Engineering Drawing Function 1. Information delivery 2. Preservation, archiving, use of information 3. Ways of thinking in the preparation of information
  14. 14. Some Examples of Engineering Drawing
  15. 15. Some Examples of Engineering Drawing
  16. 16. Some Examples of Engineering Drawing
  17. 17. Some Examples of Engineering Drawing
  18. 18. Some Examples of Engineering Drawing
  19. 19. Engineering Drawing
  20. 20. Elements of Engineering Drawing Engineering drawing are made up of graphics language and word language. Graphics language Describe a shape (mainly). Word language Describe size, location and specification of the object.
  21. 21. Basic Knowledge for Drafting Graphics language Word language Line types Geometric construction Lettering Projection method
  22. 22. Knowledge and Skills Require Graphics language Word language Dimensions & Notes Visualization is the ability to mentally picture things that do not exists. Visualization Using line types Geometric construction Projection method Engineering Drawing
  25. 25. PROJECTION METHOD Perspective Oblique Orthographic Axonometric Multiview Parallel
  26. 26. PROJECTION THEORY The projection theory is based on two variables: 1) Line of sight 2) Plane of projection (image plane or picture plane) The projection theory is used to graphically represent 3-D objects on 2-D media (paper, computer screen).
  27. 27. Line of sight (LOS) is an imaginary ray of light between an observer’s eye and an object. Line of sight Parallel projection Line of sight Perspective projection There are 2 types of LOS : parallel converge and
  28. 28. Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane which the image is created. The image is produced by connecting the points where the LOS pierce the projection plane. Parallel projection Perspective projection Plane of projection Plane of projection
  29. 29. Disadvantage of Perspective Projection Perspective projection is not used by engineer for manu- facturing of parts, because 1) It is difficult to create. 2) It does not reveal exact shape and size. Width is distorted
  30. 30. Orthographic Projection
  31. 31. 5 Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular to the projection plane MEANING Object views from top Projection plane 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4
  32. 32. ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW Orthographic view depends on relative position of the object to the line of sight. Two dimensions of an object is shown. Three dimensions of an object is shown. Rotate Tilt More than one view is needed to represent the object. Multiview drawing Axonometric drawing
  33. 33. Orthographic Projection
  34. 34. Orthographic projection technique can produce either 1. Multiview drawing that each view show an object in two dimensions. 2. Axonometric drawing ‫االحداثي‬ ‫الرسم‬ that show all three dimensions of an object in one view. Both drawing types are used in technical drawing for communication. NOTES ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW
  35. 35. Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing ‫القياس‬ ‫متساوي‬ Easy to understand Right angle becomes obtuse angle. Circular hole becomes ellipse. Distortions of shape and size in isometric drawing Advantage Disadvantage Shape and angle distortion Example
  36. 36. Multiview Drawing It represents accurate shape and size. Advantage Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading. Multiviews drawing (2-view drawing) Example
  37. 37. SUMMARY • You should have a good understanding of the importance of engineering drawings in conveying information to other engineers. • You should understand what is meant by orthographic views, isometric drawing, and solid modeling. • You should understand the basic rules required for an engineering drawing, including showing dimensions, specifying material size, and indicating finished surfaces. • You should know when to use isometric views and sectional views.