Automation can be
explained as a process to
create, control and monitor
the applications of
technology. Automation is
the process of handling
the operation of equipment
such as processors,
machinery, stabilization of
ships, aircraft, boilers and
many applications with
minimum human efforts.
REASONS FOR AUTOMATION
1. To increase labour productivity
2. To reduce labour cost
3. To mitigate the effects of labour
4. To reduce or eliminate routine
manual and clerical tasks
5. To improve worker safety
6. To improve product quality
7. To reduce manufacturing lead
8. To accomplish. processes that
cannot be done manually
9. To avoid the high cast of not
CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMATION
Base on hardware and
software. Three main
classification are :
1.Fixed (hard) automation –
involve hardware only
2.Programmable automation –
involve software only
3.Flexible automation –
involve hardware and
• Is a machine refer to totally
hardware that can operate
automatically without human
• Examples – door with spring load
– watch , gravity machine, water-
wheel, animal/wind – wheel.
• Used in low and medium
• Special machine for production
process efficiency at higher
number/rate of product.
• An Automatic machine and
numerical control machine is an
example of fixed automation
because the inner construction and
function can’t be change.
• Combination of hardware (machine)
and software (programmable).
• Example – Production line assemble,
Air condition, screen saver, traffic light,
• Used when rate of production are small
and there is a variation at the product.
• An equipment's can be easily change
their setup according to the product
configuration needs after the first
production is finish.
• More different/variety and unique
product can be produce economically in
• One set of program to control the whole
operation of product.
FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION - ROBOTICS
• Also known as “Flexible Manufacturing
System(FMS)” and “Computer Integrated
• Combination of hardware and software ( same as
programmable) but can easily changed during the
operation without waiting the whole operation
• It can be programmed for different configuration
product either at the beginning, middle or end of
the production according to the production
• But usually configuration product are limited
compare to the programming automation.
• Allows combination of certain system.
• In flexible automation, different product can be
made in the same time at the same manufacture
• Flexible Automation System mostly consist of
series of workstation that is connected to the
material operation and storage system, assembly
line and control of operation of work by using a
program for a different work station. Example –
Automobile assemble line.
Defined by Robotics Industry Association (RIA) as
“A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator
designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized
devices through variable programmed motion for a
variety of tasks”
• Law of Japan states that a robot is “All purpose
machine equipped with a memory device (for handling)
capable of replacing human labour for the automatic
performance of tasks”
• Robert Schilling defines a robot as “a software
controlled mechanical device that uses sensors to
guide one or more of its end effectors through various
programmed motions in a work space in order to
manipulate physical objects”
The word Robot comes from the
“Czech” word “ROBOTA”. Which
means “Forced labor.”
It is a Electromechanical device.
It perform various task.
It may be human controlled or
It finds its uses in all assets of our life
A robot is a device that is built to
independently perform actions and
interact with its surroundings.
TYPES OF ROBOTS AS
Now robots are used in a huge variety of industrial
applications. Several tasks which includes monotony,
precision, fortitude, speed, and consistency can be
completed much better by robots, that’s why many
manufacturing jobs that were done by humans are
progressively more being done by robots .
The Mobile robots are also named as Automatic Guided
Vehicles (AGVs) that is utilized at over huge sized places
such as hospitals for the transporting material. The
enhanced edition of the Automatic Guided Vehicles is
the SGV that is Self-Guided Vehicle that can be
individually navigate in a space .
Even though the thought of robots planting seeds,
ploughing fields, and gathering the crop may appear
directly an innovative science fiction book, therefore in
the practical levels there are several robots can be
applied for agricultural operations like that type of
robots who can pick cherries.
In the areas such as which are not safe to humans,
which are distant and which are remote these robots are
used. In the nuclear power plants rather than humans
Tele-robots are helpful that can manage harmful material
or get on functions potentially destructive for humans
Through utilization the robots which do not occur into
other sorts are the Service robots. These can be diverse
data collection robots, the robots are constructed in
order to illustrate off technologies; these robots are
utilized for research and utilized for many more things to
TYPES OF ROBOTS BY
LOCOMOTION & KINEMATICS
Cartesian robot /Gantry robot:
In order to pick and place task, sealant application,
assembly operations, management of machine tools
and arc welding the Cartesian robot is utilized. The 3
linear axes of freedom that are vertically oriented at one
another are contained in the Cartesian robots.
For the operations, machine tools management, spot
welding, and managing die-casting machines the
Cylindrical Robot are applied. A cylindrical coordinate
mechanism is generated by the axes of cylindrical
A polar coordinate mechanism is generated by the axes
of spherical robot also that’s why it is also named as
Comparative to the Cartesian and cylindrical robots the
polar robots are much complicated as the control
resolutions in it are minimally complex. These are used
for monitoring missions and also used underwater.
SCARA or Selective Compliance Assembly/ Articulated
Robot Arm are utilized for assembly purposes because
of its easy and unobstructed mounting. In order to
provide an observance in a plane has a couple of
corresponding rotary joints are contained in the
Because of the additional axes for the industrial
functions the Articulated Robot is much appropriate.
Generally 4 to 6 axes are there but it can be increased
up to 10. These are widely used in material handling,
dispensing, welding etc.
The other name of the Parallel Manipulator is the
Parallel robots. For this sort of robots the Flight
simulators are the finest instances that are utilized
through military and commercial pilots.
APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTS
Robots are used in assembling
of Auto vehicle.
Robots are used in to feed the
metal pieces into the blast
Robots are used in operation
work in medical.
Robots are used in laser beam
operation with high accuracy
Drone planes being used
in U.S army to keep a
watch on key enemy
installation and enemy
movement using thermal
Robots are mostly used
in space research.
Its can easily works in
harmful space where
human being cannot
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Robots are used in research &
development for better working in
To reduce human effort and
increase efficiency during varying
installation and assemblies.
Robotic Arms has an extensive scope of development. In the
close future the arms will be capable to execute every task as
humans and in far superior way. Imagination is the limit for
its future applications.
It can be an actual benefit for handicapped people, who are
paralyzed or lost their hands in some accident. The arm can
be trained to listen to the command from a human and
perform that task.
A Precise gesture controlled system is also possible. Wearable
devices can be used to send the command and control the
movements of the arm.
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is an immerging field of
research. BCI can be used to acquire signals from the human
brain and control the arm.