A homogenizer is a piece of laboratory equipment used for
the homogenization of various types of materials such as
tissue, plant, food, soil etc.
Homogenizers are mainly used in the pharmaceutical
industry in the manufacture of dispersion systems such as
emulsions and suspensions.
In addition they are also used in the manufacture of
liposome's, nanosuspensions, solid–lipid nanoparticles,
The main principle involved in the working of a
homogenizer is homogenization.
Homogenization , process in which one component is
made uniform throughout the other. Generally this
procedure involves reducing the size of the particles
of one component of the mixture and dispersing them
evenly throughout the other component
Homogenization encompasses techniques of
emulsification of one liquid into another, dispersing
solid particles uniformly in a product, and disrupting
Homogenization is defined as an intensive mixing of
mutually insoluble phases to obtain a suspension or
This particular machine is very much essential to
manufacture medicinal creams and lotions of required
It also helps to create more stable products as
compared to other equipments like stirrers, agitators
or colloid mills.
The uniformity in particle size is achieved by
applying pressure and stress.
Homogenizers also ensure the product with higher
stability, a longer shelf life and clinically more
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High Pressure Homogenisation is a process of
increasing the consistency of a product by
means of dispersions. The product is displaced
under the generation of high pressure and is
forced through homogenising valve gap.
Cavitations turbulence and sheer force break
the product into particles of size less than 1
Effect of homogenization on fat and casein fractions in fluid milk
The pump forces liquid into the valve area at a high pressure.
As the product is forced through the adjustable gap , its
velocity increases tremendously with a corresponding decrease
The emerging product then impinges on the impact ring(2).
This sudden change in energy causes increased Turbulence,
shear, and cavitation, resulting in droplet size reduction and
uniform dispersion of particles.
High pressure homogenizers are used in emulsification,
preparation of microparticles and nanodispersions, liposomes,
and in cell disruption.
Single stage and two stage homogenization are
High pressure homogenizer can smash bacterial cell,
fungal cell and other kinds of cells, with a reduction
rate of more than 90%.
The core parts of our high pressure homogenizer are
made of high strength materials, and hence they have
a long service life.
Special feeding device can avoid air plug
Clean-in-place and sterilization-in-place are
Circulation cooling system is optional, for the
cooling protection of multiple processes.
High pressure homogenizer is designed with a
compact structure. It is safe to use and is easy
to install, operate and maintain.
1. High-pressure homogenizer is widely used to process food,
beverage, pharmaceuticals, dairy, and chemicals, etc.
2. It can be used as milk homogenizer, beverage mixer and ice cream
3. Our high pressure homogenizer can process feed liquid into fine
materials and mix them under the action of crushing, strong impact
and expansion caused by loss of pressure.
4. Applied in the production of emulsion, jelly, fruit juice and seriflux,
high pressure homogenizer can avoid or decrease the delamination
of liquid material.
5. Besides, high pressure homogenizer can also improve the
appearance of liquid materials, making it more colorful, fragrant
6. It can also be used as high pressure transmission pump. high
pressure homogenizer can be used in the production of powder.
TYPES OF HOMOGENIZERS
Various types of homogenizers used in
pharmaceutical industries are
a) High pressure homogenizer
b) Micro fluidizer
c) Rotor-Stator homogenizer
d) Ultrasonic homogenizer
HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZER
Auguste Gaulin introduced the first high-pressure homogenizer in
1900 for homogenizing milk.
The basic high-pressure homogenizer consists of a positive
displacement pump attached to a homogenizing valve assembly .
Laboratory scale model of a Gaulin type high pressure homogenizer.
• The microfluidizer is a high-pressure homogenizer works, on
a different principle.
• The pre-homogenized liquid is forced through an interaction
chamber using a high-pressure pump.
• The interaction chamber consists of ceramic microchannels,
which cause the liquid feed to split into two streams.
• These streams are then recombined at very high velocities
producing forces of shear, impact, and cavitation, which cause
droplet or particle-size reduction in emulsions and
• Rotor-stator mixers are capable of handling liquids at
much higher viscosities, compared to high-pressure
homogenizer and the microfluidizer.
• A rotor-stator homogenizer consists of an impeller in
close tolerance to a stationary housing, which restricts the
flow of liquid caused by the impeller movement. Shear
and impact comminute particles and droplets caught
between the rotor and stator.
• Similar to colloidal mill the gap between the rotating
truncated cone (rotor) and its housing (stator) is
An ultrasonic homogenizer consists of a generator,
converter, and horn tip.
The converter consists of a piezoelectric quartz
crystal, which transforms electrical energy into high
intensity vibrations and transmits them to the horn tip
immersed in the liquid. Droplet size reduction occurs
mainly by intense shock waves generated in close
proximity to the tip.
Droplet size reduction in ultrasonic homogenizers is
affected by sonication intensity, viscosity of the
mixture, emulsifier concentration, and time of
validation is defined as documented evidence that
helps to prove that the systems, facilities and process
perform their job adequately and consistent by as
Aim: To assure that the equipment is properly installed
according to the specifications.
Purpose of facility equipment
Design and construction details
Details of services required
1.Obtain manufacturing recommendations for installation site
2.Check the site for fulfillment of manufacturing
3.Allow sufficient shelf space for equipment SOPS.
Check the documentation for operating manuals, maintenance
Check equipment for any damage.
Switch on the instrument and ensure that all the modules
power up and perform electronic, self test.
Prepare an installation report.
1. Carefully unpack and examine shipment. Any damage
claims should be field with the carrier immediately.
2. Remove the nuts and bolts on the four inch clamp
3. Assemble the bladder on to the adapter plate.
4. After installing the shock absorber valve o-ring, install
the shock absorber valve assembly snugly on to the
5. Then, slide the bladder adapter plate assembly in to the
6. Insert the dampner screen in to the dampner housing and
centre the supporting ring in the gasket.
7. Assemble the bolts and nuts and tighten.
Check manufacture and
Verify model number
and serial number
Check for any physical
List of change parts
The HPH consists of a high pressure pump driven by a
For higher flow rates and a pulsation free volume up to
4 high pressure pumps are used.
Due to the reduction of cross section in the
homogenizing valve a high pressure is built up in front
of the valve by the constant flow from the pump.
The pressure is relieved.
Highly turbulent streams.
Size reduction and mixing.
It is a process of demonstrating that an instrument will
functions according to its operational specifications in
Functioning of switches and indicator lights.
Check and calibration of sensors, probes, guages, air
Equipment integrity and efficiency tests.
Operational Qualification of HPH
Install an air line with a pressure reducing valve and a
tire inflating chuck in close proximity to the dampner
Change the bladder. Determination of the pre-charge
Install the steam pump.
Check the bladder pressure once in a week and
recharge as needed.
Verify alarm control
Perform calibration requirements, identified in the manual or
established by the validation team.
Operate the equipment at low, medium, and high speed per
operations manual to verify the operating control
Verify that all switches and push buttons are functioning properly.
Establish procedures for operation, maintenance, and calibration.
Establish training program for relevant staff.
First of all solution is introduced into the
homogenizing equipment, which is further
forced through a special valve, that too at
extremely high pressure. The large particles
then are reduced to a smaller size according to
Validation is a requirement for good manufacturing practices and
other regulatory requirements.
Qualification and validation only appear to be the beginning of a
continous development process in the quality assurance of the
The goal is to produce certain assurance of batch uniformity and
integrity of the product manufactured.
Pharmaceutical validation and process control are necessary to
ensure that the drug product will meet/ set pharmaceutical standards
for identity, strength, quality, evaluation safety and efficacy.
Continuous awareness of validation requirements and application of
validation principles will thus help to ensure that pharmaceutical
products will be able to be developed and produced with the quality
and reproducibility required from regulatory agencies across the
Validation of pharmaceutical equipment is necessary to know about
the equipment is properly working.
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Akers, J, “Simplifying and improving process validation”,
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Chows, “Pharmaceutical Validation and Process Controls in drug
development”, Drug Inf journal,(31); 195-201(1997).
Haider,s.J, “Validation Master Plan and guide lines for DQ,IQ,OQ
and PQ”, Validation standard operating procedures,vol2;14-
Harder,S.W, “The validation of cleaning procedures”,
Hoffmann ,a,simonium,k.j,plattener,m, “Computer system
validation:an overview of official requirements and standards”,
Pharmaceutical ACTA Helvetiae,72(6):317-325 (1998).
• Jatto ,E,okhamafe,A.O, “An over view of pharmaceutical
validation and process controls in drug development”, Tropical
Journal of Pharmaceutical research” ,1(2):115-122(2002).
• Lachman ,L,Lieberman,H.A,Kanig,J.L, “The Theory and Practise
of Industrial Pharmacy”,(3):832-833(1990). Peither,L.T,“Equipment
and facility Qualification”, pharmaceutical process validation, Nash,
r. a, watcher, a. h, (3): 443-462 (2003).
• Tracy,D.S,Nash,R.A, “A validation approach for laboratory
information management system", Journal of validation
• www.pdh center.com
• www.pdh online.org
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