Prepared By : Mazadul Hasan sheshir
Batch (session 2009-2013)
Department : Wet Processing Technology
Blog : www. Textilelab.blogspot.com (visit)
Department Of Textile Engineering
I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh
Prepared By :
To Classify Dyeing & Finishing Machinery
To Know Function of The Machinery
To Know Working Process of The Machinery
To Know Some Brand Name
To Know Advantage & Disadvantage
Dyeing is a coloration process of textile which is invariable carried out in an aqueous
In the other hand, dyeing can be define as a process by which a yarn, fabric, garments
and any other materials that come to contact of dye by presence of auxiliaries that
create the condition of dyeing environment
The machine which is used to dyeing or coloring of materials like yarn, fabric,
garments or any other materials is called dyeing machine.
Dyeing machines come in all shapes and sizes to accommodate the various forms
and quantities of textile materials. It is impossible to provide exhaustive coverage
of this field. Therefore, the most important types of machine, and their problems,
will be at the forefront.
• This types of machine consists of a cylindrical carrier, having
perforations over its surface, over which perforated spindles can be
placed, radiating from the surface.
• The top of the carrier is provided with a hook, by which an overhead
crane can lower into or raise from an outer cylindrical dye vessel.
• In case of this types of machine, carrier is filled with package and is
placed in the dye vessel by robotics system.
• This type of machine is suitable for scouring, bleaching, dyeing and
• According to objective chemicals and auxiliaries are pumped into
the dye vessel by centrifugal pump.
• Then due to circulation of dye liquor in the dye vessel pretreatment
or dyeing is performed.
Function & Feature:
• The material is dyed on cross wound packages ,therefore bigger unit
weight( 1.2 kg -1.5 kg for cotton) in dyeing is possible.
• Economical dyeing due to lower liquor ratio, compact and enclosed
dyeing vessels .
• Different liquor ratio is possible in different process steps such as
partial filling in washing and soaping and fully flooded in rinsing
make the process economical.
• More uniform dyeing is possible due to higher number of contacts at
high and optimized flow rates
• High temperature ,high pressure and high flow rates results into
shorter dyeing cycles
• Due to complete automation ,the machines are less labor intensive.
The main advantages of package dyeing over other yarn dyeing methods are
• Modern machines with partial loading spindles are more flexible for
different size lots .
• Very less handling and damage to dyed substrate ,due to shorter
• All operations from pretreatment to hydro extraction in single
machine are possible
• The package dyeing machines are more versatile because almost all
type of substrates can be dyed and almost all types of dyestuffs
applications is possible.
• The same machines can be used for multiple make ups such as yarn,
fiber, tow ,tops, bumps and beams on suitable dyeing carriers.
• Most advanced machines are equipped with pH regulators and
controllers and salt sensors to for achieving very reliable and
• The OBEM API/V
machines are the
traditional type, vertical
kier dyeing machines
• They are really the multi-
apparatuses for processing
all kind of fibres and in
any type of form like in
packages, tops, loose fibre
and tow, only by changing
• The API/V capacity is
variable from 20 to
• Low liquor ratio, variable
from 1:3 to 1:8
• PLC Controlled.
• Fully automatic.
OBEM API/V Package Dyeing Machine:
• Inner rotating fabric chamber ensures positive fabric transport and gentle treatment of
• Electro-pneumatic operated valves
• Adjustable winch drive combined with programmable nozzle pressure permits fabric
speeds of 40-400 m/min
• Analog Dosing Fully automated dosing of dyes and auxiliaries according to a
programmed time and curve (also under HT conditions)
• Analog level - dyeing kier Controls the liquor level in the machine usig an electrical
• Max. operating temperatures to 100°C and 140°C
• Automatic control via industrial PC
Technical Details of Roto Master (Thies):
Winch dyeing machine:
A dyeing machine consisting essentially of a dye vessel fitted with a driven winch
(usually above the liquor level) which rotates and draws a length of fabric, normally
joined end to end, through the liquor
In all winch dyeing machines a series of fabric ropes of equal length are immersed in
the dye bath but part of each rope is taken over two reels. Winch dyeing machines
are a low cost design that is simple to operate and maintain.
Principle of winch dyeing machine:
The basic principle of all winch dyeing machines is to have a number of loops or ropes of
the fabric in the dye bath, these ropes are of equal length, which are mostly immersed in
the liquor in the bath.
The upper part of each rope runs over two reels which are mounted over dye bath. At the
front of the machine, above the top of the dye liquor, is a smaller reel, which is called
jockey or fly roller. The fly roller remains freewheeling along with fabric rope.
At the back of winch tank is the winch wheel, which pulls the fabric rope from the dye bath
over the jockey reel for dropping in the dye bath for immersion.
From the dropped location, the fabric rope travels back. To be lifted and fed to winch
The dyeing process on winch dyeing machines is based on higher M: L as compared with
other dyeing machines.
The process is conducted with very little tension.
The total dyeing time is lengthier as compared to other machines.
Advantages of Winch Dyeing:
Construction and operation of winch are very simple.
The winch dyeing machines are suitable for types of wet processing
operations from desizing to softening.
The winch dyeing machine is suitable for practically all types of
fabrics, which can withstand creasing in rope form processing.
The tension exerted on winch is less than jigger; the material thus dyed
is with fuller hand.
The appearance of the dyed goods is clean and smooth on winch
Limitations of Winch Dyeing :
Batch dyeing operations needs trimming, sewing, opening out the rope, loading
and unloading for individual lots separately.
Since several lengths of fabric are run over the winch reel into the liquor and
sewn end to end, Continuous length processing is not possible in a single batch.
Fabric is processed in rope form which may lead to crease marks, particularly
in heavy, woven, thin and light synthetics.
Most of the machine works under atmospheric conditions.
Jet Dyeing Machine:
A machine used for dyeing of fabric in rope form. Jet dyeing machines came into
existence with a purpose to minimize or eliminate the drawbacks of earlier
machines like winch , jigger and beam dyeing units.
Jet dyeing is a process that can be used for batch dyeing operations such as dyeing,
bleaching, washing and rinsing. In this process, dyeing is accomplished in a closed
tubular system, basically composed of an impeller pump and a shallow dye bath.
The fabric to be dyed is loosely collapsed in a form of a rope, and tied into a loop.
The impeller pump supplies a jet of dye solution, propelled by water and/or
air, which transport the fabric within the dyeing system ,surrounded by dye liquor ,
under optimum conditions. Turbulence created by the jet aids in dye penetration and
prevents the fabric from touching the walls of the tube, thus minimizing mechanical
impact on the fabric.
Overflow Dyeing Machine
Functioning of a Overflow Dyeing Machine:
A typical Overflow Dyeing Machine works like
this. A winch that is not motor driven usually is
located in the top side of the machine where the
fabric is hanged.
A longer length of textile is made to hang from
the exit side of the winch as compared to the inlet
By applying the force of gravitation the longer
length of textile is pulled downward more
strongly than the shorter one.
Consequently the fabric is soaked in the bath
without any sort of tension. The following
diagram well illustrates the working process.
Advantages: No evaporative losses, No build up of steam condensate in the dyebath,
Low liquor ratios, Excellent dye liquor contact, Computer control
HTHP Soft-flow Dyeing Machine
Compact body made of stainless steel.
High efficiency heat exchanger for quick heating/cooling.
Compact body made of stainless steel.
Heating rate - around 4°C/Min upto 900°C - around 3°C/Min upto 135°C At steam
pressure of 6 Bar.
Cooling Rate- around 4°C/ Min At water pressure of 4 Bar and 15°C.
Maximum working temp is 135°C.
Maximum working pressure of 3.2 Bar.
Control manual as well as automatic.
Heavy duty stainless steel pump.
Airflow Dyeing Machine
Features of Air flow Jet Dyeing Machine:
Completely Separated circuit for liquor circulation without
getting in touch with the textile
Bath less Dyeing operation
Rinsing process offers all the added benefits of continuous
processing as it is no longer a batch operation
Extremely low liquor ratio
Virtually non stop process
Comparatively lesser energy requirement due to faster heating/cooling and optimum
heat recovery from the hot exhausted dye liquors
Reduction in consumption of the chemicals (e.g. salt) dosage of which is based on the
amount of dye bath
Lesser water consumption savings up to 50% from the conventional Jet dyeing
Sensitivity towards ecology
More safety while dyeing
Limitations of Jet dyeing machines
High Initial investments and maintenance cost.
Limited accessibility during the dyeing process.
Foam forming substances are to be avoided.
Any roughness of the inside surface cause damage to cloth
In case of cloth breakage , rethreading is complicated
Extrction: 65% Maximum
Speed : 1000-1400rpm
Extraction time : 5-10in
Function : To remove excess water from fabric by centrifugal extraction.
Moving baskets are round and made of
steel. There are a lot of holes On the down
side of this basket. Through this holes water
can be drained out. It is located at the
centre of the machine and is rotated by an
Dewatering or Squeezer Machine:
-Open the fabric
from the rope form.
-Apply overfeed to
-Plait the fabric.
Slitting is a process that is applied for cutting the tubular fabric through the intended
brake Wales lime on length wise direction prior to stenter processing.
Rotary blade: To cut the fabric through break wales line
Ring: To help cutting
Guide Roller: To guide the fabric to plaiting
Plaiting: To plate the fabric
Sensor: sense for cutting through break wales line
FUNCTIONAL SELECTION LEGEND
1 – Fabric Brake 13 – Felt Centering Rollers
2 – Fabric Feeding roller 14 – Felt Tensioning Rollers
3 – Beater 15 – Heated Roller
4 – Safety Photocell indicating Lack of Fabric 16 – Felt Drawing Rollers Covered with Rubber
5 – Fabric Conveyor Belt 17 – Rollers with Loading Cell for automatic Fabric Tension
6 – Photocell Loop Control 18 – Exit Belt Drawing Roller
7 – Operator Platform 19 – Fabric Conveyor Belt
8 – Re – directing Roller 20 – Movable Arms
9 – Automatic Spreader Mod. ALBATROS 21 – Fabric Conveyance Hopper
10 – Steaming Chamber 22 – Plaiting Roller
11 – Motorized Adjustable Rollers 23 – Fold Pressing Device
12 – Felt Re – directing Adjustable Rollers 24 – Plaiting Platform
A – Ring Spreader for Tubular Fabric C – Cardboard Positioning Device
B – Cooling Chamber at Exit D – Cutting Device
Apply chemical and softener
To dart set the T/C fabric
Drying of fabric
To control width
Curing of fabric
Apply pigment dyeing
To control GSM
To control shrinkage
To decrease spirality
To decrease bowing effect
Surface coating for teflon finish
Apply soil release chemical finish
Heat set for cotton/lycra fabric
Figure: Stenter Machine
Description of SWASTIK Singeing & De-sizing Machines
Sr No Description
1. Tension Unit With Guide Rollers & Bars
2. S.S. Pre-drying Cylinder (Optional)
3. Pre-bushing Unit With Suction
4. Singeing Chamber With Exhaust
5. Water-cooled Roller
6. Water-cooled Burner
7. Carburetor With Blower
8. Steam Quenching Device
9. Post Brushing With Suction (Optional)
10. De-sizing Unit St-12/St-15
11. Squeezing Mangle 3 Tons.
12. Main Drive (A.C. Motor With Frequency Controller)
Feature of SWASTIK Singeing & De-sizing Machines
Special burners, two of which are provided for the machine. These burners have a particular
combustion chamber and are provided with water-cooling arrangement. The cloth can be
threaded so as to allow singeing of either one or both sides. It is essential to note that the gas
consumption per meter of fabric is less as compared with a machine of conventional design.
Both burners are titled away simultaneously (by 45º) by electro-magnets.
High Singeing speeds, infinitely variable between 80 mts. To 150 mtrs/min.
Excellent and uniform singeing effect with economical gas consumption.
Burners turning away automatically when the machine stops.
Efficient dust extraction device
De-sizing compartment with 12 /16 mts. Contents can be provided with a suitable squeezing
• Building block structure, suit for different weight fabric and different
• High liquid supply system can increase pick-up of liquid quantity, it makes
the fabric suck the chemicals equally and fully.
• The upper guide rollers of combination steamer are adjusted by frequency
conversion transmission. It reduces crinkles due to changes of tension and
meets the requirement of high-density poplin.
• The fabric is heated enough before folding to insure the chemicals
• This structure makes the saturated steam easy to penetrate and keeps
temperature and humidity of the fabric so that it ensures the consistency of
the scouring & bleaching.
• It is not easy to get crinkles
• Roller width: 1800-3600mm
• Machine speed: 15-80m/min
• Drive: PLC, AC motor with inverter
Feture of Scouring & Bleaching Range:
Jigger Dyeing Machine:
Figure: Thies Jigger
Atmospheric (up to 98°C) & HT
Economical dyeing & Low liquor ratio
Fabric tension: 50-800 N
Fabric speed: 10-150 m/min
Fabric width: max. 5400 mm
Roller width: max. 5600 mm
A Jig Dyeing machine, is an efficient dyeing technique. It is also known by the name of
jigger. Jig Dyeing machine processes fabrics in open width to avoid creasing problems in
fabric dyeing. The process works like this. The Jig Dyeing machine operates by
transferring the fabric back and forth. This happens from roller to roller via the medium of
a dyebath, that is located at the base of the machine. As soon as the second roller gets full,
the direction of movement of fabric can be reversed. In Jig dyeing, the duration of the
process is measured on the basis of the number of passages or ends of the fabric passing
through the dye bath from roller to roller. The end in dyeing parlance is known as the
passing of fabric through a dye liquor from one roller to the other one.
Function of Jigger Dyeing Machine:
Latest in Jig Dyeing Machines:
Operates by electricity, and fully controlled by a
Cutting edge technology in the form of speed
measuring device on foot roll barrel. This helps in
maintaining uniform line speed along with a reliable
Comes with built in dye solution circulatory system
and charging system.
Use of latest technologies in the form of automatic:
Pad Batch Dyeing machine:
Pad Batch Dyeing machine is one of the widely used technique for semi-continuous
dyeing process. It is mainly used in the dyeing of cellulosic fibre like cotton or viscose
(knit and woven fabric) with reactive dyes. The characteristics of this machine is simple,
and flexible and a substantial reduction in capital investment for equipment.
Schematic layout of a pad-batch:
Types of Pad-batch dyeing machine:
Pad-batch process (semi-
Pad-roll process (semi-
Pad-jig process (semi-
Special Features of Pad Batch Dyeing Process:
Significant cost and waste reduction as compared to other conventional dyeing
Excellent wet fastness properties.
A uniform dye quality is achieved with even color absorbency and color fastness.
As compared to rope dyeing, Pad batch dyeing produces much lower defect levels
In pad batch dyeing, qualities like high shade reliability and repeatability are
common. This is because of high reactivity dyes with rapid fixation rate and
Open with mercerizing machine for all kind of cotton & cotton blended as well as PES
It will improve the fabric luster, increase the flexibility of the fabric and reduce dyestuff
During mercerization fabric is treated with 15% NaOH under high tension and pressure.
Better shrinkage results thanks to the high tech drive system with load
Extremely constant shrinkage results thanks to automatic shrinkage
Production output increased by 20 – 40 % due to an improved
geometrical design of the rubber belt unit
Extended life span of the rubber belt due to larger diameter of
compression and tensioning rollers and an optimized cooling system
Reproducible results as all machine parameters are automated with
recipe administration software. No manual settings (e. g. valves, handwheels)
Rubber belt resurfacing/grinding unit fully integrated into the machine
(no mounting of external unit necessary) – grinding process controlled via PLC to
avoid operation errors
Very solid and long lasting machine design with minimized vibrations to ensure a
smooth fabric run
All bearings are located outside the wet to avoid corrosion
Feature of OWER-SHRINK Sanforizing machine (Brückner):