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Assessing Students Learning in Outcome-based Education
IER, University of the Punjab
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
• Research Questions
• Outcome-based education (OBE), a recurring education reform
model. It is a student-centered learning philosophy that focuses
on empirically measuring student performance, which is called
• An outcomes-based approach to education clearly specifies
what students are expected to learn and arranges the
curriculum such that these intended outcomes are achieved
• OBE is a process of curriculum design, teaching, learning and
• focuses on what students can actually do (i.e., learning
outcomes) after they are taught. It
• attempts to embrace learning outcomes with the knowledge,
skills, attitudes and values that
• match the immediate social, economic and cultural environment
• In order for this approach to succeed, learning outcomes must
• 1) Clearly articulated in a way that is contextualized within the
• 2) Communicated broadly;
• 3) Used to inform and influence decisions about the curriculum;
• 4) Monitored regularly to ensure that they remain current and
accurately reflect the intent of the degree program.(Manogue
and Brown, 2007; Harden, 2007a).
• Assessing and evidencing learning outcomes are inherently
complex tasks that are best approached through a
comprehensive process, involving multiple methods and
stakeholders (Green et al., 2009).
• When implemented effectively, learning outcomes assessment
can provide evidence of student learning and progression, and
prioritize recommendations for continuous curriculum
improvement (Cummings et al., 2008).
• OBE aims to assess the competences of learners in their totality. It takes a
holistic approach in describing the competence of a learner in terms of
knowledge,skills and values, and assessing competence by using a variety
of assessment approaches. In fact, the smallest unit of assessment must
cover the integrated knowledge, skills and values that apply in practice in a
specialized context (Department of Education,1998:26).
• Assessment of knowledge, values and skills relates to assess elements in
the cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning domains. The taxonomies
of Bloom (cognitive domain), Krathwohl (affective do main) and Harrow
(psychomotor domain) remain invaluable frameworks for assessing acquired
knowledge,skills and values in terms of OBE (Van derHorst & McDonald,
PROBLEM STATEMENTS/RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
• I will focus on the following questions in this term paper.
• 1. How assessment is being done in outcome-based education?
• 2. How can teachers measure students learning in outcome-based
• 3. What are the methods used for assessing students learning in outcome-
• All the above mentioned questions (and many more like these) will be
discussed in this term paper with limited details.
• The reason, why did I choose these types of problem statements is that,
assessment is the major source which can tell us; whether the results are
valid and reliable?
• The main objectives to write this paper are that;
• It will help you to learn about the assessment criteria in outcome-based education.
• It will help you to understand the best ways to assess students learning in outcome-based
• It will help teachers to design the better criteria for assessing students learning in
• It will help you to analyze the assessment procedures in outcome-based education.
• It will help you to know that, whether the assessment techniques were used in past were
the same which we have nowadays.
• It will help you to analyze the different methods of students learning assessment in
• It will also help you to understand the advantages and disadvantages of outcome-based
• The methodology, which I adopted to design this term paper is
that I have studied some books, articles, journals with the help
of internet, IER library and University of the Punjab’s main
• I have also seen some of the presentations of outcome-based
education (OBE) on different websites, which have been a
wonderful experience to learn and understand (OBE) in an easy
way. Therefore, I have been able to write this term paper.
• I have also included my own understanding from my past
academic experiences and the point of view of my teachers,
class fellows and colleagues.
FEATURES OF AN OUTCOMES BASED APPROACH TO
1. Emphasis is on outputs or end products
2. Outcomes based assessment is criterion referenced
3. Outcomes based assessment is continuous
4. Outcomes based assessment is used for formative and summative
5. Outcomes based assessment is concerned with issues of reliability and
6. Outcomes based assessment practices are valid
7. Outcomes based assessment includes integrated assessment
8. Outcomes based assessment is aligned with other aspects of the
IMPLEMENTING OUTCOMES BASED
• Focus on one of the courses/modules which you currently teach and
ask the question: “What are the specific outcomes which I expect
students to demonstrate upon completion of this course?”
• Evaluate your current assessment methods for the course/module
• Explore ways of modifying/expanding your current assessment
procedures so that they are more aligned with the outcomes set for
• Set assessment criteria for the assessment of a task in your course.
Suggest ways that you could negotiate these with students.
• Design/select your Assessment Task
• Identify appropriate sections of Assessment Task
• Set Criteria Statements
• Outcomes or objectives are clearly and publicly stated.
• Teaching is focused toward those stated objectives.
• Student learning is monitored frequently.
• Teaching and learning are adjusted frequently, so that students
have sufficient opportunity to master the objectives.
• Assessments reflect stated objectives and actual opportunities
for student learning.
• A management system monitors the extent to which students
have demonstrated achievement of the specified outcomes.