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1) In pre-historic times – Cultivation of land after
cutting down forests
2) Formation of Tribes – Tribal Wars – Formation of
3) “ Land ownership depends on ability of the man
to cultivate land.” was the policy given by
Kautilya in his Arthshastra.
4) In Vedic Age –
A) Area cleared of jungles – belonged to man.
B) Injured animal – belonged to the archer
5) The entire area basically belonged to the king.
6) In Mugal period – Jagirs = Rights over land
- Authority given = Manasab
7) The British introduced new regulations but
respected the old conditions.
8) In independent India – Abolishment of Watan
9) Rayatwari System.
1. Land Means - A) Area covered by land
B) Area covered by oceans
c) Land prepared by filling
D) Land on the moon
E) Land in Antarctica
F) Land on Mars
To Land Owner / Land Holder - Proof of Ownership
For the Tenant - C
Cultivator - For Possession and
the Rights of Tenancy
For Administration - For Revenue, Planning &
At present there are 4 crore pending court cases
At least 8 crore parties involved
8x5 = 40 crore people directly involved
Property = main reason for court cases
Property = main reason in criminal cases also
Will take 320 years to decide the pending cases at
present rate of disposal
“JUSTICE DELAYED IS JUSTICE DENIED.”
3279 Central Acts in India
30000 Acts of various states
Exact number of Acts made by legislative bodies –
Less Justice !!!
Not keeping given word
Ignorance of Laws
Social Causes like ambition, jealousy, enmity,
social reasons etc.
1 Clerical Mistake
2. Procedural Mistake
3. Ignorance of Laws
4. Mistakes due to wrong interpretation of Laws
5. Improper guidance by Senior
6. Basic mistakes in Land Records
7. Overstepping time limits
Rayatwari System of Land Ownership - Land
Owner d l di
deals directly with th G t
ith the Govt.
Lands that do not belong to any person roads, rivers, streams, etc.
roads rivers streams etc are all Govt
Land Occupancy – Transferable & Heritable
Land revenue is paramount charge on land
Limited rights in land
Types of occupancy - a) Occupancy Class - 1
b) Occupancy Class - 2
c) G t l s
1. Recording of Rights
2. Can not decide
disputes of ownership
3. Decision is taken on
basis of past records &
1. Decides ownership of
Rights in land
2. Authority to decide
- land rights,
ownership rights &
any other rights
3. Decision is taken on
basis of original
records & documents
4. No authority in
4. Only revenue officers
have authority in tenancy
5. All Records are for
5. Full authority on
possession & ownership
S D O / Collector
Tribunal(M R T )