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BRICKS - Construction materials and testing

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Bricks
Introduction
Types of Bricks
Types of Blocks
Bricks and its Constituent
Manufacture of Clay Bricks
Classification of Burnt Clay Bricks
Properties of Burnt Clay Bricks
Testing of Bricks and Blocks
Special Bricks
Burnt Clay Facing Bricks
Heavy Duty Bricks
Perforated Building Bricks
Burnt Clay Hollow Bricks
Sand Lime Bricks
Sewer Bricks
Acid Resistant Bricks
Refractory Bricks
Building Tiles Earthenware

Publicada em: Engenharia
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BRICKS - Construction materials and testing

  1. 1. 1 Bricks Even a brick wants to be something. -Louis Kahan
  2. 2. Introduction A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay hardened by heat, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, and may be laid in various kinds of mortar to hold the bricks together to make a durable structure. Block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed mainly of concrete It is usually larger than a brick. 2
  3. 3. ----- 3 Kiln
  4. 4. Some Structures Made of BRICKS 4
  5. 5. ----- 5 Ancient Jetavanaramaya Stupa (Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka)
  6. 6. ----- 6 Victoria Building (University of Liverpool, England)
  7. 7. ----- 7 St, Martin’s Church (Landshut, Germany)
  8. 8. ----- 8 Malbork Castle (Malbork, Poland)
  9. 9. Types of Bricks Common Burnt Clay Bricks Sand Lime Bricks (Calcium Silicate Bricks) Engineering Bricks Concrete Bricks Fly ash Clay Bricks 9
  10. 10. Common Burnt Clay Bricks Common burnt clay bricks are formed by pressing in molds. Then these bricks are dried and fired in a kiln. Common burnt clay bricks are used in general work with no special attractive appearances. When these bricks are used in walls, they require plastering or rendering. 10
  11. 11. Sand Lime Bricks Sand lime bricks are made by mixing sand, fly ash and lime followed by a chemical process during wet mixing. The mix is then molded under pressure forming the brick. These bricks can offer advantages over clay bricks such as: 11
  12. 12. 12 • Their color appearance is gray instead of the regular reddish color. • Their shape is uniform and presents a smoother finish that doesn’t require plastering. • These bricks offer excellent strength as a load- bearing member.
  13. 13. Engineering Bricks Engineering bricks are bricks manufactured at extremely high temperatures, forming a dense and strong brick, allowing the brick to limit strength and water absorption. 13
  14. 14. Concrete Bricks Concrete bricks are made from solid concrete and are very common among homebuilders. Concrete bricks are usually placed in facades, fences, and provide an excellent aesthetic presence. These bricks can be manufactured to provide different colors as pigmented during its production. 14
  15. 15. Fly Ash Clay Bricks Fly ash clay bricks are manufactured with clay and fly ash, at high temperature. Some studies have shown that these bricks tend to fail poor produce pop-outs, when bricks come into contact with moisture and water, causing the bricks to expand. 15
  16. 16. Types of Blocks Stretcher block Corner block Pillar block Jamb block Partition block Lintel block Frogged brick block Bull nose block 16 Solid concrete blocks are commonly used, which are heavy in weight and manufactured from dense aggregate. They are very strong and provides good stability to the structures. So for large work of masonry like for load bearing walls these solid blocks are preferable. They are available in large sizes compared to bricks. Hollow Concrete Blocks Hollow concrete blocks contains void area greater than 25% of gross area. Solid area of hollow bricks should be more than 50%.
  17. 17. Stretcher Blocks Stretcher blocks are used to join the corner in the masonry. Stretcher blocks are widely used concrete hollow blocks in construction. They are laid with their length parallel to the face of the wall. 17
  18. 18. Corner Blocks Corner blocks are used at the ends or corners of masonry. The ends may be window or door openings etc. they are arranged in a manner that their plane end visible to the outside and other end is locked with the stretcher block. 18
  19. 19. Pillar Blocks Pillar block is also called as double corner block. Generally these are used when two ends of the corner are visible. In case of piers or pillars these blocks are widely used. 19
  20. 20. Jamb Blocks Jamb blocks are used when there is an elaborated window opening in the wall. They are connected to stretcher and corner blocks. For the provision of double hung windows, jamb blocks are very useful to provide space for the casing members of window. 20
  21. 21. 21 Jamb Block
  22. 22. Partition Concrete Block Partition concrete blocks are generally used to build partition walls. Partition blocks have larger height than its breadth. Hollow part is divided into two to three components in case of partition blocks. 22
  23. 23. Lintel Blocks Lintel block or beam block is used for the purpose of provision of beam or lintel beam. Lintel beam is generally provided on the top portion of doors and windows, which bears the load coming from top. Concrete lintel blocks have deep groove along the length of block as shown. After placing the blocks, this groove is filled with concrete along with reinforcement. 23
  24. 24. 24 Lintel Block
  25. 25. Frogged Brick Blocks Frogged brick block contains a frog on its top along with header and stretcher like frogged brick. This frog will helps the block to hold mortar and to develop the strong bond with top laying block. 25
  26. 26. Bullnose Concrete Block Bullnose blocks are similar to corner blocks. Their duties also same but when we want rounded edges at corner bullnose bricks are preferred. 26
  27. 27. Bricks and It's Constituents Plastic or Pure Clay Loam or Sandy Clay Marls 27 Bricks are easily molded from plastic clays also known as bricks or brick earth Three Different Kinds of Bricks
  28. 28. Useful Constituents of Brick Earth Alumina (Al2O3) - the bricks constituents of clay, gives the plasticity necessary for molding into required shape. Silica (SiO2) - present in adequate quantity in a brick, preserved the form of the brick at high temperatures and prevent shrinkage, warping and undue hardness during drying and burning. Lime Iron Oxide - acts as flux and brings hardness in bricks Magnesia - influences the colors of bricks and gives yellow tint. 28
  29. 29. Harmful Constituents of Brick Earth Iron Pyrite Alkalies Carbonaceous Matters Pebbles Sulphate of Lime Magnesium Sulphate Sodium and Potassium Chlorides Reh and Kallar Vegetable Matters, Weed, etc. 29
  30. 30. Manufacture of Clay Bricks 30 The fundamentals of brick manufacturing have not changed over time. However technological advancement have made contemporary bricks plants substantially more efficient and have improved the overall quality of the products. A more complete knowledge of raw materials and their properties, better control of firing improved kiln designs and more advanced mechanization have all contributed to advancing the brick industry.
  31. 31. Types of Clay: Surface Clays Shales Fire Clays Raw Materials (CLAY) 31
  32. 32. Types of Clays it may be the up thrusts of older deposits. are clays that have been subjected to high pressure until they have nearly hardened into slate. are usually mined at deeper levels. Surface Clays 01 Shales Fire Clays 02 03 32
  33. 33. ----- 33 Process of Manufacture
  34. 34. 1. Selection of Site The site selected for the manufacture of bricks must have suitable soil available in sufficient quantity, otherwise unnecessary labor and transportations of the soil would be involved. The availability of materials near the site of the brick making is a great importance. It also necessary that the water and fuel, coal and wood are easily available in sufficient quantities. 34
  35. 35. 2. Preparation of Clay a. Weathering – the soil is left on heaps and exposed to weather for at least one month in cases where such weathering is considered necessary for soil. The purpose of weathering is to disintegrate big boulders of clay under the action of atmospheric agencies to make it uniform mass and also to eliminate the impurities which get oxidized. b. Tempering – After weathering the required quantity of water should be mixed with the soil to obtain the right consistency for molding. The quantity of water to be added may range from ¼ to 1/3 of the weight of soil, sandy soils requiring less water and the clayey soils requires more water The moistened soil is kneading the soil maybe plugged in a pug mill of suitable size corresponding the quantity of bricks to be manufactured. 35
  36. 36. a. Hand molding The tempered clay is forced in the mold in such a way that fills all the corners of the mould. Extra clay is removed by wooden strike. Mould is then lifted up and raw brick is left in the ground. 36 Moulding of Bricks
  37. 37. b. Machine moulding Is used where large number of bricks are to be made. 37 Moulding of Bricks
  38. 38. Types of Clays Plastic Clay Machine 01 Dry Clay Machines 02 38
  39. 39. 5. Burning of Bricks Bricks are burnt to remove the moisture present in the clay in the mixed state,to impart hardness and strength to the bricks. 39
  40. 40. Burning of Bricks Brick Clamp 01 Kiln Burning 02 40 are not permanent structure and that most of the fuel is incorporated in clays are permanent structure and have arrangement for introducing furl during the burning period
  41. 41. CLASSIFICATION OF BURNT CLAY On the basis of Quality On the basis of Manufacturer On the basis of Utility 41 BRICKS are classified as the following:
  42. 42. Sand Faced A faced brick shaped in a mold that has been sprinkled with sand to prevent clay from sticking to the mold. 42
  43. 43. Rustic A brick that has a rough-textured finish produced by covering it with sand, wire brushing, or impressing it with a pattern. These bricks are often in a variety of colors. 43
  44. 44. Multi-Coloured 44
  45. 45. Hand moulded 45
  46. 46. Machine moulded 46
  47. 47. First Class Bricks (Grade-A) Well burnt in kilns, table mouled and rectangular with sharp edges. Surface is clean, smooth and has no cracks. Very hard Mainly used for face-worked structured or used for superior work. 47
  48. 48. Second Class Bricks (Grade-B) Burnt in clamps and ground-moulded but with little irregular in shape. Surface of bricks is rough and have spots. Hard Mainly used for ordinary structures and also used at places where brick work is to be provided with plaster coat. 48
  49. 49. Third Class Bricks (Grade-C) Ground-moulded and burnt in clamps. Have distorted edges. Slightly soft. Used for important and temporary structure and at place where rainfall is not heavy. 49
  50. 50. Fourth Class Bricks (Grade-D) Over burnt bricks. Have irregular surface and dark color. Very hard Used as aggregates for concrete foundations, floor, roads etc. 50
  51. 51. Colour of brick should be bright and uniform. Bricks should have uniform shape and standard size. Bricks should free from voids. Bricks should be well-burnt, copper-coloured or reddish in colour. Properties of BURNT CLAY BRICKS 51
  52. 52. Bricks should be free from cracks and must have sharp edges. When two bricks are struck with each other, it should give a metallic sound. When bricks are soaked in water, it should not absorb more than 20% of its dry weight. Properties of BURNT CLAY BRICKS 52
  53. 53. When bricks are dropped on a flat surface from a height of one meter it should not crush into pieces. Burnt Clay Bricks must be greater than 5.5 N/mm². Bricks must have nil efflorescence. Bricks must be sound proof and should have low thermal conductivity. Properties of BURNT CLAY BRICKS 53
  54. 54. Testing of Bricks and Blocks Test for Compressive Strength Test for Water Absorption Test for Efflorescence Test for Warpage 54
  55. 55. Test for Compressive Strength 55 The specimen brick is immersed in water for 24 hours followed by immersion in clear water for three days. The specimen is then placed between the plates of the compression testing machine. Load is applied axially at a uniform rate of kN/mm2 (140 kgf/cm2) and the maximum load at which specimen fail is noted for determination of compressive strength the brick given by. Compressive Strength = 𝑚𝑎𝑥. 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝐹𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑘
  56. 56. Test for Water Absorption 56 The absorption of bricks is not related directly to the porosity. Some of the absorption may be through the pores, which permit air to escape in absorption test but others are cul-de-sac or even completely sealed and inaccessible to water under ordinary conditions. For these reason, it is seldom impossible to fill more than about 75% of the pores by simple immersion in cold water and boiling method is adopted for measuring complete absorption. In both cold water test and boiling water test, the specimen is dried in a ventilated oven at 100⁰ C to 150⁰ C till it attains a substantially constant mass. In cold water test the specimen is then kept immersed in clean water at 27⁰ C for 24 hours. It is weighed again to determine the weight of water absorbed and water absorption percentage is given by: Water absorption percentage by weight = 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛 𝑥 100
  57. 57. Test for Water Absorption 57 In the boiling water test after the dried specimen is immersed in a tank such that water can circulate freely on all sides of the specimen. Water is healed to boiling in one hour and boiled continuously for five hours. The water is allowed to cool to 27⁰ C by natural loss of heat for 16 to 19 hours. The specimen is again weighed and the water absorption percentage is given by Water absorption percentage by weight = 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑 𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑏𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑤𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛 𝑥 100
  58. 58. What is efflorescence? is a crystalline deposit of salts often seen on the surface of concrete, bricks, stucco or natural stone surfaces. the word efflorescence means to "flower out" in French . a white powdery substance. Test for Efflorescence 58
  59. 59. 1.Fill distilled water in shallow dish and place one end of brick in dish. Water should fill in dish such that bricks should immersed in water up to 25 mm depth. Bricks soaked in Distilled water 2.Place this whole arrangement in a warm ventilated room such that whole water is absorbed by the specimen and the surplus water will get evaporated. 59 Method of Efflorescence Test
  60. 60. 3.Cover the dish containing brick with suitable glass cylinder so that there will not excessive evaporation from dish. 4.When whole water get absorbed and brick appears to be dry, place a similar quantity of water in the dish and allow it to evaporate as before. 5.After this process examine the bricks for efflorescence and report results. 60 Method of Efflorescence Test
  61. 61. Results of efflorescence test shall be reported as nil, slight, moderate, heavy or serious. 61 Results
  62. 62. Nil- If there is no noticeable deposit of efflorescence. Slight- when less than 10% of exposed area of brick is covered by a thin layer of salt. Moderate- When there is a heavier deposit than under ‘slight’ and covering up to 50 percent of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface. 62 Results
  63. 63. Heavy – When there is a heavy deposit of salts covering 50 percent or more of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface. Serious-when there is heavy deposit of salt acquired by powdering and/or flaking of exposed surface. 63 Results
  64. 64. What is warpage? -To twist or out of shape, especially from straight or flat form Test for Warpage 64
  65. 65. a. For concave warpage- the flat surface is placed along the surface to measured selecting the location that gives the greatest departure from straightness and measure a greatest distance of brick from the edge of straightness by a steel rule or wedge b. For convex warpage- the specimen is placed in the plane surface with the convex surface is contact with flat surface and measure the distance of the four corners of brick from the flat surface 65
  66. 66. 66
  67. 67. Special Bricks Specially Shaped Bricks Burnt Clay Facing Bricks Heavy-duty Bricks Perforated Building Bricks Burnt Clay Hollow Blocks Sand Lime Bricks Sewer Bricks Acid-resistant Bricks Refractory Bricks 67 These bricks are different from the commonly used building bricks with respect to their shape, specification and special purpose for which they are made. Accordingly the following types of bricks may be classified as special bricks.
  68. 68. Bull-nosed Bricks These are used for rounding off sharp corner Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 68
  69. 69. Cant/Plinth Bricks These bricks have a bevel taken of one side and may be used in plinth or in doors and window jambs Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 69
  70. 70. Cornice Bricks These are often made in different shapes and sizes. These bricks are used for constructing cornice. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 70
  71. 71. Circle Bricks These are made to curve off the desired circle and are as used in walls of circular towers and wells, etc. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 71
  72. 72. Coping Bricks These are made in different forms and sizes to fit walls of different thickness. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 72
  73. 73. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k Gutter Bricks +5000k 73 Are used for draining water from slope roofs, stables and pavements.
  74. 74. Jamb Bricks Are ornamental bricks, used in doors and window jambs. These are either chamfered or differently rounded at one corner. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 74
  75. 75. Sill Bricks Are specially manufactured ornamental bricks for window sills. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 75
  76. 76. Key Bricks Are used in arches. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 76
  77. 77. Round Bricks Are used for circular pillars. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 77
  78. 78. Hollow Bricks Are used in construction of hollow walls. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 78
  79. 79. Mullion Bricks Are used for bay window Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 79
  80. 80. Perforated/ Air Bricks Are ornamental bricks, used in doors and window jambs. These are either chamfered or differently rounded at one corner. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 80
  81. 81. Corbel Bricks Are ornamental bricks, used in doors and window jambs. These are either chamfered or differently rounded at one corner. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 81
  82. 82. Chequered Bricks Are the paving bricks. These bricks render the wall less slippery. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 82
  83. 83. Tubular Bricks Are hollow bricks having large perforations running along their length. Special Shaped Bricks 83
  84. 84. Hourdi Bricks Are similar to the tubular bricks, but are flat instead of round. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k +5000k 84
  85. 85. Special Shaped Bricks +1200k Culvert Bricks +5000k 85 Are shaped as voussirs or arches and they taper in thickness.
  86. 86. These bricks are used in the face masonry without any further surface protection. Where external plastering or rendering have to be frequently renewed, due to corrosive atmosphere and also for high rise building, used for facing bricks is economical. Burnt Clay Facing Bricks 86
  87. 87. IS Specification as regards Burnt Facing Clay Bricks 1. Facing bricks are of two classes 2. The average compressive strength should not be less than 75kg/cm² for Class II and 100kg/cm² for Class I 3. Water absorption requirement to 24 hours immersion should not exceed 15% 87
  88. 88. IS Specification as regards Burnt Facing Clay Bricks 4. Efflorescence requirement should be ‘nil’ for both classes. 5. The war page for both classes should not exceed 2.5mm. 6. These bricks should be far from cracks, flaws and nodules of free lime. The standard size of facing bricks is 19 x 9 x 9 cm and 19 x 9 x4 cm. 88
  89. 89. 89
  90. 90. They are required for masonry in heavy engineering work such as bridge structures, industrial foundations and multi storied building. They characterized by high durability, low water absorption, high compressive strength and high bull density , and should be free from cracks and other flaws and lime nodules. Heavy Duty Bricks 90
  91. 91. 91
  92. 92. These bricks are lightweight and provide better thermal insulation as compared to common bricks. These are free from cracks, flaws and nodules of free lime and have a rectangular face sharp straight edges to right angle. Perforated Building Bricks 92
  93. 93. 93 Perforated Building Bricks
  94. 94. 94 1. The Standard size of perforated bricks should be 19 x 19 x 9cm and 29 x 9 x 9cm 2. The area of perforation should be between 30% to 45% of the total area of the corresponding face of bricks. 3. The area of each perforation should not exceed 500mm². 4. The perforation should be uniformly distributed over the surface.
  95. 95. 95 These bricks when tested in accordance with the procedure lay down in IS:3495-1973; should have: 1. Maximum compressive strength of 7 N/mm² on net area. 2. A maximum average water absorption of 15% by mass. 3. A rating for efflorescence not more than slight, and the average war page should not exceed 3%.
  96. 96. They are light in weight for masonry construction and also being hollow imparts thermal insulation to the building. These blocks should be uniform in color and should have fine, compact and uniform texture. Burnt Clay Hollow Blocks 96
  97. 97. 97 Burnt Clay Hollow Blocks
  98. 98. 98 1. These blocks are of the following three types: Type A: Blocks with both faces keyed for plastering and rendering Type B: Blocks with both faces smooth and suitable for use without plastering and rendering on either side. Type C: Blocks with one keyed and face smooth
  99. 99. 99 2. The size of burnt clay hollow blocks should be 19 x 19 x 9cm and 29 x 9 x 9. 3. Thickness of any shell should not less than 11 mm and that of any web not less than 8mm. 4. The minimum average crushing strength of the blocks when determined should be 2.5 N/mm².The average water absorption of the blocks by mass should not be more than 20%.
  100. 100. These bricks, are also called calcium silicate bricks, consist essentially on an intimate and uniform mixture of siliceous sand and crushed siliceous rock and lime combined by the action of saturated stream under pressure. By heating the mixture under pressure, hydrated silicates and aluminates are formed which bind the sand grains together Sand Lime Bricks 100
  101. 101. 101
  102. 102. ----- 102
  103. 103. ----- 103
  104. 104. Sewer bricks are intended for lining of walls, roofs and floors of sewers used for ordinary sanitary (domestic) sewage. Sewer Bricks 104
  105. 105. The general practice in our country is also to utilize common building bricks in the construction of sewer, which is not satisfactory. However, these bricks are not suitable for sewer dealing with industrial effluent (sewage) for which the use of acid resistant bricks as per IS: 4885 – 1968 are as follow: 105
  106. 106. 1. The standard size of sewer bricks shall be as follow: 106 Length (cm) Width (cm) Height (cm) 19 9 9 19 9 4
  107. 107. 2. Tolerance for distortion or warpage of face or edges of individual brick from a plane surface and from a straight line respectively should be 2.5mm 107 Dimension (cm) Tolerance (mm) 19 + 5 9 + 2 4 + 1.5
  108. 108. 3. The average compressive strength obtained on a sample sewer bricks should not be less than 175 kg/sq. cm 108
  109. 109. 4. The average value of water absorption for five bricks after 20 hours cold water immersion should not exceed 10% of average dry weight of bricks and absorption of each individual brick should not exceed 12% 109
  110. 110. 5. The rating of efflorescence should not be more than slight 110
  111. 111. These bricks are used for masonry construction, flooring subject to acid attack, lining of chambers and towers in chemical plants, lining of sewer carrying industrial effluents, etc. to prevent deterioration of surface by acid except hydrofluoric acid and per chloric acid and other chemicals. Acid Resistant Bricks 111
  112. 112. These bricks are made of raw materials, such clay or shale of suitable composition with low lime and iron content, feldspar, flint or sand vitrified at high temperature in a ceramic kiln. These are designed primarily for use in chemical and allied industries and are normally used with chemical resistant mortars. As per IS 4860-1968. Acid Resistant Bricks 112
  113. 113. ----- 113 The actual dimensions for acid resistant bricks are 230 x 114 x 64mm . Dimension Tolerance (mm) (mm) 230 +3.5 114 +2.0 64 +1.0 Acid Resistant Bricks
  114. 114. ----- 114 Acid resistant bricks are manufactured in two classes satisfying the requirements as given in the table.
  115. 115. Two Classes of Acid Resistant Bricks Class I bricks are recommend for severe type of corrosive environments as obtained in storage tanks, picking tanks, etc. and also in heavy duty floors subject to frequent contact with corrosives Class II bricks are recommended for floors and working areas which are subjected to occasional spillage of acids, flumes and contact with dry chemical as in fertilizer soils. These may also be used for skirting and lining soil. 115
  116. 116. These are non-metallic suitable for the construction or lining of fumaces operated at high temperatures. Stability at high temperatures both physical and chemical is the primary requirement for refractory materials. Acid Resistant Bricks 116
  117. 117. These are made of from refractory clays which can withstand very high temperatures without becoming soft and melting. The refractory clay is composed of heat resisting materials such as silica, alumina, bauxite, magnesite, chromite, etc. and does not contain metallic oxide of iron, lime alkalies owing to their actions as fluxes. Acid Resistant Bricks 117
  118. 118. 118 The preparation of clay, moulding, drying, burning in kins and aneating of fire bricks are the same as detailed for ordinary bricks.
  119. 119. 119 The preparation of clay, moulding, drying, burning in kins and aneating of fire bricks are the same as detailed for ordinary bricks.
  120. 120. Acid bricks Basic bricks Neutral bricks Types of Refractory Bricks 120
  121. 121. 121 These are made from clays which are generally mixed with small percentage of sand to reduce shrinkage during burning. The clay generally comprises 50% to 70% silica,20% to 40% alumina and less than 10% of fluxes. The brick are moulded either by stiff mud and dry press process or repressed after partial drying. These bricks should be able to stand a temperature of 1200 degree Celsius and should withstand with a load of 2kg/sq.cm at a temperature of 1350 degree Celsius. Fire Bricks
  122. 122. 122 These are made from quartzite and sandstone or silica sand which contains more than 95% of silica. Ordinarily, however, the ground siliceous rock or sand are not sufficiently plastic when tempered with water and are mixed either with 2% of high calcium lime to act is binding material or a very small percentage of fire clay is added. Silica bricks are moulded by soft mud process and burn at a temperature of about 1483 degree Celsius which slightly higher than that of fire bricks. The compressive strength of silica brick is often more than 150 kg/sq. cm and the softening temperature ranges between 1300 degree Celsius to 1800 degree Celsius. These bricks have a large coefficient of expansion and are laid with a wide joint. Both fire and Silica bricks are used in steel industry and coke oven and cannot be used in intermittently operated furnaces. Silica Bricks
  123. 123. 123 A type of acid bricks made from clay and marl containing about 10% of oxide of iron. These bricks are durable, capable of withstanding pressures and impervious of water. These are chiefly used in lining works of masonry sewers. Blue Bricks
  124. 124. Common types of Basic Bricks: Magnesite Bricks Dolomite Bricks Bauxite Bricks Basic Bricks 124
  125. 125. 125 The chemical composition of these bricks is as follows: Magnesia (Mgo) (min 85%); calcium oxide (CaO) (max 25%); and silica (SiO2) (max 5.5%) Magnesite Bricks
  126. 126. ----- 126 These are not as satisfactory as magnesite bricks. These are made of calcined dolomite, the carbonate of magnesia and lime. The natural rock or a mixture of the rock and is ground and tempered with water and moulded. After drying they are burnt like magnesia bricks. These bricks suffer greater contraction at high temperature than bricks. Dolomite Bricks
  127. 127. ----- 127 Bauxite which consists of 50% of 50% or more of alumina and iron and silica as impurities of calcined and crushed to a fine powder. It is then mixed with 15 to 30% of fire clay and with water and then moulded. Although properly burnt, bauxite bricks are highly refractory they have not come into general use because of high shrinkage and high temperature. Bauxite Bricks
  128. 128. Various types of Neutral Bricks: Chrome Bricks Chrome-magnesite bricks Spinel Forsterite Bricks Neutral Bricks 128
  129. 129. ----- 129 These contains 30 to 40% of chrome oxide, the remainder being mainly oxide of magnesium, aluminum and silicon. They possess great resistance to corrosive actions of slags and gases. They are less refractory and weaker magnesia bricks. Chrome Bricks
  130. 130. ----- 130 These are made from a mixture of chrome ore and magnesite with a predominating percentage of chrome ore. These bricks possess good mechanical properties. Chrome-magnesite Bricks
  131. 131. ----- 131 Is a special refractory produced in an electric furnace consisting of magnesia and alumina. Spinel
  132. 132. ----- 132 These are made from mineral forsterite (2MgO SiO2). They have less shrinkage and possess good mechanical properties at high temperature. Forsterite Bricks
  133. 133. Clay products that resemble bricks, but thinner, are called tiles. Building Tiles 133
  134. 134. ----- Roofing Tiles 01 Flooring Tiles Wall Tiles 02 03 Building tiles are principally of three types depending upon their use: 134
  135. 135. ----- 135 Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate. Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. Roofing Tiles
  136. 136. 136 20x20cm 20x10cm 15x15cm Thickness 15mm or 20mm Tolerance of length and width +5cm and for thickness +2cm
  137. 137. 137 Concrete Roof Tile
  138. 138. 138 Clay Roof Tile
  139. 139. 139 Slate Roof Tile
  140. 140. 140 Metal Roofing Tile
  141. 141. 141 Lightweight Roofing Tile
  142. 142. ----- 142 A tile, made from any material, designed to be laid as flooring. 15x15x1.5cm 15x15x2.0cm 20x20x2.0cm 25x25x3.0cm 25x20x2.5cm Tolerance limit is the same as roofing tiles. Flooring Tiles
  143. 143. 143 Flooring Tiles
  144. 144. 144 Porcelain Tile
  145. 145. 145 Marble Tile
  146. 146. 146 Travertine Tile
  147. 147. Walling Tiles 147
  148. 148. 148 Walling Tiles
  149. 149. 149 Granite Tile
  150. 150. 150 Glass Tile
  151. 151. ----- 151 Flooring , roofing, terracing are made from good clay or even texture and should be well burnt. This should be uniform in size and shape and should be free irregularities such as twists, bends, crack, flaws ,etc. General Quality
  152. 152. ----- 152 Warpage should not exceed 2% along the edges and 1.5 along the diagonal in case of flooring tiles. In case of terracing tiles maximum warpage should not exceed in any direction by 1%. Warpage Test
  153. 153. ----- 153 Take six tiles and dry this in an oven at a temperature 100°C to 110°C till they attain the constant weight and then cool. Weight this is immerses the dry specimen completely in clean water at 24°C to 30°C for 24hours . Remove each specimen wipe of the surface water carefully with a damp cloth and weigh the specimen current to a gram within 3 min. after removing the specimen for water. Water absorption test for flooring, roofing and terracing tiles
  154. 154. ----- 154 Water absorption test for flooring, roofing and terracing tiles W= Percent of water absorption M2= weigh of the specimen after 24hours immersion in cold water M1= weigh of the dry specimen
  155. 155. 155 These are semi-cylindrical in shape whose one end is broader than the other . It is 300mm long , having 106mm and 99mm diameters at the ends and 10mm thick. This tiles maybe use as a sole covering to a roof. Pot tiles
  156. 156. 156 They have 3-4 corrugations. This tiles are handsome in appearance but these are easily strip off by violent wind. However this tiles can be laid as low a pitch as 25 degrees. Corrugated tiles
  157. 157. 157 Are used upon roofs or a tiles hanging. These are either a rectangle or cut to various patterns to suit the requirements . The dimensions of such tiles are 260mm x 160mm x 15mm. These tiles have slight projection of top under edge called nibs , so as to hang over the lath. Plain tiles
  158. 158. 158 Are required to cover the ridge of a stopped roof. The lengths of those tiles vary from 450mm to 500mm. These tiles have overlapping arrangements. Ridge tiles
  159. 159. 159 These tiles maybe plain and white or colored and decorative. These are chiefly used in walling and sometimes in flooring to serve a specific function. Porcelain or Glazed Tiles
  160. 160. 160 Are usually segmented tiles required for construction of drains. The manufacture of these tiles is abandon because it is rarely used. Drain tiles
  161. 161. 161 It is used for wall surfaces with a view to bring good appearance. The used of these tiles is restricted to auditoriums, cinema, theatres and public halls. Glass tiles
  162. 162. Pottery made of clay fired to a porous state that can be made impervious to liquids by the use of a glaze. Ceramic ware made of slightly porous opaque clay fired at low heat. Earthenware 162
  163. 163. Types of Earthenware's Glaze Earthenware Tiles Terracotta Stoneware 163
  164. 164. 164 The glaze as uniform in quality and is either glossy or matt. Glaze earthenware
  165. 165. 165 The glaze as uniform in quality and is either glossy or matt. Glaze earthenware
  166. 166. 166 The glaze as uniform in quality and is either glossy or matt. Glaze earthenware
  167. 167. 167 Is a clay-like earthenware ceramic that can be either glazed or unglazed. Terracotta
  168. 168. 168 Is a clay-like earthenware ceramic that can be either glazed or unglazed. Terracotta
  169. 169. 169 A type of pottery that is impermeable and partly vitrified but opaque. Stoneware
  170. 170. 170 A type of pottery that is impermeable and partly vitrified but opaque. Stoneware
  171. 171. 171 A type of pottery that is impermeable and partly vitrified but opaque. Stoneware

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