O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
“English grammar is chiefly a system of syntax,
that decides the order and patterns in which
words are arranged into sentences.”
Crystal (1995) says it is "... that branch of the
description of language which accounts for the
way in which words are combined to form
Language Testing is the practice and study of evaluating the
proficiency of an individual in using a particular language
Language testing is a field of study under the umbrella of applied
Its main focus is the assessment of first, second or other language
in the school, college, or university context; assessment of
language use in the workplace; and assessment of language in the
immigration, citizenship, and asylum contexts.
The assessment may include listening, speaking, reading, writing,
an integration of two or more of these skills, or other constructs of
language ability. Equal weight may be placed on knowledge
(understanding how the language works theoretically)
and proficiency (ability to use the language practically), or greater
weight may be given to one aspect or the other.
Well made tests of English can help students in
First of all such tests can help create positive
attitudes towards the class.
A second way that English tests can benefit
students is by helping them master the
For teachers tests can be used to diagnose their
own efforts as well as of students.
Tests can provide insights into the ways that
teachers can improve the evaluation process.
Grammar tests are designed to measure
student proficiency in matters ranging from
inflections (bottle-bottles, bake-baked) to
Syntax involves the relationship of words in a
sentence, including matters such as word
order, use of negative, question forms, and
There was a time when controlling of grammatical
structures was seen as the very core of language
ability and it was unthinkable not to test it.
Now whether or not grammar has an important
place in an institution’s teaching, it has to be
accepted that grammatical ability, or rather the
lack of it, sets limits to what can be achieved in the
way of skills performance.
The successful writing of academic assignments,
for example, must depend to some extent on the
command of elementary grammatical structures.
The diagnostic tests of grammar are very useful for
the individual and the group.
For achievement tests where teaching
objectives or the syllabus list the grammatical
structures to be taught, specification of content
should be quite straightforward.
When there is not such listing it becomes
necessary to infer from textbooks and other
teaching materials what structures are being
Specifications for a placement test will
normally include all of the structures identified
in this way.
This will reflect an attempt to give the test
content validity by selecting widely from the
It should take account of what are regarded for
one reason or another as the most important
It should not deliberately concentrate on the
structures that happen to be easiest to test.
Whatever techniques are chosen for testing
grammar, it is important for the text of the item
to be written in grammatically correct and
Ideally gap filling items should have just one
For example: What was most disturbing……….
that for the first time in his life Ali was on his
He arrived late, ……… was a surprise. (which)
The council must do something to improve
transport in the city. ………. they will lose the
next election. (Otherwise)
An item with two possible correct responses can be
used. For example:
He displayed the wide, bright smile …….. had
charmed so many people before. (which, that)
In this case one item is to be rejected.
There can be use of more than two items for filling
the sentence. For example:
Dr:………. let her cry. She’ll stop in the end. (just,
I’d, well, then, etc.)
This technique can be used to test a variety of
Paraphrase items require the students to write
a sentence equivalent in meaning to one that is
It is helpful to give part of the paraphrase in
order to restrict the students to the
grammatical structure being tested.
For example: Testing passive, past continuous
When we arrived, a policeman was questioning
the bank clerk.
When we arrived, the bank clerk………………..
This technique can be used to test a variety of
Simple completion items used for testing
grammar consist of a sentence from which a
grammatical element is removed. As
He went ……… school.
There are three steps to follow in preparing
simple-completion grammar tests.
1. Select the grammar points that need to be tested.
2. Provide an appropriate context.
3. Write good instructions.
The easiest simple completion items are
like multiple choice questions with two
Directions: Complete the following
sentences with “do” and ”make”.
1. He …….. a lot of money.
2. I always ………. my best.
Testing the mastery of inflections provides for
a productive response. These vary from simple
comparatives to verb tense questions.
He is the ………. (tall) person in the class.
Another technique is to use a separate blank for
each word in the verb phrase.
He ….. ….. …… (sleep) for nearly an hour.
It illustrates how common terminology can be
Example: Add a question tag to these sentences:
Hamlet was indecisive, ……………..?
Polonius knew a lot of aphorisms, …………?
Directions: Write in the missing part of the two
What time did he get …… this morning?
Example of free response with a minimum amount
of contextual control:
You would get better sooner if ……….. .
In this test an incomplete sentence is followed
by four multiple choice options for completing
the sentence. For example:
While she ……… the house, her children were
A. has been cleaning *B. cleaned C. has cleaned
D. was cleaning
He has lived in this town for only a week and
he already has ………. Friends.
A. few B. a few C. not many D. the few
It is an efficient way to test grammar but
teachers should follow specific procedure in its
1. Choose the grammar points that they need
Choosing grammar points to test is usually
easy. It can be chosen from the structures the
teacher has taught since the last test.
2. Prepare the right kind of sentence context
for the grammar structure.
A good context is very important. For example:
1.They left at seven. They ….. be home by now.
2.They left at seven. They ….. be home by now.
Yes, but we can’t count on it, can we?
A. can B. could C. will D. must
3. Select three logical distractors.
A. These are the incorrect options which we put with the correct
word or phrase to complete the sentence.
……. the ones who know the answers.
A. They are B. There C. They’re D. Their
It is a poor test as it is just a spelling item.
Teachers should avoid such distractions that sound alike.
B. Another source of distractors is errors on composition. This is
done by students mostly on exercises or cloze passages.
Test should be like this:
Several years ago I ……. English.
A. studied B. study C. have studied D. will study
C. Unnecessary material confuse the students
so it should not be added in the tests.
If I had a new fur coat, ……… .
Its options should be
A. I showed B. I’d show C. I’ve shown
D. I’ll show
4. Prepare clear, simple instructions.
All the instructions for solving the questions
should be clear.
Cloze tests are prose passages, usually a paragraph
or more in length, from which words have been
The students rely on the context in order to supply
the missing words.
It is easy to prepare and easy to score.
The cloze is simply a story or essay from which a
number of words have been deleted.
In this test, the overall meaning and surrounding
grammar help to replace the missing parts.
Sentence-completion vocabulary and grammar
items are similar in a way to cloze tests.
Cloze passages simply have much larger contexts.
Gap filling and multiple choice items are easy to
The important thing when scoring other types of
item is to be clear about what each item is testing,
and to reward points for that only.
There should be one element, such as subject-
pronoun-verb inversion, and all available points
should be awarded for that.
If two elements are being tested in an item, then
points should be assigned to each of them.
In this case both elements have to be correct for
any points to be rewarded.
Hughes A. (2003). Testing for language
teachers(2nd ed). Cambridge :Cambridge
Harold S. Madsen (1983). Techniques in testing.
New York: Oxford University Press.