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Assignment on latest development on dyeing technique

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Bangladesh University of Business & Technology 
Department of Textile Engineering 
Assignment 
Group Number: 02 
Assignmen...
Dyeing 
Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. Dyeing is 
normally don...
 The carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed. 
 After dyeing, the packages are unloaded from the ca...
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Assignment on latest development on dyeing technique

  1. 1. Bangladesh University of Business & Technology Department of Textile Engineering Assignment Group Number: 02 Assignment on latest development on dyeing technique. Summited by: Name Asadul Islam ID 11122107005 Name Shawan Roy ID 11122107023 Intake 5th Section 01 Summited to: Dr. Shah Mohammad Fatah-ur-Rahman Date of Submission:
  2. 2. Dyeing Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. There are mainly two classes of dye, natural and man-made. Methods Dyes are applied to textile goods by dyeing from dye solutions and by printing from dye pastes. Methods include direct application and yarn dyeing. Direct application The term "direct dye application" stems from some dyestuff having to be either fermented as in the case of some natural dye or chemically reduced as in the case of synthetic vat and sulfur dyes before being applied. This renders the dye soluble so that it can be absorbed by the fiber since the insoluble dye has very little substantivity to the fiber. Direct dyes, a class of dyes largely for dyeing cotton, are water soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber from an aqueous solution. Most other classes of synthetic dye, other than vat and surface dyes, are also applied in this way. The term may also be applied to dyeing without the use of mordents to fix the dye once it is applied. Mordents were often required to alter the hue and intensity of natural dyes and improve color fastness. Chromium salts were until recently extensively used in dying wool with synthetic mordant dyes. These were used for economical high color fastness dark shades such as black and navy. Environmental concerns have now restricted their use, and they have been replaced with reactive and metal complex dyes that do not require mordant. Yarn dyeing There are many forms of yarn dyeing. Common forms are the package form and the hanks form. Cotton yarns are mostly dyed at package form, and acrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form. In the continuous filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed at package form, while viscose rayon yarns are partly dyed at hank form because of technology. The common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is as follows:  The raw yarn is wound on a spring tube to achieve a package suitable for dye penetration.  These softened packages are loaded on a dyeing carrier's spindle one on another.  The packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitable density of packing.
  3. 3.  The carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed.  After dyeing, the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolley.  Now the trolley is taken to hydro extractor where water is removed.  The packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum amount of water leaving the desired color into raw yarn.  The packages are then dried to achieve the final dyed package. After this process, the dyed yarn packages are packed and delivered. Modern Techniques of Dyeing:  Modern Tie-dye  Shibori  Resist dyeing  Ikat  Leheria  Ice (or snow) Dyeing  Space Dyeing  Crystal wash dyeing  Direct Dyeing  Stock Dyeing  Top Dyeing  Yarn Dyeing 1. Skein (Hank) Dyeing 2. Package Dyeing 3. Warp Beam Dyeing  Piece Dyeing  Garment Dyeing  Stovetop Fabric Dyeing Method  Washing Machine Dyeing Method (front & top loaders)  Bucket, Sink or Bathtub: Hand Dyeing  Microwave Dyeing Method  Ombre Fabric Dyeing Method
  4. 4. Modern Tie-dye There are many traditional variations of Tie-dye around the world, including Shibori and Ikat. We consider modern tie-dye to be an American art form! Each type is unique, but basically Tie-dye is a way of creating patterns of color by folding, tying, stitching, crumpling or otherwise preparing the fabric to inhibit the flow of the dye into the folds of the fabric. The pattern of the folds and where the colors are squirted determines the final design. With experience, the end result can be predicted and controlled to some extent, but surprise is part of what makes tie-dye an exciting and interesting art form that even a first timer can have great results with. A fun & easy craft for children, camps and groups. Step 1: fold and tie your garment Step 2: soak garments in soda ash solution Step 3: mix your dyes Step 4: squirt on your dye Step 5: let it rest Step 6: wash it out
  5. 5. Shibori: Shibori is a Japanese term for methods of dyeing cloth by binding, stitching, folding, twisting, and compressing. In Japan, the earliest known example of cloth dyed with the shibori technique dates back to the 8th century where indigo was the main dye used. We were immediately inspired by this fascinating technique, its history and beauty. After much research, we decided to tackle 3 techniques of Shibori dyeing with an Indigo Tie Dye Kit, a few old white shirts and scarves, and several household items. Arashi (Japanese for “storm”) shibori a pole-wrapping technique. The cloth is wrapped on a diagonal around a pole or cylindrical object (we used old PVC and copper piping) and then tightly bound by wrapping thread or wire up and down the pole. Next, the cloth is scrunched down on the pole. The patterns are on a diagonal in arashi shibori which suggests the rain from a heavy storm. Kumo This is a twist and bind resist technique. This technique involves wrapping sections of the cloth over a found object, usually small stones or pebbles. Then the cloth is bound in very close sections with rubber bands. The result is a very specific circular spider-like design. Itajime This is a shape-resist technique. The cloth is folded like an accordion and sandwiched between two pieces of wood or any flat shaped object, which are held in place with string or rubber bands. The shapes prevent the dye from penetrating the fabric they cover and give an endless variety of patterns depending on the fold, binding object and placement of rubber bands.
  6. 6. We’re ready to dye Following the dye preparation directions from the Indigo Tie Dye Kit were easy; first rinse your fabric with water, dip in the indigo vat that was premixed before binding the fabric, let it oxidize and dry for 20 minutes and then repeat the steps for darker shades of indigo. Be aware that the color is much darker when wet and will fade after rinsing. Rinse the fabric with water and undo the bindings to reveal the surprising creations.
  7. 7. Our patterns revealed: Arashi, Kumo and Itajime. The possibilities are endless–try varying and even combining the techniques to see what you are able to create. Your indigo dye vat will keep for several days and dye at least 15 pieces of clothing. Our Shibori dyed goodies!!! We can’t wait to dye more and even try our hand at recreating this gorgeous Suno dress.
  8. 8. Resist dyeing Resist dyeing (resist-dyeing) is a term for a number of traditional methods of dyeing textiles with patterns. Methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth, thereby creating a pattern and ground. The most common forms use wax, some type of paste made from starch or mud, or a mechanical resist that manipulates the cloth such as tying or stitching. Another form of resist involves using a chemical agent in a specific type of dye that will repel another type of dye printed over the top. Ikat Ikat is an ancient technique used to pattern textiles. The defining characteristic of ikat is the dyeing of patterns before the weaving of the fabric takes place. The patterns are created by means of a resist dyeing process on either the warp or weft fibres, or on both. We will here look at cotton warp ikat, the technique most common in the Indonesian archipelago. Spinning, where it all begins One of the most fundamental skills required to produce a high quality ikat, is spinning. While spinning wheels have been introduced in some parts of Indonesia, spindle spinning is still practiced in many parts, especially on the more remote islands, such as here on Alor. In that respect not much has changed since 1932 when Ernst Vatter wrote in Ata Kiwan: "... in those areas where there still is much weaving, you rarely see women or older girls without their 'handiwork', the spindle, which they diligently spin during every pause that their other work allows." The thread produced by means of a gravity or drop-weight spindle is called benang putar, and textiles made of it are generally highly appreciated, both by locals and by collectors. The evenness of thread that an experienced spinner can achieve with a spindle is stunning, yet one can always feel the difference between commercial, factory made yarns and hand spun yarns by passing it through the fingers and paying attention to the minute differences in thickness that betray the old handwork.
  9. 9. Bindings that resist liquid are placed before each dye bath The ikat process proper begins with the warp threads being strung up on the loom, close together and properly tightened. Then the pattern is drawn on to them in outline using charcoal, crayon or sticks dipped in dye. In most regions the patterns are improvised, with various degrees of freedom and personal creativity, within a tightly prescribed traditional framework with determines the number and ordering of bands or stripes, their width, background color, and overall patterning. Bindings that resist dye penetration are applied to narrower or wider bundles of threads (from as few as four in very fine ikat) in locations defined by the intended motif. In most parts of Indonesia these bindings are traditionally made of strips of palm or pandan leaf, raffia, or other plant material, which in some regions such as Borneo may be waxed with beeswax to improve impregnability, but these days plastic is also used, allowing greater definition. Mordanting, if necessary, and dyeing After the bindings required to protect all material that should not be coloured in the first round of dyeing are in place, the threads are taken off the loom and immersed in the dye bath - or, if the pigment is of a kind that does not spontaneously penetrate and adhere to the fibre, such as morinda, they are first soaked in a mordant, then dyed. Indigo, the most common colour in the Indonesian archipelago, is an ideal pigment to work with, as it adheres to cotton naturally, and is fully colourfast. After drying, the bindings are cut away, the threads are strung onto the loom again and arranged carefully so that they match exactly, and new bindings are put in place for all locations that should not receive colour in the second round of dying. Then the tied threads are taken off the loom again, immersed in the next dye bath - and so on until the desired multicoloured pattern has been created. The duration of the soaking of the threads in the dye bath varies from a day to several weeks. In many regions a particular dye bath may be repeated numerous times to achieve the desired intensity. A common technique to achieve more colour variation with a limited number of pigments is overdyeing, once or several times with bindings at different locations.
  10. 10. Arranging died warp threads on the loom When the dyeing process is finished - which, because of ritual prescriptions, scarcity of material, or the need for multiple immersions in the mordant may take months or even years - the last bindings are removed and the threads are ready to be woven into cloth. The first step is to arrange the warp threads on the loom once again, taking great care to align them properly, so that the pattern comes out clear, well defined. Next to the intensity of the coloration, the clarity of the pattern is the most important indicator of craftsmanship. In warp ikat the patterns are clearly visible in the warp threads on the loom even before the plain colored weft is introduced to produce the fabric. In weft ikat it is the weaving or weft thread that carries the dyed patterns which only appear as the weaving proceeds. In weft ikat the weaving proceeds much slower than in warp ikat as the passes of the weft must be carefully adjusted to maintain the clarity of the patterns. In double ikat both warp and the weft are resist-dyed prior to stringing on the loom. Finally: weaving, the end of the process For the weaving of ikat cloth, traditionally, and still commonly, a backstrap loom is used, as below by this weaver on the island of Alor, though in principle any variant or modern loom might be used. The textiles in our collection have all been made in the traditional manner. The backstrap loom has been in widespread use in many parts of South and Southeast Asia since times immemorial. They are easy to construct from materials that readily available in the natural environment. The warp threads are attached to two parallel wooden bars or sticks, one of which is either tied to stakes in the ground, or, in its most primitive form, held behind the feat of the weaver, and the other is attached to a belt around the weaver's waist. This setup allows the weaver to relax or tighten the warp threads by a slight movement of the body either forwards, so as to facilitate the opening of the shed and the insertion of weft threads, or backwards to straighten out the cloth for inspection and adjustment of the thread alignment. Backstrap looms come with an inherent limitation of width, namely the span of the weaver's arms. As a consequence all wider Indonesian ikat textiles consist of two or more panels stitched together along the selvages.
  11. 11. Leheria Leheria (or leheriya) is a traditional style of tie dye practiced in Rajasthan, India that results in brightly colored cloth with distinctive patterns. The technique gets its name from the Rajasthani word for wave because the dyeing technique is often used to produce complex wave patterns. Leheria dyeing is done on thin cotton or silk cloth, usually in lengths appropriate for turbans or saris. According to World Textiles: A Visual Guide to Traditional Techniques, the fabric is "rolled diagonally from one corner to the opposite selvedge, and then tied at the required intervals and dyed". Wave patterns result from fanlike folds made before dyeing. Traditional leheria employs natural dyes and multiple washes and uses indigo or alizarin during the final stage of preparation. Ice (or snow) Dyeing We got the idea for ice dyeing from folks who were sharing their snow dyeing projects with us. With Ice Dyeing you don’t need to depend on Mother Nature providing any snow, just get some ice, dye and a bucket and you are off to the races! (But obviously snow works too) This technique is great for unique dyed garments or for one-of-a-kind dyed fabric for quilting. Pre-wash your garments or fabric with the Professional Textile Detergent. This will remove any fabric softeners, oils, dirt, etc that might have gotten on your dyeable blanks or fabrics during manufacturing or through handling. Mix up your soda ash, 1 cup per gallon of water, and add in your dyeable items. Let them soak for about 15 min. Pull them out and squeeze out the excess solution (wear good rubber gloves). You can save the soda ash for more dyeing later.
  12. 12. Place your cooling rack in a tub (we used this for the shirt and baby romper). Scrunch up your soda-soaked dyeables randomly and put them on the rack. If you want to, you can pleat them or tie them up more like tie-dye. It’s up to you. For the fabric we roughly pleated the Kona Cotton and scrunched some remnants of Silk/Rayon Velvet and Cotton Velour to fill the bottom of the tub. Next, cover everything in ice. We used one 7.5 lb bag of regular cubed ice on the fabric and about half a bag on the shirt and romper. Time to put the dust mask on! We are going to be using the dye powder and we want to be safe about not inhaling any fine particles of dye. Grab your first color and start sprinkling the dye powder on the ice. Be as random or as specific as you want with how you spread the dye. Remember, as the ice melts colors will mix and blend as they hit the shirt. So if you put yellow and blue together, you will get greens. On the other hand, part of the fun is that “mix” colors will split up a bit into their component colors, giving you neat effects. You can use this to your advantage when choosing your colors. Once everything is sprinkled to your liking, cover the tubs with some plastic and let the melting progress. Putting the tubs in a warm place can speed things up. Let it all sit this way for 24 hours. The fabric in the tub may look like a big pool of black or brown colors. Don’t worry, it isn’t going to end up all muddy, we promise. The items that were elevated so the melt water could drain away are a little less scary looking.
  13. 13. Take your tubs over to the sink and start rinsing your items in COLD running water. Rinse until the water is running mostly clear. Finally, toss everything in the wash with HOT water and Professional Textile Detergent. Dry and wear your ice dyed garment! Or cut and sew your ice dyed fabric! Space Dyeing Indie dyed variegated yarns and rovings are all the rage now and they are easier to create at home than you might think. Create your own bright or subtle variegated yarns and rovings with this easy technique. You will soon have unique one-of-a-kind colorways for all your projects. Using the cotton twine, tie your skein loosely in a few more places; you want at least 4 ties around the skein to help keep it organized and untangled. Fill the bucket or dish tub with warm tap water, a drop or two of Synthrapol and Citric Acid/Vinegar. Use 1 TBS of Citric Acid per quart of water or if you are using vinegar use 50/50 water to vinegar in the soak as vinegar is more dilute. (Ex: 1 cup water to 1 cup Vinegar) Lower the skein into the water by one of the ties and gently push it down under the water with the large spoon. Let it soak at least 1 hour, but overnight is ideal, especially for finer fibers like alpaca and silk. You want the fibers to be completely soaked. Use the salad spinner or the dryer to spin out excess soak water until the yarn is just damp to the touch. Cover your work space with plastic wrap; be sure to overlap a couple pieces as you are going
  14. 14. to wrap the yarn in it and you don’t want dye to leak out. Lay out the yarn on the plastic wrap. Lay your yarn out flat over the plastic wrap. Mix your dyes with hot tap water, making sure they are fully dissolved, and pour them into the squeeze bottles. Snip the tip of the bottles so the dye flows out easily but not too fast. The amount of dye depends on how dark you want your colors. The yarn we used comes in an approximately 150 gram skein. Normally we would want to use 1.5% weight of goods for a solid color, about 2.25 grams of dye. Since we are using four colors we want to divide that to about a ½ gram of dye per color. If you are using black, then use 1 gram of black. This roughly works out to about ¾ tsp per color for a medium shade, in most colors, and 1.5 tsp for black. Use more or less dye for different shades. Start applying the dye. Using the squeeze bottles, apply the first color to different areas of the yarn. Only use about half the dye and then go on to the next color. Once you have coated one side of the skein, carefully flip the skein over and apply the same colors in the same pattern on the back of the skein. Check to make sure the dye is getting into the center of the skein. You can gently push the yarn around a bit to help the dye penetrate. Fold the plastic wrap over your yarn/roving length-wise then fold in the ends. If you can, fold the skein in a couple times to make a packet that will fit in your pot for steaming. In your steaming pot put a couple inches of water and the steamer basket. Make sure the steamer is going to hold the yarn/roving out of the water. Heat it up to a simmer on high and then turn the heat down. You don’t want it to boil away too quickly but you need plenty of steam. Place the yarn onto the steaming basket in the steamer and put on the lid. Let it steam for about 45-60 min. You can steam multiple skeins at once, as many as your steamer will hold without stacking them. Let the yarn cool a bit before you unwrap it and let it cool further before rinsing. You don’t want to shock the yarn by rinsing it too soon as it can result in felting. Once it is mostly cool, soak it in cool water with a bit of Synthrapol. Do a couple rinse soaks with just plain water. In the last soak you can use some Eucalan Wool Wash to smooth the yarn and make it soft again.Spin the water out one last time to help the yarn dry faster. Once it is dry you can wind it into a ball and start knitting, crocheting
  15. 15. or weaving the project of your dreams. Dye up some more skeins and arrange them in a nice basket in your craft room for inspiration! Crystal wash dyeing This is a form of "low immersion" dyeing that results in a sharp distinct crystalline looking pattern. Unless you have teeny buckets, this works best with an adult tee or larger garment or piece of fabric. Basically, whatever you are dyeing, you need a container small enough that it will be a tight fit when scrunched in. The pattern will usually be more distinct than "low immersion" or "baggie dyeing", where the fabric is looser. There are great instructions for traditional low immersion dyeing that many quilters prefer in the book Color by Accident by Ann Johnston. It is excellent! She goes into gradation so that you can dye many squares of fabric from light to dark, or from one color to the next. Another great book on low Immersion dyeing is Tray Dyeing by Leslie Morgan and Claire Benn. This book also comes with a DVD showing the techniques. Step 1: Soak 100% cotton shirt (or fabric or whatever) in Soda Soak solution, follow Step 2 of our Tie dye directions - wring out excess. Step 2: Lay the garment flat on a protected surface and use your fingers (in gloves) to sort of bunch it together into a flat scrunched round biscuit shape. Step 3: Cram the garment into the bottom of a very small bucket or other container. It needs to be very tight. If this is not possible, put rubber bands all around it so it is like a big pie.
  16. 16. Step 4: Squirt on 1 or more colors of Procion Fiber Reactive dye mixed up according to the Tie dye directions. Step 5: If you want white in the areas where the dye doesn't penetrate, for strong contrast, just let it sit 12-24 hours, then wash out as recommended in our Tie dye directions. Step 6: If you want lighter color (instead of white) in the areas where the dye doesn't penetrate, push on the garment a little with a stick or gloved hands to push some of the dye in deeper. Cool Variations Step 1: Instead of soaking the shirt in Soda Ash solution, soak it thoroughly just in water, then scrunch it up on a protected flat surface and rubber band it as above. Put it in a bucket or plastic tub. Step 2: Dissolve a 1/2 cup or so of soda ash in some warm water - however much it takes to dissolve it. Step 3: Carefully sprinkle pure dye powder (cheap plastic salt shakers work very well!) in several different colors on one side of the shirt- aim for "non-uniform coverage". Wear a dust mask!!! For a "rock effect" use several different shades of browns and greys, or for a "water effect" use several shades of blues and aquamarines. You get the picture. Use colors that mix well together, and don't just make "mud". Step 4: After 2 or 3 colors of powder, carefully pour on just enough "soda ash water" to get the dye wet that you just put on, then sprinkle on a couple more colors, then more soda ash water. You can use up to 5-7 colors total. Step 5: Carefully drain the excess soda water and dye that has accumulated in the bottom of the bucket, flip the garment and repeat Steps 3-4. Don't be alarmed if the garment just looks like a muddy mess! Drain the excess at the bottom of the bucket again. Push on the garment with a stick or gloved hands to push some of the dye in deeper. Step 6: Leave it sit 12-24 hours, then wash out as recommended in our Tie dye directions. Step 7: If the garment ends up with too much white on it, you can then re-scrunch the garment, rubber band it, and dye it in a light colored dye bath according to our Tub dyeing directions. Use a color that goes with all of the others you have used.
  17. 17. Direct Dyeing When a dye is applied directly to the fabric without the aid of an affixing agent, it is called direct dyeing. In this method the dyestuff is either fermented (for natural dye) or chemically reduced (for synthetic vat and sulfur dyes) before being applied. The direct dyes, which are largely used for dyeing cotton, are water soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber from an aqueous solution. Most other classes of synthetic dye, other than vat and sulfur dyes, are also applied in this way. Stock Dyeing Stock dyeing refers to the dyeing of the fibers, or stock, before it is spun in to yarn. It is done by putting loose, unspun fibres in to large vats containing the dye bath, which is then heated to the appropriate temperature required for the dye application and dyeing process. Stock dyeing is usually suitable for woolen materials when heather like color effects are desired. Wool fibre dyed black, for example, might be blended and spun with un-dyed (white) wool fibre to produce soft heather like shade of grey yarn. Tweed fabrics with heather like color effects such as Harris Tweed are examples of stock dyed material. Other examples include heather like colours in covert and woolen cheviot. Top Dyeing Top dyeing is also the dyeing of the fibre before it is spun in to yarn and serves the same purpose as stock dyeing – that is, to produce soft, heather like color effects. The term top refers to the fibres of wool from which the short fibres have been removed. Top is thus selecting long fibres that are used to spin worsted yarn. The top in the form of sliver is dyed and then blended with other colors of dyed top to produce desired heather shades. Yarn Dyeing Yarn dyeing is the dyeing of the yarns before they have been woven or knitted into fabrics. Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting checks, stripes and plaids with different-colored yarns in the weaving
  18. 18. process. In yarn dyeing, dyestuff penetrates the fibers in the core of the yarn. There are many forms of yarn dyeing- Skein (Hank) Dyeing, Package Dyeing, Warp-beam Dyeing, and Space Dyeing. A. Skein (Hank) Dyeing Skein dyeing consists of immersing large, loosely wound hanks (skeins) of yarn into dye vats that are especially designed for this purpose. Soft, lofty yarns, such as hand knitted yarns are usually skein dyed. Skein dyeing is the most costly yarn-dye method. B. Package Dyeing In package dyeing the yarn is wound on a small perforated spool or tube called a package. Many spools fit into the dyeing machine in which the flow of the dye bath alternates from the center to the outside, and then from the outside to the center of the package. Package dyed yarns do not retain the softness and loftiness that skein-dyed yarns do. They are however satisfactory and very widely used for most types of yarns that are found in knitted and woven fabrics. C. Warp Beam Dyeing Beam dyeing is the much larger version of package dyeing. An entire warp beam is wound on to a perforated cylinder, which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine, where the flow of the dye bath alternate as in the package dyeing. Beam dyeing is more economical than skein or package dyeing, but it is only used in the manufacture of woven fabrics where an entire warp beam is dyed. Knitted fabrics, which are mostly produced from the cones of the yarn, are not adaptable to beam dyeing. Piece Dyeing The dyeing of cloth after it is being woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. It is the most common method of dyeing used. The various methods used for this type of dyeing include jet dyeing. Jig dyeing, pad dyeing and beam dyeing.
  19. 19. Garment Dyeing Garment dyeing is the dyeing of the completed garments. The types of apparel that can be dyed are mostly non-tailored and simpler forms, such as sweaters, sweatshirts, T-shirts, hosiery, and pantyhose. The effect on sizing, thread, zippers, trims and snaps must be considered. Tailored items, such as suits or dresses, cannot be dyed as garments because the difference in shrinkage of the various components and linings disort and misshape the article. Garment dyeing is done by placing a suitable number of garments (usually about 24 sweaters or the equivalent, depending on the weight) into large nylon net bag. The garments are loosely packed. From 10 to 50 of the bags are placed in large tubs containing the dye bath and kept agitated by a motor – driven paddle in the dye tub. The machine is appropriately called a paddle dryer. Stovetop Fabric Dyeing Tintex is a hot water dye, if possible, keep water temperatures at 140°F to get the best result. Ensure that fabric is clean and preferably wet before dyeing. Test techniques to get familiar with the process before dyeing all of your real fabric. Tintex is not for 100% polyester or 100% acrylic fabric. Fabric blends can be dyed but, 100% polyester or 100% acrylic fabrics may not respond to a hot water dye - - proceed at your own risk.  Wear rubber gloves to prevent dye or hot water from coming into contact with your skin stovetop fabric dyeing method  Fill a pot with enough water to cover item completely and to allow it to move freely when stirred (do not add the item yet)  Place the pot on the stovetop and bring water to a boil  Carefully pour Timex dye into boiling water, stirring until evenly dissolved  Carefully place damp, unfolded item into the pot, immersing it completely  Bring dye bath back to a gentle boil, stirring constantly for 20 – 30 minutes, item will appear a shade deeper than desired  If shade is not dark enough then remove item, add more Timex solution and repeat  When finished, carefully pour the entire contents of the pot into a clean, stainless steel sink. Caution – contents will be hot!
  20. 20.  Run lukewarm water over item to cool it down and to remove excess dye – continue until water runs clear  When safe to handle, gently squeeze excess water from the item (do not wring) and hang the item to air-dry  Wash pot and sink with chlorine bleach  Iron item while slightly damp to lock in color Washing Machine Dyeing Methods  Front-Load Washing Machine Dyeing Instructions: o Ensure washing machine is clean (including detergent dispenser)washing machine method o Dampen fabric thoroughly with warm water. o Place wet, unfolded item into front-loading washing machine o Combine dye with 4 cups of boiling water, stirring until completely dissolved o Carefully pour the dye solution into the dispenser o Adjust your washer’s temperature to ensure that it is on the hottest setting o Start your machine and leave the fabric inside for the duration of the washing cycle o When the cycle is complete, remove the fabric from the machine and allow to air-dry until just slightly damp o Iron the damp fabric on a low setting to lock in the color o Immediately after the washing machine cycle has completed, clean the machine to prevent staining by running another hot water cycle (Use: detergent, 1-2 cups bleach and some old towels and/or fabrics that may absorb residual dye), if needed you may use an additional 4 cups, boiling water into the dispenser to clear any dye solution residue in the dispenser.  Top-Load Washing Machine Dyeing Instructions: o Ensure the washing machine is clean (including detergent dispenser) o Fill washing machine with just enough of the hottest water possible to cover item completely o Combine dye with 4 cups boiling water, stirring until completely dissolved o Carefully pour the dye solution directly into the hot water in the washing machine, ensuring the dye is evenly dispersed throughout the water before item is added o Dampen item thoroughly
  21. 21. o Place wet unfolded item into top-loading washing machine, ensuring item is completely covered o low washing machine to operate throughout the duration of one regular washing cycle o When the cycle is complete remove the fabric from the machine and allow to air-dry until just slightly damp o Iron the damp fabric on a low setting to lock in the color Product Amount Guide:  ½ - 1 of a 55g box: (Smaller water level): underwear, scarves, shrugs & wraps, socks & tights, short or long sleeve T-shirts, button-down shirts & light vests, pillow slips, table runners etc..  1-2 or 2-3 of 55g boxes: (Medium water level): sweats & denim, skirts, dresses & pants, tablecloths, heavier denim jackets, sweaters, hand towel sets, non-rubber backed mats, smaller sheet sets, heavy robes etc..  4 of 55g boxes: (Largest water level): large slipcovers, larger sheet sets, duvet covers, bedspreads etc...(*Note: do not use over 4 boxes of product per load) Bucket/Sink/Bathtub Dyeing with a bucket, sink, or bathtub helps you get great results for your delicate or more unusual items. Do not use fabric dye in porcelain or fiberglass bathtubs (due to the strong possibility of staining). Tintex is a hot water dye, if possible, keep water temperatures at 140°F to get the best result. Test techniques to get familiar with the process before dyeing all of your real fabric. Tintex is not for 100% polyester or 100% acrylic fabric. Fabric blends can be dyed but, 100% polyester or 100% acrylic fabrics may not respond to a hot water dye -- proceed at your own risk.  Wet the item fully and squeeze out excess water  Fill bucket/sink/bathtub with a sufficient amount of the hottest water available so to ensure that the item will be completely submerged but do not place the item in the water yet  Determine the amount of Tintex dye you require (based on the type and weight of the material you are dyeing) and add the dye to two cups of hot water, stirring until completely dissolved  Create your dye bath by adding the dye mixture to the hot water in your bucket/sink/bathtub and stir/agitate until it is evenly dispersed throughout the water
  22. 22.  Slowly add your item to the dye bath and use a stirring device (or your hands in rubber gloves – careful, the dye bath will be hot) to move the item through the dye bath for approximately 30 minutes  Remove the item from the dye bath and gently squeeze the excess dye solution out of the item back into the dye bath (do not wring)  Run cold water over the item to remove excess dye from the item, and continue doing this until water runs cleanly from the item  Allow the item to air-dry, and iron on a low setting when slightly damp  Clean the workstation using soap and/or bleach (if applicable) with warm water as soon as possible after dyeing Microwave Fabric Dyeing We found another way to use our microwave - Fabric dyeing. This method is a fast way to get great dyeing results.  Prepare a dye mixture by adding the required amount of Tintex dye to two cups of the hottest water available and mix thoroughly microwave until it is completely dissolved  Pour the dye mixture into a microwave-safe glass bowl and combine it with as much hot water as needed in order to completely cover the item you wish to dye  Mix the water and dye mixture thoroughly to make your dye bath  Place your wet item in the dye bath and ensure that it is completely immersed  Cover the top of your bowl completely using plastic wrap  Place paper towels or newspaper on the rotating tray in the microwave to prevent staining  Place the bowl in the microwave and turn it on high for approximately two minutes  The bowl will be extremely hot - with extreme caution, use rubber gloves to remove the bowl from the microwave and set it on paper towels on your kitchen counter close to your kitchen sink, or in the sink directly  Allow the dye bath to cool for approximately five minutes, then remove the item from the dye bath and place it in the kitchen sink using rubber gloves  Run cold water throughout the item and gently squeeze it until you notice the excess water flowing from the item runs clear  Gently squeeze excess water from the item but do not wring  Allow the item to air-dry and iron on a low setting when slightly damp
  23. 23. Ombre Ombré is a by-hand dyeing method of creating a gradual shaded look. For example, an Ombré blanket may be navy on the bottom and gradually fade to a lighter blue toward the top of the blanket.  Set up your work station: place a large plastic sheet on the ground and place a large bin in the center  Wear rubber gloves to protect skin  Carefully fill the bin with two gallons of hottest water  Prepare your dye solution by adding dye to 3-4 cups of very hottest water and mixing well until completely dissolved  Add the dye solution to the bin of hot water and agitate well until mixed evenly  Place the bottom third of the clean, dampened item into the dye bath, leaving it immersed and moving it around slightly for approximately 10 minutes  Add another 1/3 of your item into the dye bath leaving it immersed and moving it around slightly for approximately 5 minutes  Quickly dip the rest of the item into the dye bath  Gently squeeze the extra dye solution out of your item but do not wring  Run cold water down from the lightest shade to the darkest to remove extra dye until water runs clear  Allow your item to air-dry and iron on a low setting when slightly damp  Clean the work station using bleach (when safe) and warm water as soon as possible Conclusion This assignment is very important for our professional life. We gather more knowledge from about different type’s latest development of dyeing techniques and also know to the mechanism of dyeing techniques. We think that our honorable teacher is more satisfy to visualize our assignment. We are very proud for introduce this assignment. Reference  www.google.com  www.wikipedia.com  www.dharmatrading.com  www.teonline.com  www.tintex.ca

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