1. HYBRID CARS
In an era where energy conservation has become the latest topic
of discussion not only among the erudite but also among the ordinary
responsible citizens, fuel efficiency along with minimum pollution has
become the benchmark for any new automobile.
And in the same context “Hybrid Cars” come as the latest
addition. By the name itself it can be inferred that a hybrid car is an
improvisation to the traditional gasoline engine run car combined with
the power of an electric motor.
2. As more and more people catch on to the wave of the
automotive future - the hybrid car, more and more questions arise
regarding these efficient, but somewhat mysterious vehicles. But just
how do they work, are they reliable enough, and are they capable of
being the car of the future?
What is a Hybrid Car?
A hybrid car is any car that combines two or more sources of
power, such as gasoline and a rechargeable battery. A hybrid-electric
vehicle (HEV) combines the power of a conventional internal
combustion engine with an electric motor. These dual engine systems
can be configured for different purposes such as increasing the car’s
power and improving fuel economy.
In fact, many people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at
some point. For example, a mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of
hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the
pedal power of its rider.
Evolution of the Hybrid:
3. 1839: First electric vehicle
1886: Electric powered taxicab in England
1900: Pieper introduced hybrid
1905: Gas-Electric car
1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg)
2000: Toyota Prius available in US
2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced
2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced
2005: Lexus RX 400h Automobile 2006 model, 3MZ-FE V6 engine
2006: Toyota Camry Hybrid Automobile 2007 model, 2AZ-FXE
4. 2009: Mercedes S400 Blue Hybrid(first lithium-ion battery hybrid
and first Mercedes hybrid) Automobile
2010: Mazda Tribute Crossover
5. Why Hybrids?
• Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical
than on the highway.
• Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice).
• Emissions are greatly decreased.
• Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.
• Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well.
• Emissions from vehicles are causing global warming and human
• Natural gas extraction for the world will peak within a decade or
• Hybrid vehicles produce much less emissions and use about 50%
less fuel than the average new vehicle in the same class. (Partial-
Global-Warming: Still an Issue…
• Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles.
• Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to
• Later models may cut these emissions down by even more.
6. Components of a Hybrid Car
Hybrid car model:
7. Gasoline engine
Much like our engines but smaller and is made with
advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase
Energy storing device for the gasoline engine
Gas has a much larger density than the batteries
Advance electronics allow it to act as either an motor or a
Ex: When needed it can take power from the batteries to
accelerate the car.
Similar to an electric motor, just it acts only to produce
Energy storage device for the electric motor
Transmission on a hybrid performs the same as a
transmission on our cars
8. How a transmission works is that it takes power from the
engine or motor and sends to the driveshaft which turns
your axle to move your car
What makes it a "Hybrid"?
Any vehicle is hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power.
The gasoline-electric hybrid car is just that -- a cross between a
gasoline-powered car and an electric car. Let's start with a few
diagrams to explain the differences.
Figure 1 shows a gas-powered car. It has a fuel tank, which supplies
gasoline to the engine. The engine then turns a transmission, which
turns the wheels.
9. Figure 1. Gasoline-powered car
Figure 2. Below shows an electric car, which has a set of batteries that
provides electricity to an electric motor. The motor turns a
transmission, and the transmission turns the wheels.
Figure 2. Electric car
10. Hybrid Structure
You can combine the two power sources found in a hybrid car in
different ways. One way, known as a parallel hybrid, has a fuel tank,
which supplies gasoline to the engine. But it also has a set of batteries
that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the
electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the
transmission then turns the wheels.
Figure 3 shows a typical parallel hybrid. We'll notice that the fuel tank
and gas engine connect to the transmission. The batteries and electric
motor also connect to the transmission independently. As a result, in a
parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas engine can provide
11. Figure 3. Parallel hybrid car
By contrast, in a series hybrid (Figure 4 below) the gasoline engine
turns a generator, and the generator can either charge the batteries or
power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Thus, the gasoline
engine never directly powers the vehicle.
13. HOW DO HYBRID CARS WORK?
The key for the hybrid car is its ability to use a smaller engine
A conventional engine is sized for peak power requirement
whereas Hybrid engines are small.
The hybrid engine is sized for running at the average power not
the peak. But when it does reach that point that it needs help up
a hill or to pass someone, it draws extra power from the batteries
and the electric motor to get the job done.
Smaller Engines are more efficient
Recovers energy and stores it into the batter
Sometimes it will shut the engine off
14. Hybrid Maintenance:
o The average warranty for a hybrid now is around either 8 yr/
100,000 mile or even 10 year/ 150,000 mile
Brake pads: No maintenance
o $6800 for new Toyota and Honda hybrid
o But batteries tested to go for 180,000 miles and some
Electric motor drive/assist
Recaptures kinetic energy normally lost as heat during
Electric motor acts as a generator when brakes are applied.
Converts kinetic energy into electrical energy, stored in
15. Electric motor drive/assist:
Additional power to assist engine accelerating, passing and
So, allows smaller and more efficient engine to be used.
Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes
to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator is pressed.
This prevents the accelerator is pressed.
Some EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) facts:
• Every gallon of gasoline your vehicle burns puts 20 pounds of CO 2
into the atmosphere.
• A 5 mpg difference in fuel economy equates to about 2,800
pounds of CO2 a year.
16. Recent Advances:
Revolution in Battery Technology:
Today’s automotive starter batteries: Lead-acid
RAV4 EV (and Toyota Prius hybrid battery): Nickel Metal-hydride
New batteries based on Lithium, Li-ion or Li-polymer: 5x lighter
for same energy!
These advances make possible large battery storage for vehicles.
BMW’s BRIGHT IDEA:
BMW has emerged onto the hybrid gas-electric vehicle scene
with its X3 SUV that features super capacitors instead of batteries to
store energy. The “super caps” are located in the rocker panel area of
the X3 to give it a low center of gravity.
Excellent gas mileage
Fewer tailpipe emissions
Lighter batteries than electric vehicles
Regenerative braking system stores electrical energy in batteries
Uses less fuel to recharge batteries
20% -25% better mileage than ICE
30% reduction in emissions
Reduced, but not emission-free
HECs are partial zero-emission vehicles (PZEVs) – they produce
zero emissions only when engine is not running
More expensive than conventional Vehicles
Has a payback period in average use
Batteries are expensive and toxic waste
18. Current Models of HECs:
•Honda Accord Hybrid
•Honda Civic Hybrid
•Ford Escape Hybrid
•GMC Silverado Hybrid
•GMC Sierra Hybrid
•Toyota Highlander Hybrid
• Electric and Hybrid cars: A History by Judy Anderson
• All About Electric and Hybrid Cars by Stephanie Bearce
• Present day automobiles, not only stress on power, performance
& luxury, but also focus on emissions, efficiency & reliability.
• The demand for fossil fuels will be at a critical stage in the coming
future, resulting in high prices of fuels.
• The present emission rates from the vehicles are so high that they
add to the global warming.
• There is a need for clean & less emission vehicles.
• Hence, Hybrids are the vehicles of the future.