3. About Ausubel
David P. Ausubel was an American psychologist who did
his undergraduate work at the University of Pennsylvania
(pre-med and psychology). He graduated from medical
school at Middlesex University.
Later he earned a PhD in Developmental Psychology at
Columbia University. He was influenced by the work
of Piaget. He served on the faculty at several universities
and retired from academic life in 1973 and began his
practice in psychiatry.
Dr. Ausubel published several textbooks in developmental
and educational psychology, and more than 150 journal
articles. He was awarded the Thorndike Award for
"Distinguished Psychological Contributions to Education"
by the American Psychological Association (1976).
5. Subsumpmtion Theory
Ausubel’s theory is concerned with how individuals learn
large amounts of meaningful information from verbal or
textual presentations in a school setting. According to
Ausubel, learning is based upon the kinds of super-
ordinate, representational and combination processes that
occur during the reception of information.
A primary process in learning is subsumption in which
new materials is related to relevant ideas in the existing
cognitive structure on a substantive, non-verbatim basis.
Cognitive structures represent the residue of all learning
experiences; forgetting occurs because certain details get
integrated and lose their individual identity.
8. Subordinate Learning
Two Types of Subordinate Learning.
In derivative subsumption, new information is linked to
superordinate idea A and represents another case or
extension of A. The critical attributes of the concept A are
not changed, but new examples are recognized as
9. Subordinate Learning
In correlative subsumption, new information y is linked to
idea X, but is an extension, modification, or qualification
of X. The critical attributes of the subsuming concept may
be extended or modified with the new correlative
10. Combinatorial Learning
In combinatorial learning new idea A is seen as related to
existing ideas B, C, and D but is neither more inclusive
nor more specific than ideas B, C, and D. In this case, new
idea A is seen to have some criteria attributes are common
with pre-existing ideas.
11. Superordinate Learning
In superordinate learning, established ideas a1, a2,
and a3 are recognized as more specific examples of new
idea A and become linked to A. Superordinate idea A is
defined by a new set of critical attributes that encompass
the subordinate ideas.
12. Subsumtion Learning in the
This method is explored by the theorist where it states
that explaining or introducing new knowledge can be
thought by making comparisons or helping students
to recognize similarities with the aim to help the
student to clearly understand what is being taught.
13. Subsumtion Learning in the
Example; The study of plant reproduction and the
human reproductive system, while the human
reproductive system can be related to and easily
understood, depending on the grade and age, a child
may have difficulties grasping the process of the
Therefore to explain this, discuss the similarities and
differences between the two so that subsuming new
information may be easier or do a quick recap of the
lesson to familiarise the students with the vocabulary.
14. Subsumtion Learning in the
Another way this theory can be used in the classroom
is by allowing students to answer questions and make
their own observation after the lesson is thought. This
tenet of the theory is super ordinate learning.
Super ordinate theory is explained as, a child being
able to give examples but does not know the on point
answer to the question asked. Yet still they give
examples or explanation about the content which is
15. Influence of the theory on student
This theory gives students the chance to express his or
her opinion as it relates to the topic that is being
The theory speaks about advances organizers, this is
where students are given time to adequately prepare so
that the cognitive structure can be made to subsume