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# A basic introduction to aerodynamics

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# A basic introduction to aerodynamics

Basic Introduction to Aerodynamics of flight, mainly covered with physical laws related to Aerodynamics for thrust & lift of plane.

Basic Introduction to Aerodynamics of flight, mainly covered with physical laws related to Aerodynamics for thrust & lift of plane.

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### A basic introduction to aerodynamics

1. 1. Presentation Presented By Shamanth SH 05-02-2015
2. 2. 2 1. Introduction 2. Fundamentals of Physics 3. Newton's Three Laws of Motion 4. Forces on an Aircraft 5. Bernoulli’s Theorem 6. Four Forces of Flight 7. Various Parts of Aircraft 8. End of Presentation with LCA
3. 3. 3  Aerodynamics is the study of objects in motion through the air and the forces that produce or change such motion.  Air is a mixture of gases composed principally of nitrogen and oxygen. An aircraft operates in the air, therefore, the properties of air that affect aircraft control and performance must be understood.  Pressure – Atmospheric pressure varies with altitude. The higher an object rises above sea level, the lower the pressure.  Density – It varies directly with the pressure and inversely with the temperature. With the same horse power, an aircraft can fly faster at high altitude because of less resistance of air at there.  Humidity – Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. It varies directly with temperature.
4. 4. 4 Charge - Electro- magnetic Matter - Mass TimeSpace - Length
5. 5. 5 Velocity = Density = Force = Length Tim e Mass Length 2 Mass Length Tim e 3 Momentum = Tim e Mass Length Dimensionalit y Energy = Tim e Mass Length2 2
6. 6. 6 1. Newton’s First Law: An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force. 2. Newton’s Second Law: The acceleration a of an object as produced by a net force F is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass m of the object: F = ma. 3. Newton’s Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
7. 7. 7 An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force.
8. 8. 8 F AM F = ma The acceleration a of an object as produced by a net force F is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass m of the object.
9. 9. 9 Action Reaction For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
10. 10. 10 The Four Forces of Flight The four forces act on the airplane in flight and also work against each other. ThrustDrag Lift Weight CG
11. 11. Weight is a force caused by the gravitational attraction of the earth 9.807 m/s² The earth’s gravity pulls down on objects and gives them weight Weight counteracts lift 11
12. 12. What’s it take to create lift? Air or motion ? How do we explain lift? Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s Principal are used to explain lift. 12
13. 13. 13 A1 A2 A1>A2 P1>P2 P1, V1 P2, V2 V1<V2
14. 14.  Air speeds up in the constricted space between the car & truck creating a low-pressure area. Higher pressure on the other outside pushes them together. 14
15. 15. 15 Flow In Flow Out Venturi Meter A wing is really just half a venturi tube
16. 16.  A fluid (and air acts like a fluid) speeds up as it moves through a constricted space A fluid (and air acts like a fluid) speeds up as it moves through a constricted space 16
17. 17. Bernoulli’s Principle: Air moving over the wing moves faster than the air below. Faster-moving air above exerts less pressure on the wing than the slower-moving air below. The result is an upward push on the wing--lift! 17 Lift Low Pressure High Velocity Upper Streamline Longer Distance Lower Streamline High Pressure Low Velocity Shorter Distance
18. 18.  Newton’s Second Law: force causes a change in velocity which in turn generates another force.  Newton’s Third Law: net flow of air is turned down resulting in an ‘equal and opposite’ upward force’. 18
19. 19. 19 • Air travels further and faster over the wing, creating a low pressure area, which “lifts” the wing up. An airplane’s wings are specially designed to produce the most “lift.”
20. 20. 20
21. 21. 21
22. 22.  Which of these airplanes will speed up?  Which will slow down? Drag or Thrust ? 22 ThrustDrag
23. 23.  A propeller is a spinning wing that generates Thrust. 23
24. 24.  Engines (either jet or propeller) typically provide the thrust for aircraft. When you fly a paper airplane, you generate the thrust. 24
25. 25.  This force acts in reverse direction to that of 'Thrust' and Resists forward motion. Drag is considered as a negative force and all engineers try their best to reduce drag.  The nose of the plane is designed to reduce “drag,” or the resistance of the air as the plane moves through the sky. Imagine if the nose of the plane was a block shape instead of a cone – it would put up a lot more resistance! (And it would need a LOT more thrust to push forward.) 25
26. 26. 26
27. 27. 1. Fuselage 2. Wings 3. Ailerons 4. Flaps 5. Rudder 6. Horizontal Stabilizer 7. Vertical Stabilizer 8. Elevator 9. Landing Gear, Nose Gear 27
28. 28.  The body of the airplane that all the other parts are attached to.• Can be made of many different substances such as aluminium or wood. 28
29. 29.  The part of the plane that creates lift and controls roll.  Has a rounded leading edge and tapered trailing edge which helps create lift.  The wing design uses Bernoulli’s Principle. 29
30. 30.  Located at the top of the trailing edge of the wings.  Controls roll.  Move up and down to control the direction of wind blowing over and under it.  Ailerons Control Roll The AILERONS control ROLL. On the outer rear edge of each wing, the two ailerons move in opposite directions, up and down, decreasing lift on one wing while increasing it on the other. This causes the airplane to roll to the left or right. 30
31. 31. 31
32. 32.  The RUDDER controls YAW. On the vertical tail fin, the rudder swivels from side to side, pushing the tail in a left or right direction.  A pilot usually uses the rudder along with the ailerons to turn the airplane.  Rudder Controls Yaw 32
33. 33.  Horizontal Stabilizer  Horizontal with the fuselage  Helps airplane maintain level flight. 33
34. 34.  Vertical Stabilizer  Vertical to the horizontal stabilizer  Helps to airplane maintain level flight 34
35. 35.  The ELEVATOR controls PITCH. On the horizontal tail surface, the elevator tilts up or down, decreasing or increasing lift on the tail.  This tilts the nose of the airplane up and down.  Elevator Controls Pitch 35
36. 36.  The front landing gear when the plane has three wheels to land. Nose gear 36
37. 37.  A frame with wheels that allow the plane to take- off and land  Some airplanes have retractable landing gear. 37
38. 38. 38
39. 39. 39
40. 40.  Indian indigenous fighter aircraft designed & developed by DRDO & HAL named as TEJAS (Light Combat Aircraft). THANK YOU, THANKS FOR ALL 40 Best Regards, Shamanth SH

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