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WASTE MANAGEMENT<br />Shakeel Ahmed<br />Mehran University<br />Institute of Science and Technology Development.<br />
Contents<br /> Introduction<br /> Categorization of Waste<br /> Where we stand<br /> Hospital and Organic Waste<br /> Waste collection and Disposal Flows<br /> Role of the State<br /> Conclusions <br />
Introduction<br />Waste management refers to the activities connected with the collection and disposal of wastes. Waste management comprises the following activities:1- Waste collection2- Waste transportation3- Waste segregation4- Waste recycling5- Waste disposal6- Waste minimization & control<br />
Where do we stand<br /> Improper waste disposal and lack of adequate management plan in Pakistan has been significant issue related to waste management. Recent years have scene some progress on this front through collaborative initiatives between government and civil society but much more is needed to uplift the flimsy scenario in this area of environment protection and conservation.<br />(National Environmental Policy of Pakistan, 2005)<br />
Categorization of Waste<br /> a) Discarded sharpsb) Laboratory and associated wastec) Human tissue including solutions containing bloodd) Cytotoxic wastee) Pharmaceutical wastef) Chemical wasteg) Radiation wasteh) General waste<br />
Hazardous Waste<br />Hazardous waste is ignitable, corrosive, reactive and toxic. This is harmful to human beings and other living organisms.<br />Waste generated by pharma & chemical industries<br />Nuclear waste<br />Hospital waste such as needles, old medicines, human organs<br />
Hospital and Organic Waste<br /> Waste Management from both hospitals and municipals is a gigantic problem in Pakistan, around 2,50,000 tons of medical waste is annually produced from all sorts of healthcare facilities. Most of this wasted material is burned in open spaces.<br /> It is quite un fortunate that no monitoring has been done to measure the level of these emissions and resulting pollution in the air when it is burnt.<br />
Hospital and Organic Waste(Cont….)<br /> The organic fraction of the waste often contributing to more than 50% of the total waste amount.<br /> Karachi is the largest city having more then 10 million people, there is a serious lack of planning and sustainable policies on account of waste management even such highly urbanized city.<br />
Waste Collection and Disposal Flaws<br /> Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is collected on the roadside bins but the Municipal corporation collects it infrequently.<br /> Residential waste is usually collected and transported directly to landfill sites, However these landfills are not properly designed hence creating problems like incomplete decomposition of MSW, that damages the environment and the groundwater.<br />
Waste Collection and Disposal Flaws (Cont…)<br /> In Pakistan, the container carrying waste are mostly transported from one place to another with the help of truck or tractors, which most of the time overflows and are not properly covered. The waste spills out from the containers and allot of it falls on the streets before reaching the landfills.<br />
Role of the State<br /> The Solid waste disposal in Pakistan is one which is least developed.<br /> Problems associated with the waste management are complex because of the quality and diversity of the nature of waste and financial limitations on public services in large cities.<br /> Local Municipal Corporations are responsible to collect the waste generated in all the country except Karachi.<br />
Role of the State (Cont….)<br /> In Karachi Solid Waste Management Department (SWM) of Karachi is responsible to collect, transport and then dispose of the waste.<br /> As the urbanization is taking pace in the Pakistan it is mandatory to establish such departments in the rest of the cites.<br />
Conclusions<br /> Waste Management is crucial issue that needs governmental attention immediately, the practices used in Pakistan to generate waste are too dangerous not only for our selves but they could be disastrous for our children. At present very little awareness exists amongst the stakeholders, it is crucial to educate people and convince them to adopt practices for reduce, reuse and recycle rather then generating crap.<br />
“Infection Control & Management of Hazardous Materials for Dental Team” Chris H.Miller,Charles John Palenik.<br />“National Guidelines for waste management in health care industry” Govt. of Australia Guide lines.<br />National Environmental Policy of Pakistan, 2005.<br />References<br />