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The various requirements of an
automobile wheel are
1. It must be strong enough to perform the above functions.
2. It should be balanced both statically as well as dynamically.
3. It should be lightest possible so that the unsprung weight is
4. It should be possible to remove or mount the wheel easily.
5. Its material should not weaken with weathering and age. In
case, the material is susceptible to corrosion, it must be
given suitable protective treatment.
Wheel - Basics
•Most standard wheels are made of steel.
•Some vehicles are fitted with alloy wheels
that are made of magnesium or aluminum.
•The rim holds the tyre.
•The well of the wheel allows the tyre to
be removed and refitted.
•The centre section is welded to the rim.
•The pilot bore fits to the hub.
Valve Stems and Cores
– Three functions – It retains the air, it allows
inflation and deflation.
•The rubber stem of the valve is pulled into the
•The valve core contains a spring loaded air valve
•The valve core also has a sealing washer and a
•The valve cap keeps out dust and helps keep air
Tyre pressures must only be checked and adjusted when the tyre is cold
•Wheel studs and nuts attach the wheel to the hub.
•The wheel studs press through the hub or axle
•The taper on the wheel nuts secures and centers
•Wheel studs usually have a right-hand thread.
•If it is a left-hand thread, it can be marked with “L”.
•Metric threads can be marked with “M” or
Wheel Nut Torque
•Correct torque of wheel fixing is vital for all
vehicles, and nearly all require the use of a
•Excessive torque can lead to wheel or hub
distortion, causing runout and vibration.
•Low torque may allow wheel nuts to work loose
and wheels to come off.
•Nuts should be tightened in a diagonal pattern.
1. Steel Wheels (Disc wheel)– A very popular design of wheel. Very
strong and cheap to produce.
2. Alloy Wheels – Attractive and light weight, but can be difficult to
3. Spoke Wheels (Wire wheels) – Used on older sports vehicles, but
cannot be fitted with tubeless tyres.
4. Divided rims – the rims are made in two halves which are bolted
together, the rims must never be separated while the tyre is inflated.
5. Split rims – the tyre is held in place by a large circlip, do not remove
the tyre unless you have been properly trained.
TYPES OF WHEELS
• Several types
– Aluminum wheels: cast, forged, or rolled
– Race cars: use alloy wheels
– Custom wheels for street use: single piece castings
of light alloy aluminum
• Wheel offset
• Negative offset: increases track width of tires
• Positive offset: found on front-wheel-drive cars