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Impact of industrial revolution in architecture

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Impact of industrial revolution in architecture

  1. 1.  The Industrial Revolution began in England about 1760  radical changes at every level of civilization throughout the world  growth of heavy industry brought a flood of new building materials— cast iron, steel, and glass  architects and engineers devised structures hitherto undreamed of in function, size, and form.
  2. 2.  Age of enlightment  to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance knowledge through the scientific method.  promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange.  The Enlightenment was a revolution in human thought.  This new way of thinking was that rational thought begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against evidence, and then revises the principles in the light of the evidence.
  3. 3.  Disenchantment with baroque, with rococo, and even with neo-Palladianism turned late 18th-century designers and patrons toward the original Greek and Roman prototypes.  Selective borrowing from another time and place became fashionable.  Greek aspect was particularly strong in the young United States from the early years of the 19th century until about 1850.  New settlements were given Greek names—Syracuse, Ithaca, Troy—and Doric and Ionic columns, entablatures, and pediments, mostly transmuted into white-painted wood, were applied to public buildings and important town houses in the style called GREEK REVIVAL.
  4. 4. Neoclassical architecture  produced by the neoclassical movement t began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.  its purest is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.
  5. 5.  Intellectually Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, Greek,and renaissance classicism  architects, however, felt free to select whatever elements from past cultures best fitted their programs—Gothic for Protestant churches, baroque for Roman Catholic churches, early Greek for banks, Palladian for institutions, early Renaissance for libraries, and Egyptian for cemeteries.
  6. 6. •Background of emergence of neo classical architecture •Architecture of baroque and rococo •Two forces •Technological change •Social change •Architects were Compel to look for new and true style •Expedition to greek and roman cities •Books on ancient monuments •Le roy, piranesi and adams works •Hallucination of ancient forms in new work
  7. 7. Putteney bridge bath by Robert Adam Royal Scottish academy Edinburgh by William Henry playfair Greek Doric style portico
  8. 8. Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Elisabethkirche in Berlin
  9. 9. Altes museum Berlin
  10. 10. Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius Prado museum in Madrid by Juan de Villanueva
  11. 11.  In the second half of the 19th century dislocations brought about by the Industrial Revolution became overwhelming.  Many were shocked by the hideous new urban districts of factories and workers’ housing and by the deterioration of public taste among the newly rich.  For the new modes of transportation, canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad stations, architects were employed only to provide a cultural veneer.

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