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Autism spectrum Disorder Etiology

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Autism spectrum Disorder Etiology

  1. 1. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) ETIOLOGY (CURRENT THEORIES) OF ASD BY: SHABEER KHAN AIU 2020
  2. 2. CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION • CHARACTERISTICS • ETIOLOGY • COMORBID DISORDER • CONCLUSION • REFERENCES
  3. 3. WHAT IS ASD…?
  4. 4. • AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IS A COMPLEX NEUROLOGICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER THAT EFFECTS HOW PEOPLE INTERACT WITH OTHERS, COMMUNICATE AND BEHAVE . • IT SAID TO BE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER ,BECAUSE SYMPTOMS GENERALLY APPEARS IN FIRST 1 TO 3 YEARS (EARLY)
  5. 5. WHY CALLED AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER • WE USED AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER BECAUSE IT IS IN FACT A SPECTRUM NOT A SINGLE DISORDER • INDIVIDUAL FALL ON THE SPECTRUM IN DIFFERENT WAYS HAVING DIFFERENT KINDS OF ABILITIES AND CHARACTERISTICS • BUT THEY ALL SHARE CERTAIN THINGS IN COMMON
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS :
  7. 7. THEORIES OF ETIOLOGY : • WHEN IT COMES TO THE ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM, VARIOUS THEORIES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED IN THE LAST FEW DECADES. • QUESTIONS AROUND WHAT CAUSES AUTISM AND ITS IMPACT ON MODERN-DAY SOCIETY HAVE BEEN A SUBJECT OF INTENSE DISCUSSION • THERE IS NO CLEAR CUT CAUSE OF ASD OR AUTISM HAS NO SINGLE CAUSE
  8. 8. SUPPORTING FACTS ON ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM… CAUSES
  9. 9. GENETIC FACTORS: • THE ETIOLOGY OF ASD IS LIKELY TO BE MULTIFACTORIAL, WITH BOTH GENETIC AND NON- GENETIC FACTORS PLAYING A ROLE . • RESEARCH TELLS US THAT AUTISM TENDS TO RUN IN FAMILIES. CHANGES IN CERTAIN GENES INCREASE THE RISK THAT A CHILD WILL DEVELOP AUTISM.(AUTISM SPEAKS G. RESEARCH) • ASD IS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES.
  10. 10. AUTISM’S GENETIC RISK FACTORS BY MUTATION ON X-CHROMOSOME • SEVERAL DIFFERENT GENES APPEAR TO PLAY A ROLE IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. • IN SOME CASES, THE AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER CAN BE ASSOCIATED WITH A GENETIC DISORDER CALLED RETT SYNDROME (AUTISTIC BEHAVIOR IN GIRLS ) • OR • FRAGILE X SYNDROME (FXS) (IN BOYS 20 %). IN OTHER CASES, GENETIC MUTATIONS CAN INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF AUTISM.
  11. 11. TWIN STUDIES : • EARLY STUDIES OF TWINS HAD ESTIMATED HERITABILITY TO BE OVER 90%. • THE INCIDENCE OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN BOTH IDENTICAL TWINS IS MUCH HIGHER THAN IN FRATERNAL TWINS. IF ONE OF THE IDENTICAL TWINS HAS IT, THE PROBABILITY OF IT
  12. 12. IDENTICAL AND FRATERNAL TWINS
  13. 13. OTHER GENETIC INFLUENCES INCREASE RISK FACTORS • GENETIC SYNDROME ( EX. FRAGILE X SYNDROME) • DE NOVO (NEWLY OCCURRING) • SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE VARIANT • INHIBITORY AND EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMISSION
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS; • INCREASED RISK • ADVANCED PARENT AGE(EITHER PARENT) • PREGNANCY AND BIRTH COMPLICATIONS (EX. EXTREME PREMATURITY [BEFORE 26 WEEKS], LOW BIRTH WEIGHT, MULTIPLE PREGNANCIES [TWIN, TRIPLET, ETC.]) • PREGNANCIES SPACED LESS THAN ONE YEAR APART
  15. 15. FROM EARLY TO LATE
  16. 16. EPIGENETICS :
  17. 17. RECENTLY BUSTED MYTHS ON ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM/DISCREDITED THEORIES : • A NEW STUDY HAS FOUND THAT THERE IS NO LINK BETWEEN AUTISM AND MERCURY LEVELS IN MOTHERS AND THEIR NEWBORNS. • GENETICS ALONE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR AUTISM • VACCINES MAY CAUSE AUTISM – NO THEY DO NOT! • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS LIKE POOR PARENTING OR “REFRIGERATOR “MUMS (REFUSED) • THE EXACT CAUSE OF AUTISM IS YET TO BE DETERMINED.
  18. 18. WHAT IS COMORBIDITY..?
  19. 19. COMORBIDITY OF ASD:
  20. 20. COMORBIDITY OF ASD INCLUDE : • EPILEPSY/SEIZURES • SLEEP DISORDERS/DISTURBANCE • ADHD • GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS • FEEDING/EATING CHALLENGES • OBESITY • ANXIETY • DEPRESSION • BIPOLAR DISORDER
  21. 21. NOTE: • THE CURRENT STUDY PROVIDES A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON COMORBIDITY, IN RELATION TO COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC AND MEDICAL DISORDERS IN BABIES AND INFANTS, CHILDREN, ADULTS AND ACROSS THE LIFESPAN. • THESE ISSUES CAN LAST THROUGHOUT LIFE, BUT MAY ALSO APPEAR AT DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES. • MULTIPLE STUDIES SHOW THAT PEOPLE WITH ASD HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY SHORTER LIFESPANS NOT DUE TO AUTISM ITSELF, BUT TO ACCOMPANYING MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH CONDITIONS.
  22. 22. DIAGNOSIS OF COMORBIDITIES CAN BE CHALLENGING : • BECAUSE MANY PEOPLE WITH ASD HAVE DIFFICULTY RECOGNIZING AND COMMUNICATING THEIR SYMPTOMS. ONE CAN NOT EASILY DIFFERENTIATE WHETHER THESE BEHAVIORS ARE RELATED TO ASD OR TO PHYSICAL DISCOMFORT CAUSED BY A CO- OCCURRING CONDITION. • THUS COMMODITIES IN THIS CONDITION REQUIRES MORE RESEARCH
  23. 23. REFERENCES : • AUTISM SPEAKS …HTTPS://WWW.AUTISMSPEAKS.ORG/WHAT-CAUSES- AUTISM • ASI A, DEMAYO MM, GLOZIER N, GUASTELLA AJ. AN OVERVIEW OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, HETEROGENEITY AND TREATMENT OPTIONS. NEUROSCI BULL. 2017;33(2):183–93. HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.1007/S12264-017-0100-Y . - DOI - PMC - PUBMED • VOLKMAR FR, WOLF JM. WHEN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM BECOME ADULTS. WORLD PSYCHIATRY. 2013;12(1):79–80. HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.1002/WPS.20020 . - DOI - PMC - PUBMED
  24. 24. THANK YOU • BE HAPPY……

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