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Lec 2 Microbiology (Practic).ppt

  1. Microbiology Lab Prepared by: Kazhaleh Mohammadi Knowledge University 2022-2023 1 Introduction
  2. Introduction to Microbiology 2
  3. 3 Microscopic organisms (microbes) were not seen, however, until Antony Van Leeuwenhock (1632-1723) made microscopes with sufficient magnification, then after, the science of microbiology began.
  4. 4 • Leeuwenhock observed motile microorganisms taken from a decayed tooth under the microscope. • In 1767 and after the convention of compound microscope, Linnaeus distinguished 6 species of microbes assigned to one class. • 600 types of bacteria was figured in 1838.
  5. 5 Micro + bio + logy • The biology comes from bios referring to living organisms and logy means the study of, thus biology is the study of living organisms. • Micro means very small, viewed by microscope • Microbiology is the study of very small living organisms called microorganisms or microbes, these include bacteria, algea, protozoa, fungi and viruses.
  6. 6 • Many bacteria and fungi are Saprophytes. • Saprophytes break down dead and dying organic materials (plants and animals) into nitrates, phosphates, carbon dioxide, water and other chemicals necessary for plant growth. • Saprophytes also destroy papers, feces and other biodegradable matters, although they cannot break down most plastics or glass. • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, that live in the root nodules of certain plants called legumes are able to return nitrogen from the air to the soil in the form of ammonia for use by other plants
  7. 7 • In 20th century, biological studies of microbes showed that there are different kinds of microbes, which found in different ecological niches and have different actions. • Microbiology then developed into there groups: microbes responsible for; • Fermentation: alcoholic fermentation by using grape juice • Diseases in man, animals and plants • The cycle of organic matter in the nature
  8. 8 • Fermentation refers to the microbial decomposition of vegetable matters which contains mostly carbohydrates. • Putrefaction refers to the formation of more unpleasant products by the decomposition of high protein materials, such as meat and eggs.
  9. Medical Microbiology 9
  10. Medical microbiology concerns the nature, distribution and activities of microbes and how they impact on health and wellbeing, most particularly as agents of infection. 10
  11. 11 • The germ theory of disease: The contagious diseases are transmitted or spread by seeds (microbes) either directly or indirectly (transmitted from diseased to healthy person).
  12. 12 • A disease causing microorganisms called pathogens (3% of all known microbes) • The others are non pathogenic (97%), the beneficial microbes are 87% • Microbes live on and in our bodies e.g. skin, in the mouth and intestine are known as indigenous microflora (or indigenous microbiota). Some of them cause disease accidentally and known as opportunistic pathogens (10%) • Diseases caused by microbes are called infectious disease
  13. Pharmaceutical Microbiology 13
  14. Pharmaceutical microbiologists work in laboratories and offices, where they conduct research on the effects of microorganisms on pharmaceutical products. They also work with other scientists and engineers to develop new pharmaceutical products and processes. 14
  15. Classification of bacteria in microbiology 15
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  21. • Turn the revolving turret so that the lowest power objective lens (eg. 4x) is clicked into position. • Place the microscope slide on the stage and fasten it with the stage clips. • Look at the objective lens and the stage from the side and turn the focus knob so the stage moves upward. Move it up as far as it will go without letting the objective touch the coverslip. • Look through the eyepiece and move the focus knob until the image comes into focus. • Adjust the condenser and light intensity for the greatest amount of light. • Move the microscope slide around until the sample is in the center of the field of view (what you see). • Use the focus knob to place the sample into focus and readjust the condenser and light intensity for the clearest image (with low power objectives you might need to reduce the light intensity or shut the condenser). • When finished, lower the stage, click the low-power lens into position and remove the slide.
  22. Diphtheria Bacilli Typhoid bacillus Rhodospirillum Vibrio Cholerae Staphylococcus Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus Salmonella enteritidis Bacilli( Rods) Spiral Coccus