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Collective Behavior

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Collective Behavior

  2. 2. Click to edit Master subtitle style The Concept Of Collective Behaviour The term “collective behaviour” refers to group behaviour that is apparently not guided by the usual norms of conduct. Definition by N.J.Smeler: Collective behaviour may be defined as ‘The relatively unorganized patterns of social interaction in human groups’.
  3. 3. Example • If we consider a normal classroom situation in a university. Students arrive more or less on time, they seat themselves in an orderly way, they listen to lectures, take notes, ask question at appropriate points, and finally leave classroom, when the lecture is over. Everyone practice a predictable fashion. But suppose a fire suddenly breaks out in the classroom. Confusion prevails everywhere.
  4. 4. • The normal pattern of behaviour gets immediately disrupted. The social behaviour becomes ‘unstructured’ and ‘unpredictable’. There are no norms to govern this behaviour. There will be disorder and the students will be panic. Sociologists use the term ‘collective behaviour’ to refer to such a type of behaviour.
  5. 5. Characteristics Of Collective Behaviour • Collective behaviour is temporary in nature and is entirely an unplanned one. • This type of behaviour is not regulated by any set of rules or procedures. • Since this behaviour is not bound by any defined norms,it becomes unpredictable. • Anonymity encourges them to behave in an irresponsible manner. • It is an unusual event.
  6. 6. • Rumours and misinformation normally run rampant during the course of collective behaviour. • This kind of behaviour is triggered not only by rumours but also guided by beliefs, hopes, fears etc. • Collective behaviour, may in certain respects have a close relationship with the broad cultural patterns of the community.
  7. 7. Social Movement According to Ian Robertson: ‘A social movement consist of a large number of people who have joined together to bring about or resist social or cultural change’.
  8. 8. Difficultes Involved In The Study Of Collective Behaviour • The first problem is that collective behaviour is unstructured. • Collective behaviour often occurs as a spontaneous outburst. • The concept of ‘collective behaviour’ has a very wide range of meaning, in which we find a lot of variance.
  9. 9. A Theory Of Collective Behaviour • Theory of collective behaviour has been made by Neil Smelser (1962). • Smelser argues that collective behaviour is essentially an attempt by people to alter their environment particularly when they are under conditions of uncertanity, threat or strain.
  10. 10. Smelser Speaks Of Six Basic Conditions • Structural Conduciveness: This refers to the structured elements within the society that make a particular form of collective behaviour possible. • Structural Strains: Situations such as poverty, conflict, discrimination etc; lie at the base of much of collective behaviour.
  11. 11. • Growth and Spread of Generalised Belief: Before any collective action, people must develop some general belief about the situation. • Precipitating Factors • Mobilisation for Action • Operation of Social Control
  12. 12. Some Forms Of Mass Behaviour • Collective behaviour that describes “the actions, thoughts and feelings of a relatively temporary and unstructured group of people”-can be separated into two categories; • Crowd behaviour • Mass behaviour
  13. 13. The Concept Of Mass And Mass Behaviour • A mass is not the same as crowd. A group of spectators watching a cricket match constitute a ‘crowd’. But a large number of people who watch same game at home on t.v. constitute a ‘Mass’. • Mass behaviour is unorganised, unsttuctured, uncoordinated, individually chosen behaviour of masses.
  14. 14. Click to edit Master subtitle style SOME BASIC FORMS OF MASS BEHAVIOR  RUMOURS  FASHION AND FADS
  15. 15. RUMOURS  A rumour is information which travels from person to person by word of mouth.  A remour is information that is transmitted informally from anonymous sources.  A rumour may b true, false or a combination of truth and falsehood.
  16. 16.  Rumours normally rise in situations where people are deprived of information or where they do not trust the official information they are given.  It is also observed that people are mostly likely to believe and spread rumours.  Rumours are believed and spread because people need and like them. (Horton and hunt)
  17. 17. FASHIONS AND FADS Fashions  Fashions are currently accepted styles of appearance and behaviour.  In simple, rural and tribal societies, fashions are not very much apparent.
  18. 18.  In modren complex societies, fashions are not only rampant but also change very rapidly.  A new fashion is generally more likely to be accepted if it does not differ too much from existing fashion.  There is no rule that fashion always originate among the elite and spread towards the middle and lower classes.
  19. 19.  DEFINATION: “A fad is a trivial, short lived variation in speech, decoration, or behavior.” • Fads differ from fashion in that they are more temporary. • Those who take interest in them are called ‘faddists’.  THE FADS
  20. 20. • A fad often provides a means of asserting personal identity. • They appeal young people, who often have less stable identities. • When a fad become wide spread, it loses its charm.
  21. 21. Click to edit Master subtitle style PANICS AND MASS HEYTERIA
  22. 22.  DEFINITION: “Panic is an attempt to flee from an imagined or real threat.” • In the event of panic, people’s behavior is uncoordinated. • It is irrational, in a panic situation people’s action are not appropriate.  PANICS
  23. 23.  A sudden crises occurs. Since people are unprepared to face it, they develop intense tension and great fear.  Mutual cooperation breaks down and the situation becomes more threatening.
  24. 24.  DEFINITION: “Mass hysteria is some of generalized anxiety about some unknown situation.” • Rumors play an important role in the development of hysteria and panic. • In extreme case mass hysteria can result panic.  MASS HYSTERIA
  25. 25. • It is irrational and collective obssestional behavior. • It is a form of groupthink, in which several people with something in common begin to think in a same way.
  26. 26. Click to edit Master subtitle style CROWD BEHAVIOUR
  27. 27. What is a crowd • Definition: 1. “A crowd is a group of people who are physically close together and share a common concern” (Wallace and Wallace) 2. “Crowd is a collectivity of significant number of individuals responding within a limited space to some object of attention” Examples:  A group of passengers at bus stop.  A group of people gathered in fish market to buy or sell fish.
  28. 28. Characteristics of crowd  Crowds are loose textured groups. They are not just congregations of people. Physical closeness leads to social interaction.  They vary greatly in character and behavior. However they have certain characteristics in common. There are following characteristics of crowd . 1. Suggestibility:  People in a crowd are said to be highly suggestible. There exists heightened emotions and excitements in a crowd. People are carried away by opinion, feelings and action of one another. Emotions and excitements always add to suggestibility.
  29. 29. 2. Anonymity:  Individuals in crowd feel that their identities will remain anonymous, they are relatively insignificant and they could remain unrecognized.  This feeling of anonymity add to the irresponsible behaviour of its member. 3. Spontaneity:  A crowd is spontaneously formed and is highly temporary in nature. Members of a crowd also tend to behave in more spontaneous manner. And they are more likely to be impulsive.
  30. 30. 4. Invulnerability:  A crowd lack self-consciousness. Since their personal identities are not recognized, they feel that they can behave freely. They do not just bother about the hold of social control mechanism.
  31. 31. Types or crowd • Herbert Blumer (1951) has spoken four main types of crowds: 1. Casual crowds:  The crowd that gathers around a specific event and its members have little interaction with one another, are known as casual crowds.  These crowds are most loosely structured of all crowds. Individuals of these crowds have least emotional involvement in the crowd. They can easily go away from it. Example  A group of people forming a crowd at the spot of car accident.
  32. 32. 2. Conventional crowds:  These types of crowds are planned and relatively structured.  A conventional crowd gathers for a socially sanctioned purpose.  These are known as conventional crowds because their behavior follows the established social norms and conventions. Example:  An audience filled with parents at a graduation ceremony .
  33. 33. 3. Expressive crowds:  This crowd gathers specifically for the purpose of letting out emotions. They are organized to permit the personal gratification of their members. Example  A college dance, a religious revival meeting etc.. 4. Acting crowds:  This crowd focuses its attention on a specific action or goal.  The members are generally angry at some force and want to act against it. Comparatively it is least common one but socially it is most significant of the four basic crowd types. Example  PTI Jalsa.
  34. 34. Theories of crowd behaviour • There are two major theories of crowd behavior: 1. The contagion theory 2. The “Emergent Norms” theory 1. The contagion theory  This theory was proposed by Le Bon in 1895. he suggested that: “ collective mind” forms in a crowd and with this the conscious personality of the individual members almost disappear.  Members of a crowd are dominated by a single impulse and act almost identically.  Individuals become susceptible to suggestions in crowds.
  35. 35. Cont..  people actually melt in the group and become anonymous.  Since nobody notices what anyone says or does in a crowd , one’s personal beliefs become less important.  The collective belief is formed from the contagious growth of a belief that is suggested and spread throughout the crowd.  Members of a crowd are highly suggestible and look to others for cues and behave in a less critical and more irresponsible manner.
  36. 36. 2. The “Emergent Norms” theory  It is the most accepted theory of crowd by turner and killian(1972).  Supporters of this theory have charged that contagion theory exaggerates the irrational and purposeless components of crowd behaviour.  There are considerable differences in the motives, and actions of crowd members.  Some of the people present in crowds may be more impulsive, while the others are passive supporters.
  37. 37. Cont.. The unanimity of crowd is only an illusion.  Crowds are guided by the norms. but the norms are devised as the crowd goes along.  New norms emerge in the course of social interaction.  These norms define appropriate behavior in a crowd situation. These norms emerge from the visible actions of few people.  The crowd itself evolves the norms and then enforces them on its members.
  38. 38. Click to edit Master subtitle style “MOBS AND RIOTS ARE FORM OF CROWD BEHAVIOUR”
  39. 39. • Two types of Mob: • 1: Purposive and active mob • 2: confused and random mob. Types of Mob
  40. 40. • The riots is another important form of crowd behavior. • A riots is the action of a violently aggressive destructive crowd Riots
  41. 41. • Types of audience • 1:Information seeking audience • 2:recreation seeking audience • 3:conversional seeking audience Audience as a crowd with a difference
  42. 42. • Public refers to an un organized aggregation of persons who are bound by common opinion desire but they have no personal relation ship. Public and public opinion
  43. 43. • Techniques of influencing human action by the manipulation of representation. • propaganda and its techniques • 1: name calling • 2: transfer • 3: testimonial:- using for famous or respected people • 4: Plain folks • 5: Card stacking Propaganda and its techniques
  44. 44. Reference: • Principles of sociology with an introduction to social thought ( C.N.Shankar Rao) chapter 37 Collective Behavior. • Page no( 513-526)
  45. 45. Thank you 