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English Notes for First Year Class(XI)

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English Notes compiled by me, and it was issued us Sir Mohsin Ali Makhoom(Instructor of English @ NSSAB,Golarchi), during final academic year 2012.

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English Notes for First Year Class(XI)

  1. 1. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 1 READING TEXT ONE-TWENTY MINUTES WITH MRS.OAKENTUBB This is little piece of melodrama written by Frank Arthur. In the beginning of the drama, a lady namely Mrs. Oakentubb comes in the waiting room of a railway station. She was carrying the suitcase. The porter follows her. It was raining and wild winds were blowing. Then a man with suitcase comes there. He waits for the same train for which the lady was waiting. After the porter’s leaving they both start talking. The man tells the lady that he is going to Stainthorpe to kill Mrs. Oakentubb as she has killed his wife and daughter in an accident. After listening this, the lady is frightened but she does not show her fear. Suddenly she remembers that there is her name on the label of her suitcase, so, she tries to hide it. The man sees her while she does so. So his doubts are confirmed and now he is sure that he lady is Mrs. Oakentubb by name. Now he wants to kill her and points his revolver at her. But at the same time the porter comes in and the man puts his revolver in his pocket. When porter goes out, the lady performs such a fine acting of remorse and grief for saving her life that the man changes his decision of killing her. He takes his suitcase and leaves the waiting room. After his leaving the lady springs to her feet. While she is standing thus, the gentleman comes in and sees her. Seeing Mrs. Oakentubb in this condition, the man raises his revolver and shoots her. In this way twenty minutes are passed in the waiting room. Q#1: Explain the importance of the label on Mrs.Oakentubb suitcase. Why does she hide it? Ans: The label on Mrs. Oakentubb’s suitcase has great importance because the label on the suitcase bore the name of Mrs.Oakentubb .She hides the label from the man because she wants to save her life as the man with her wants to kill her in order to take the revenge of her wife’s and daughter’s murder. Q#2: At what point in the play do we become certain that the man knows that the woman in the waiting room is Mrs. Oakentubb ? When in fact do you think he discovered her identity? Ans: When the man comes into the waiting room, he takes off his coat and throws it on the bench. While doing so, his glance falls on the label of the suitcase. His suspicion is confirmed when the lady hides the label from the man during conversation. At this point we become certain that the man knows the woman that she is Mrs. Oakentubb. Q#3: When is the audience likely to begin to suspect that she might be Mrs. Oakentubb? Ans: When the man tells the lady that the Korean girl’s innocent smile gave him a purpose in the life and this purpose is to kill Mrs. Oakentubb who is the murderer of his wife and daughter. After listening this, she becomes nervous and starts to stare at him. At this point the audience is likely to begin to suspect that she might be Mrs. Oakentubb. Q#4: What motive has the man for murdering her? Ans: The man has motive for murdering her. His motive is to execute justice. Although the lady was sentenced by the court of law, yet he is not satisfied with the decision of the court and wants to kill her. Q#5: In this melodrama the author keeps on building up the tension then relaxing it, until the final moment of tension when the murder is done. Briefly describe the chief moments of tension and what follows after each one?
  2. 2. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 2 Ans: In this melodrama the tension begins when the man declares that he would kill Mrs. Oakentubb as she has crushed his wife and daughter under her car. The tension is relaxed when he tells her that he was just amusing her. The tension is created again when the points his revolver at her, showing that he knows her identity. But porter’s interference relaxes the tension. The tension is built up at the time of shooting her. Q#6: Why in your opinion does the author make the porter a humorous character? Ans: The author makes the porter a humorous character to remove the tension and gloom in the drama by the humorous and romantic manner of talking of the porter. Q#7: Suspense is an important element in a thriller. Briefly shows how the author keeps the audience in suspense for the answers to two questions, will he find out who she is? Will he kill her? Ans: The author keeps the audience in suspense by delaying the murder of the lady. The man knows the lady but he delays to kill her. He acts so dramatically that audience remains in suspense till the murder actually takes place. At the end he kills the lady because her remorse is disclosed false. Q#8: Write a brief character sketch of Mrs. Oakentubb. Ans: Mrs. Oakentubb is a shrewd and deceitful lady. Her height is about five feet three inches. She seems a wife of a businessman. Once she was drunk and driving her car recklessly t win a bet. While driving she mounted the footpath and killed a woman and a child. She is also cunning because she shows her grief and sorrow over the death of man’s wife and child. But at last he knows about her false repentance and shoots her. Q#9: Write a brief sketch of porter. Ans: The character of the porter is humorous. He removes the tension of the play. He addresses the lady as love. He is very dutiful person. He serves the passengers and looks after their comforts, attending them very happily. Q#10: Briefly discuss whether the play would have had a more satisfying ending if the man had not come back through the door, seen Mrs. Oakentubb’s vulgar and impenitent gesture and shot her, that is to say if had ended in Mrs. Oakentubb’s collapsing with genuine remorse and the man’s decision that he would be adequately revenged if she went on living. Ans: The play would not have had a more satisfying ending if the man had not come back through the door, seen Mrs. Oakentubb’s vulgar and impenitent gesture and shot her. Because justice requires that the criminal should be punished according to his crime. And the lady was murderer of two persons. That is why the play would not have had more satisfying ending, if the person had not shot her.
  3. 3. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 3 READING TEXT TWO- REFLECTION ON RE-AWAKENING EAST In this reading text Bertrand Russel gives us a brief history of the transfer of power. He tells us that there is alternation of power between East and West. In this earliest history, East was powerful and civilized. Then the west acquired power due to rise of Greece and conquests of Alexander. The power of west declined after the fall of Rome. Again the power was gained by the East as Roman’s Empire was conquered by Islam. Nowadays there are two powers, American and Russia. The writer thinks that Russian communism is great danger for east (Asia) because its philosophy is German and its regime is imposed by military force. He advises to Asian countries to use their energy to bring peace in the world. They should pay heed on the industrialism and make progress in science and technology. Another suggestion of the author is that Asians should preserve their traditional civilization or culture, and good features of western culture may be adopted. This will help Asia not to adopt communism. There are three civilization in Asia i.e. that of Islam that of India and that of China. This civilization must be independent having poetry, music, love, art and other joys of life. Though the west achieved its position through scientific knowledge but it has also developed love of power. The re-awakening east should not use the power for weapons and for conquering other nations of Asia will not imitate the mistakes of west and they will play their role to bring peace and prosperity in the world. Q#1: Why is it insular for Euthopean historians to term the centuries after the fall of Roman Empire ‘The Dark Ages’? Ans: It is insular for the European historians to term the centuries after the fall of Roam Empire ‘The Dark Ages’ because during this period Science, poetry and general Arts made rapid progress in Muslim World and China. It was dark only in Christian Europe, as in Spain, Muslims has a brilliant culture and civilization. Q#2: On what grounds does the author argue that the communism is the most modern and virulent form of western imperialism? Ans: The author argues that the communism is the most modern and virulent form of western imperialism because in this system the individuals do not have liberty. It has no regard for arts, poetry, music, love and other joys of life. Its philosophy is German and its regime is imposed by military force. Q#3: To what cause does the author attribute the power of England in the early Nineteenth Century and the power of United States and Russia today? Ans: The author attributes the power of England in the early Nineteenth Century due to monopoly in machine production, science and technology. The power of the United States and Russia is also due to Science and Technology. Q#4: Why does the author consider it useless to resist industrialization? Ans: The author considers it useless to resist industrialization because industrialization is very important for the progress and modern civilization is also based upon Science and machinery. Q#5: Does the author welcome cultural uniformity or not? How does the he justify his attitude?
  4. 4. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 4 Ans: No the author does not welcome cultural uniformity. He justifies his attitude o the grounds that the cultural uniformity resists the development of the awakening countries. It means, the author believes in the cultural independence. Q#6: How is traditional culture threatened in an age dominated by science and machinery? Ans: The traditional culture is threatened in age dominated by science and machinery because due to science and machinery the human life has become wholly mechanized, and traditional culture is losing not only bad things but also good things which are necessary to be preserved. Q#7: What reason does the author give for his opinion that the nations of Asia will not find it hard to keep their independence? Ans: He gives the reason for his opinion that there are two hostile blocks American and Russian, these blocks are busy in their tussle and they have no time to interference the independence of Asian countries. Q#8: What in author’s view has been the most serious flaw in the character of the west over the last few centuries? Ans: In the author’s view, the love of power over other human beings has been the most serious flaw character of the west over the last few centuries. Q#9: What parallels may be drawn between the decline of the power of Europe at the end of Roman Empire and the decline in the power of Europe since 1914? Ans: Two parallels may be drawn between the decline of the power of Europe at the end of the Roman Empire and the decline in the power of Europe since 1914. i. Due to the war between Roman and Germans, the west was enfeebled. In the same way the wars between Germans and other countries enfeebled Europe. ii. After the fall of Roman Empire the power passed on to the east. In the same way since 1914 the freedom of Europe is threatened by the alliance of Moscow and Peking. Q#10: What in author’s opinion should Asian countries accept from the West and should they reject? Ans: In author’s opinion Asian countries should accept good things from the west like science and technology, and mutual understanding and they should reject the love power over other countries and they should not copy the mistakes of western despots (rulers).
  5. 5. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 5 READING TEXT THREE- THE DAY THE DAM BROKE ‘The day the dam broke’ is written by James Thurber. He describes an event of March 12, 1913. On this day a rumor spread in the city of Columbus that the dam had broken. The panic began when a person started running towards the east. Perhaps this man ran to reach a certain place to meet his wife in time. By chance another person, probably a news boy was also seen running. Thus within ten minutes everybody on High Street was running and saying ‘Go east, the dam has broken’. Thurber’s mother and grandfather also left their house Thurber’s mother took with her a dozen eggs and two loaves of bread because she had planned to go to Memorial Hall and stay on its roof. The panic began even in cinema houses, store houses, restaurants and markets. In the cinema the panic began when a woman shouted, ‘Fire’. Thus everybody came outside the hall and they heard the cries of the people saying ‘Go east, the dam has broken’. Thurber’s tells the story of a lieutenant colonel of infantry. The colonel saw a small child running, so, he also started running. When he asked from child why she was running. The child told that the dam has broken. Within an hour the colonel was leading a crowd of three hundred people, all running towards east as quickly as possible. The shouting and running lasted for about two hours. The order was restored when the militia men, riding in motor cars, announced via megaphones that the dam had not broken. After a great effort the people were made to believe that the dam had not broken. Through this essay the author laughs at the people who did not verify the fact about the dam and they kept on running due to the panic. Q#1: How accurate is the title of Thurber’s Essay? Ans: The title of Thurber’s Essay is accurate to the great extent. Due to the broken dam rumor, the people of the city started running to the east. The author laughs at the people who did not verify the fact about the dam and they kept on running due to panic. Q#2: What can we gather about grandfather’s age, physique and mental condition? Ans: Grandfather was an old person. He was taller than six feet and weighted about 170 pounds. He was healthy but he did not seem mentally sound because his behavior at the time of panic was not daring. Q#3: How does the panic appear to have started? Ans: The panic appears to have started when a man in the trade center of Columbus city begins to run. Perhaps he remembered his appointment to see his wife. Another person, probably a news boy also started to run. Then everybody started to run towards east crying, ‘The dam has broken’. Q#4: How did Thurber’s mother cope with the situation? Ans: Thurber’s mother coped with the situation patiently. She turned out all the fires and tiook with her a dozen eggs and two loaves of bread. She planned to reach the Memorial Hall to take refuge on the roof of it, which was two blocks away from her. Q#5: What caused the lieutenant colonel of infantry to lead a fleeing company of three hundred persons?
  6. 6. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 6 Ans: The lieutenant colonel heard the voice ‘Go east’ and he saw a little girl running. He asked the girl what it was. The little girl gasped, ‘The dam has broken’. So, he started running to the east. Soon he was leading a fleeing company of three hundred persons. Q#6: How long did the panic last and how was order restored? Ans: The panic lasted for about two hours. The order was restored by the military men who were riding in the motor Lorries. They announced by megaphones ‘The dam has not broken’. Q#7: How did the panic start in the cinema on High Street? Ans: The panic started in the cinema when a woman cried ‘Fire’. Then everybody came outside the cinema. They heard the cry ‘Go east, the dam has broken’. So, they also started to run to the east. Q#8: Why did Dr Mallory think that the flood waters were about to engulf him because there was a boy behind him who was on roller skates. Dr Mallory mistook the sound of the skates for the sound of rushing waters. Q#9: How did Thurber obtain the description of the events in the cinema and the experienced of Dr. Mallory? Ans: Thurber obtained the description of the events in the cinema and the experience of Dr. Mallory from his aunt Edith Taylor. She was in the cinema on High Street when she heard the news of breaking of dam. She ran to the east with Dr. Mallory. Q#10: Why did the citizen of Columbus not care to talk about the events of the March 12, 1913? Ans: The citizen of Columbus did not care to talk about the event of March 12, 1913 because they knew that the dam had not broken, they felt ashamed of their behavior. So, they kept silent when someone mentioned this event.
  7. 7. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 7 READING TEX FOUR-PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD This reading text is a speech which was made by Liaquat Ali Khan in USA in 1950 when he was given an honorary degree by the University of Cansas. In this speech Liaquat Ali Khan told the people of America that how and why the demand for Pakistan was made. The demand for Pakistan was made to safeguard the interests of Muslims living in the sub-continent. There were one hundred million Muslims and about three hundred million Hindus in India. Due to the majority of the Hindus, the Muslim realized that even after getting freedom, then would have to live as a political minority. It would have only the change of masters after the Britishers. It was not only the difference of religion that made the Muslims a separate nation but there were some other differences also. Their culture, thinking and moral values were also different. The Hindus believed in the caste system while the Muslim did not. The Muslims believed in the right of private ownership for everyone, whether men or women but economic views of Hindus were different. The Muslims wanted a separate homeland for them in which they may lead their lives according to Islamic rules. At same time, it was a good occasion for Hindus to develop themselves without facing problems. Liaquat Ali Khan told the problems faced by Pakistan at the time of its creation. Pakistan had no capital. Its army was dispersed. It had also the problem of rehabilitation of the refugees. Pakistan faced these problems bravely and is progressing very rapidly. He told them that Pakistan was on the same path where America was before her development. He told the people that western countries should not shrink their responsibility to maintain the peace in the world. The aggression from any side should be condemned. Liaquat Ali Khan also told that Western countries should help the Asian countries so that they may be able to develop their countries. In the end he thanked them for their esteem and kindness. Q#1: Briefly state the main reason given by Liaquat Ali Khan for the Muslims desire not to continue living in a united India. Ans: The main reason given by Liaquat Ali Khan for the Muslims desire not to continue living in a united India was that the Muslims did not want to be ruled only the change of masters after British rule. Q#2: What main differences does he point out between Muslim and Hindu beliefs and attitudes? Ans: Liaquat Ali Khan points put the main differences between Muslim and Hindu beliefs and attitudes. He tells that Muslims are monotheists and believe in the Prophet of Arabia, Christ and the Prophet of Old Testament, while, Hindus are polytheists. The Muslims believe in the equality fo all men but the Hindus believe in the caste system. The Muslims have laws of inheritance whereas Hindus do not have such laws. Q#3: What advantages does he show the Hindus to have gained from the creation of Pakistan? Ans: The partition of India gave equal chance to both the Hindus and the Muslims to live according to their religions and cultures. If India had not been divided, the United India would have been an uneasy state having great strains within the Hindus and the Muslims. In this way Hindus also gained advantages from the establishment of Pakistan. Q#4: Our administrative machinery had to be built up from scratch. What does this sentence means?
  8. 8. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 8 Ans: It means that everything of the administrative machinery of Pakistan had to be built up from the start,because, when Pakistan was established, it had nothing. It had no capital, no military equipment, and no flag. The Indian Government refused to give Pakistan’s share of exchequer and military equipment. So, Pakistan had to build itself practically from nothing. Q#5: On what grounds does Liaquat Ali Khan assert that the first duty of Pakistanis as a free people is to themselves? Ans: Liaquat Ali Khan asserts that the first duty of Pakistanis people is to maintain their freedom. It requires constant vigilance. In order to maintain real freedom we must abolish disease, hunger, ignorance from the country. We must use all our energies and resources to achieve this goal. Q#6: What does he state the real meaning of freedom, for the common man to be? Ans: Liaquat Ali Khan states the real meaning of freedom for the common man that he should be free not only from the foreign rule but free from want, hunger, disease and ignorance. The Government as well as the common man should be free to work for the progress. Q#7: What is meant by ‘a synthesis’? Ans: Synthesis means combining of separate parts, substances etc. into a whole. Q#8: What is the synthesis that Liaquat Ali Khan believes is necessary for Pakistan to achieve? Ans: The synthesis that Liaquat Ali Khan believes is necessary for Pakistan to achieve is that Pakistanis people should combine their religious faith to modern technology. It would bring progress and prosperity and also help in the world peace. Q#9: Liaquat Ali Khan contrasts two emotions that the Asian peoples tend to feel when they view the Western world. What are these two emotions? Ans: The Asian peoples tend to feel two opposite emotions when then view the western world. On one hand they feel that western civilization is the name of oppression, exploitation and imperialism because they had remained under foreign rule. But on the other hand they admire the progress and development of western countries and they wish to be free from misery and poverty. Thus the two emotions are the emotions of doubt and admiration. Q#10: What does he put forward as the two main duties today of the western world? Ans: Liaquat Ali Khan puts forward two main duties to be performed by the western world. Firstly, the western countries hould sare their great fund of knowledge, skills and experience with Asian countries. Secondly they should realize their duty to maintain world peace by co-operating with the Asian countries.
  9. 9. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 9 READING TEXT FIVE- ACT III OF THE SILVER BOX Act III of the silver box is written by John Galsworthy. He shows the scene of a court of law. In this act we have been shown two cases before the magistrate. As the act starts, first case is shown in which two little girls are presented before the magistrate. Their father was jobless and their mother had eloped with a man and had left the girls to wander in the streets. The justice took the statement of father and the decision was postponed to the next hearing, which was to be held after a week. Then the second case comes up for hearing. This case shows that a silver box has been stolen by Mr. Jones. He is brought before the magistrate along with his wife. Actually Mr. Jack Barthwick, the son of Mr. Barthwick (member of Parliament) got terribly drunk and he returned home at 1:00 A.M. He was trying to find the key of hole on the wrong side fo the door. At that time Mr. Jones was returning home. He helped Jack to open the door. Jack offered a silver box to Jones. Mr. Marlow the servant of Mr. Barthwick told his master about the loss of silver box. Then Mr. Barthwick got the case registered with the police. When the case was brought before magistrate, Mr. Jones is awarded one month imprisonment and Mrs. Jones is proved innocent. In this play Galsworthy shows that justice has quite different meaning for the poor and the rich. Although there is a case of stealing a lady’s purse against Jack Barthwick but he is not punished because his lawyer avoids bringing to that point under discussion. On the other hand Mr. Jones is sent to jail for one month because he resisted the police officer for arresting his wife. Q#1: What purpose in your opinion is served by beginning this act of the play with the case of the Livens girls, which has nothing to do with the main story? Ans: The case of the livens girls has been introduced in the beginning of the play with a purpose to show the defects of England’s court of law which punishes the people but cannot play its role to cure social and economic evils. Secondly the author wishes to show the unemployment and bad condition of the condition of the country at that time. Q#2: Why are Mr.Barthwick and his son so anxious that as little as possible should be said in court about the purse and the money that Jones had in his possession? Ans: Mr.Barthwick and his son Jack were anxious that as little as possible should be said in court about the purse and money that Jones had in his possession because Jack stole the purse of a woman when he was drunk. If the magistrate had known about the theft of purse he would have sentenced both Mr. Jones and Jack because both committed the same crime of stealing a purse and a silver box in a condition of intoxication. Q#3: What function is Mr. Roper discharging in the magistrate’s court? Ans: Mr. Roper is discharging the function of pleader (lawyer) of Mr. Jack in the Magistrate’s court. He defends Jack by hiding the fact of Jack’s theft. Q#4: what facts does Marlowe’s evidence establish? Ans: Marlowe’s evidence establishes the facts that ; i. The silver box belonged to Mr. Barthwick.
  10. 10. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 10 ii. It was placed on the dining table between 10:45 to 11:00 on the Easter Monday night. iii. He confirmed that the woman prisoner Mrs. Jones who was the charwoman Q#5: From the constable’e evidence we learn that Mrs. Jones was the first to be charged with the theft. Why was this so? Ans: The police constable did to know the about the visit of Mr. Jones to Barthwick house. Mrs. Jones was a charwoman in the house of Barthwick. So she was suspected first to have stolen the silver box. Q#6: What led the constable to arrest and charge Jones as well? Ans: When the constable went to arrest Mrs. Jones from her house , Mr. Jones interfered saying she was innocent and it was he who took the silver box. But the constable did not believe him and tried to take her to police station. The Mr. Jones become violent and struck a blow to the constable. So he was also arrested. Q#7: Briefly give the probable reasons for the Magistrate’s decision to discharge Mrs. Jones. Ans: The probable reasons for the Magistrate’s decision to discharge Mrs. Jones are; i. She was confirmed as reliable and honest woman. Before this she had never been involved in theft. ii. The husband of Mrs. Jones pleaded guilty of stealing the box in his intoxication condition. Q#8: Briefly discuss whether the Magistrate gives Jones a fair trial. Ans: The magistrate does not give Jones a fair trial because he does not consider over the condition in which the crime was committed. He failed to record that part of evidence which could go against Jack Barthwick. Q#9: Assuming that Jones as received a fair trial. Why does this act of the play leave us with a feeling that injustice has been done? Ans: If we assume that Mr. Jones has received a fair trial, then why Mr. Jack goes scot free and why the part of evidence that could go against Mr. Jack was not recorded. On the other hand Mrs. Jones loses her job without justification. These things make us feel that the injustice has been done. Q#10: What do you imagine to be the unspoken plea that Mrs. Jones makes to Mr. Barthwick at the very end? Ans: At the end of the trial Mrs. Jones turns to Mr. Bathwick with humble gestures. It is her unspoken plea for continuing her job as a char woman with him. But Mr. Barthwick refused his gesture refusal.
  11. 11. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 11 READING TEXT SIX- THE WORLD AS I SEE IT (ALBERT EINSTEIN 1879- 1955) This essay is written by Albert Einstein one of the greatest scientist of all time. In this reading text tell us that human beings have come in this world for very short period. We exist for others and our happiness depends upon the smiles and welfare of our fellowmen. He admits the contribution of his fellowmen towards him. He wants to repay them in the same measures as he has received is till receiving. Einstein believes in the democracy and freedom of the individual. He says to let every man be respected as an individual and no one be idolized. Although he has been idolized but he never appreciated it. He thinks that for the success of democracy or any great pleasure man should do thinking and directing and in general bear the responsibility. Hence it is necessary to have a leader. But no force should be used to get a leader elected. People should be given freedom to choose their leader. Thus the author tells that there is nothing wrong with the democratic principle that has brought discredit to the prevailing form of democracy in Europe. It is due to the lack of stability on the part of leaders and their government that the democracy has failed there. Einstein believes that everyone has certain which decide his future course of action. But author’s ideals are Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These ideal have guided him and encouraged him to face the hardship of life. About war he tells that war is the most meaning. He would rather be cut into pieces than to take part in such an evil activity. He believes that human nature is always against war. This curse would have disappeared from the work long ago if the schools and the press had not spoiled the good sense of nation. Einstein believes that interest of the individual should be respected. An individual should not be sacrificed at the altar of the state. The really valuable thing in human life is not a state but an individual who alone creates the noble and sublime. According to Einstein the sense of wonder forms the first experience of man’ life. Those who are not attracted by the mysteries of life, are no better than dead. The experience of mystery is the basis of all arts, science and religion. Q#1: What leads Einstein to feel a strong sense of duty towards his fellowmen? Ans: Einstein believes that his inner and outer life depends upon the labor of other men living and dead. He therefore feels himself grateful to those who have contributed to his welfare and feels to repay them in the same measure as he has recognized and is still receiveing. Q#2: What is his attitude to property, outward success and luxury? Ans: Einstein hates property, outward success and luxury as the objectives of life. The ideal which inspire Einstein are Truth, Goodness and Beauty. Q#3: What is the ‘insecure foundation’ referred to at the end of the last sentence of the fourth paragraph? Ans: The insecure foundations referred to at the end of the last sentence of the fourth paragraph are opinions, habits and judgments of his follows. Generally, the people from their views under the influence of these factors. But Einstein does not accept such influence and he forms his views by avoiding the opinions, habits and judgments of his fellows.
  12. 12. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 12 Q#4: What is brief is Einstein attitude to leadership? Ans: Einstein believes in responsible leader. The leader should possess the ability of thinking and directing. A good leader is not supposed to be idolized. He believes that leadership should not be thrust upon the people by force because attracts only men of low morality. Q#5: On what grounds does Einstein put the individual before the state? Ans: Einstein puts the interests of an individual before the interest of state. He told the creative individual who alone can create the noble and sublime. Einstein gives more importance and value to an individual. In his view life has secondary importance. Q#6: What example does he give of service by the state to the individual? Ans: Einstein gives an example of service by the state to the individual. He says that it is the state that makes extensive provision for the individual in case of illness or need. It means state provides relief to the individual in case of need. Q#7: What is his attitude to war? Ans: Einstein call war mean, contemptible and evil business. He says he would rather be cut into pieces than take part in such an evil activity. Q#8: What forces does he blame for the persistence of war? Ans: Einstein blames two main forces for the persistence of war i.e. schools and press. If the sound sense of the nation had not been corrupted by commercial, political interest through these two agencies, the curse of would have disappeared from the world long ago. Q#9: What does he appear to regard as the most precious element in human experience? Ans: Einstein appears to regard experience of mystery as the most precious element in human experience. True art and sciences are the result of man’s desire and efforts to explore the mysteries of Nature. Thus experience of mystery is the basis of all arts sciences and religions. Q#10: What is his belief concerning the immorality of soul? Ans: Einstein does not believe in the immorality of the soul he does not believe in the life after death. He says it is beyond his understanding to think that man can continue to live even after his physical death.
  13. 13. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 13 READING TEXT SEVEN-THE DEVOTED FRIEND (OSCAR WILDE 1854- 1900) This reading text is a story written by Oscar Wilde who was one of the most elegant writers of the late nineteenth century. The story is told by the little bird linnet. The story is stated briefly as under. Once upon a time there was a poor gardener Hans. He was simple, honest person. He had many friends but his most devoted friend was Hugh the Miller. Hugh to take a basket full of flowers form Hans garden free of cost every day. Daring winter Hans used to face great trouble as there were no flowers in his garden in winter. So the Miller avoided Hans in winter lest he should ask him for some flour on credit. Once the Miller went to see Hans after the winter season. The Miller inquiries the Hans health. Hans told him that he had very hard time during the winter and he had to sell his silver chain, silver buttons and the wheel barrow. Now he hoped to buy them back after selling the flowers. Again the Miller asked Hans for a basket full of flowers. But this time Hans said sorry and refused. The Miller promised to give him his wheel barrow which was out of order. At this Hans felt much pleased. Hans told him that he had a plank with which he would repair the wheel barrow. Hearing about the plank, the Miller took advantage of situation. He told there was a big hole in the roof of his barn and he was in used of a plank to mend it. He stated Hans to give it to him. Hans gave him plank and the Miller got him repaired. The Miller also used Hans as a porter and made him carry a sack of flour to the market. Finally, one night the Miller came to Hans and told him that his son had fallen from a ladder. He wanted Hans to go out to call the doctor. It was stormy night and it rained heavily. Hans asked the Miller to give him his lantern to show him the way. But he refused to give the lantern because he feared that his new lantern might be damaged. So Hans went at the doctor without lantern and asked him to rush to the house of the Miller. While coming back Hans slipped in a pool of water and was drowned. His dead body was taken out of the water the morning. The moral of the story is that true friendship can be one-sided. Only ones own an interest at the cost of others is very cruel. Q#1: Briefly explain why the story of Hans and the Miller was applicable to the Water-rat. Ans: The story of Hans and the Miller was applicable to the Water-rat both the Miller and the Water-rat had no moral courage. Both of them were selfish and cunning. Q#2: When do we first suspect that the Miller was not really a good friend to Hans? Ans: We begin to suspect the Miller that he was not really a very good friend to Hans when we know that the Miller gave nothing to Hans in return of the flowers and fruits that he used to take daily. But our suspicion is confirmed when we hear him telling his wife that there were no good in going to see Hans as long as the snow lasted. He argued that ‘When people are in trouble they should be left alone and not be bothered by visitors’. Q#3: How did the Miller justify his not asking Hans to share some of his good things during the winter? Ans: The Miller justified his decision of not asking Hans to share some of his good things during the winter by saying that if Hans came to his house and saw their warm fire and grand
  14. 14. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 14 supper he would become envious and it would spoil his nature. As Hans was his best friend he would not like to see that his nature was spoiled. Q#4: How did the Miller’s wife reveal that she too was ready to exploit the generosity of Hans? Ans: When the winter season was over and the flowers began to bloom in the Hans garden, the Miller decided to visit Hans’s gander and have some flowers. The Miller’s wife praised her husband for possessing such a good heart and to take a big basket with him for taking the flowers. This proves that Miller’s wife was ready to exploit Hans’s generosity. Q#5: How did the Miller persuade Hans to carry the large sack of flour to market? Ans: The Miller persuade Hans to carry the large sack of flour to market by reminding Hans that the he was going to get wheel barrow from him. So poor Hans could not refuse, the Miller to carry the sack of flour to market. Q#6: What was the supreme manifestation of the Miller’s selfishness which caused Hans to lose his life? Ans: The supreme manifestation of the Miller’s selfishness was that he sent Hans to the town to call in the doctor to cure his wounded son who had fallen from a ladder. As it was a stormy and dark night. Hans asked the Miller to lend him his lantern but he refused by saying that if anything happened to his new lantern it would be great loss to him. Hans went without lantern and never returned because he was drowned in the pool. The Miller’s selfishness brought death to Hans. Q#7: Comment briefly on the Miller’s claim to have been Hans best friend. Ans: The Miller was a selfish and a mean fellow. His claim to have been Hans best friend was nothing but selfishness. He used to take flowers from his garden and gave nothing in return. The Miller also made him do all things as if Hans were his purchased slave. Thus we may calculate that the Miller was not a devoted friend, but a cheater who cheated the poor Hans and was responsible for the death of Hans. Q#8: What is the effect of the Miller’s disclosure that the wheel barrow was totally worthless? Ans: When the poor Hans died the Miller disclosed that the wheel barrow was totally worthless. Miller’s disclosure reflects upon his selfish nature because the useless wheel barrow was the only thing that the Miller promised to give to Hans. It was the highest degree of meanness and deceit.
  15. 15. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 15 READING TEXT EIGHT- SPACE SHIP ONE The play ‘Space Ship One’ is written by John Hampden in 1946. This play is the story of an imaginary flight to the moon. Professor Witney a great scientist has invented a space ship which he is traveling to the moon. Professor witney wants to reach the moon and after making the moon base he wishes to voyage through the solar system and reach the planets Mars and Venus. William Harry is in love with Katherine the daughter of Professor Witney and he hopes to marry Katherine after returning from space travel. When they reach near the moon, the great speed of the ship is brought down. They complete all the preparations for landing on the moon. Harry feels worried because he has not been able to contact with Katherine on the television. He has dreamt that England has been attacked by the enemy and London is occupied. Professor has also dreamt that his wife and daughter are crying for help. So Professor tries to contact his wife and daughter but cannot succeed. Professor becomes much concerned. Just then there is a call on the television. Katherine speaks and tells her father that England has been attacked. She tells that all the family members have been killed except her. She is safe and advises her father that he should land in Canada or America instead of England if he wants to save himself. Professor Witney advises her daughter to kill herself because he fears that the enemy would torture Katherine to get from her the secrets of atomic energy. Katherine actually kills herself by inhaling chemicals. Of course Professor Witney lands on the moon but it is very tragic achievement of Professor Witney and others. Q#1: Why is space ship traveling at only seventy miles an hour when Harry wakes up? Ans: When Harry wakes up he finds the ship traveling at only 70 miles an hour instead of twelve thousand an hour because at that time space ship was near the moon and it was entering the sigma belt and William ahd decelerated the ship by using bow-jets in order to land at the moon safely. Q#2: When has the space ship been to the moon before and with what passengers? Ans: The space ship has been to the moon just before a month of this flight. It was the first April because the date of the present flight has been mentioned as first of May. There was no one on board the previous flight except three sheep who returned to earth safely. Q#3: What is the relationship between the Harry and Professor Witney? Ans: Professor Witney is the would be father-in-law of Harry because Harry is engaged to Katherine, the daughter of Professor and Harry expects to marry her after returning from space voyage. Q#4: What was the significance of Professor Witney’s chalking Noah’s Art on the second spaceship? Ans: Professor Witney had invented a space ship to pay a visit to the moon, he chalked on the bow of the ship ‘Noah’s Ark’ because Professor was not hopeful of the safe return of this space just like the Noah’ Ark. Q#5: What was the nature of the fear that affected Professor Witney during the night before the landing on the moon?
  16. 16. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 16 Ans: Professor Witney dreamt that a nuclear was had broken out in England and his wife and daughter were crying to him for help. His fear was intensified when William told him that he had failed to contact the base on wireless inspite of trying his best. Q#6: What is Professor Witney’s attitude to the new type of society in which scientific and technical progress is the one thing that seems to matter? Ans: Professor Witney is disgusted with the new type of the society in which great importance is given to scientific and technical progress. He thinks that mankind will have to pay a heavy price for leaving arts and he also believed that one day these scientific inventions would be responsible for scientifically organized killings. Q#7: How has England come to be defenceless? Ans: England became defenceless because England was hit by nuclear weapons at night. The enemy threw canisters which were filled with poisonous gases and none could survive because of these gases, and England has not been able to defend herself against the poisonous gaes. Q#8: What disaster has be fallen England during the night? Ans: During the night England was attacked by the enemy with nuclear weapons. The enemy threw grey canisters filled with poisonous gases. When these canisters burst in the air they spread out a heavy oily fog and nothing could survive under that fog. Q#9: How has Katherine survived the poison-gas attack? Ans: Katherine survived the poison gas attack because at that night she slept in the Professor’s bed camp which was poison proof. Katherine slept in Professor’s bed camp so that she could talk to him next morning as it was already arranged between them that they would talk with each other on wireless. Q#10: Why does her father instruct her to kill herself? Ans: Katherine’s Father instructs her to kill herself because he thinks that if his daughter remains alive the enemy would get hold of her and torture her to get research and nuclear secrets.
  17. 17. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 17 READING TEXT NINE- AN ASTRONOMER’S VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE The passage ‘An Astronomer’s view of the Universe’ is from the opening of the book ‘The mysterious Universe’ written by James Hopwood Jeans (1877-1946). He was both an eminent scientist and writer. Through this passage he communicates a scientist view of the universe. He tells that our earth came into being as a result of an accident. There are countless stars in the universe. They are as many as the grains of sand on the seashores of the world. Many of these stars are so big that million so the earth can be packed in each of them. This shows that how little is our earth. The stars are wandering about in space so away from one another that there is no possibility of any two stars coming near to our earth or to one another. Sir James Jeans thinks that about two thousand million years ago, a star wandering blindly came near the sun. This star raised huge tides on the surface of the sun and ultimately broke into pieces. These small pieces which fell off are called planets. Since then they have been revolving around the sun. Our earth is one these fragments. The earth was very hot in the beginning but gradually its temperature decreased. In due course life appeared on the earth. It started from the simple organisms. Then it developed into a greater complexity till the human beings were born with the feelings and ambitions. Sir James Jeans thinks that the universe was not made for producing life because our earth and the life on it is so insignificant that the creation of life does not seem to be the purpose of the universe. Life seems to be a byproduct. The elements which are the constituents for life; are also ordinary origin of life is still a riddle for our scientists. Q#1: Why is it improbable that one particular star will ever come close to another? Ans: it is improbable that one particular star will ever come close to another because the distance between two stars is over a million miles. And the stars travel in complete isolation and no star comes close to another star. Q#2: What is Jean’s explanation of how the planets came to be formed from the sun? Ans: According to Sir James Jeans the earth came into existence about two thousand million years ago. He thinks that a huge star moved away to the sun and created huge tides on its surface. When this star moved away the tidal pull tore the sun into fragments which fell off into space. These small fragments are called planets and our earth is one of them. Q#3: How does a planet such as earth drive its warmth? Ans: In the beginning the planets were very hot. But gradually they cooled down and were left with little heat of their own. Now these planets such as earth derive heat only from the radiation which the sun pours down upon them. Q#4: What does Jeans imagines the first forms of life on earth to have been like? Ans: Sir James Jeans imagines that life on earth started with simple organisms whose vital capacities were little beyond reproduction and death. Q#5: Why are our first impressions of an astronomer’s picture of the universe likely to make us feel that humanity is insignificant?
  18. 18. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 18 Ans: If we consider over an astronomer’s picture of the universe we find vast meaningless distance in the universe. The extreme loneliness of the inhabitants of our earth and material insignificance of our earth in space makes us feel that humanity is insignificant. Q#6: How does James Jeans justify his assertion that the universe appears to be actively hostile to life like our own? Ans: James Jeans feels that the universe is hostile to life like our own because there is no planet like our earth in the universe. He tells that life needs suitable physical conditions. The stars are so hot that life is impossible there. But outside the zone it is so cold that life would be frozen to death. Q#7: Why does a planetary system seem to be the only kind of environment o which life could originate? Ans: Life can originate only on the planets like earth where moderate temperature occurs because moderate temperature is the most important physical condition for life. Life is impossible on stars as they are extremely hot. Thus earth is the only kind of environment o which life could originate. Q#8: What is the temperature of most of space? Ans: Away from the stars there is cold of hundreds of degrees of frost. But close up to the stars there is a temperature of thousands of degrees at which all solids melt and all liquids boil. Q#9: Why does it seem incredible to Jeans that the universe was designed primarily to produce life like our own? Ans: It seems incredible to Sir James Jeans that the universe was designed primarily to produce life like our own because he thinks that our home (earth) is very little in space. Extreme loneliness of our earth and rarity of life outside the earth also makes James Jeans thinks that the universe was not designed primarily to produce life. Q#10: Why is the origin of life still a riddle to the scientist? Ans: The origin of life is still a riddle to our scientists because no one has ever solved this riddle that how the arrangement of dead atoms could become a living cell. It is also yet to be determined that whether it merely atoms or atoms plus life that make a living being.
  19. 19. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 19 READING TEXT TEN- LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE John Alfred Valentine Butler (born in 1899), the professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of London has written the essay ‘Life in the universe’. In this essay he tells that life is not a rare thing on earth nor it is unimportant byproduct James Jeans ah said. Recent scientific theories tell that the earth was not born due to tidal waves produced on the surface of the sun by a star. Instead the planets came into existence due to explosion of certain stars. More over our earth is not a rare exception or some unique thing in the universe. May elements found on the earth are also found on other planets and stars as well. Therefore it is quite reasonable to think that there is some kind of life on other planets. But the creatures of other planets may differ from human beings. Butler does not agree with the view that the earth and life are of no significance in the universe. Although the living beings are of various forms yet they have the same chemical composition. Various substances undergo various changes and form various chemical compounds but their elements remain same. No doubt the work and achievements of scientist are remarkable but it cannot be said that man will be able to create life in a test tube y combining all the necessary elements. Butler tells that unhealthy scientific researchable have lowered the dignity of man. Galileo was the first man to lessen the importance of man in the universe. Darwin’s theories positively degraded man to the ranking of beasts. However some scientists like Butler have given up this mechanical attitude towards life. They are impressed by the complexity and variety of living organisms. In future the scientists will feel that life on earth is not less attractive than the vast spaces of the universe. Q#1: What new theory concerning the origin of the planets is presented by Professor Butler? Ans: Professor Butler gives his view that the planets were formed not by an encounter of a huge star with the sun, but by the explosion of some star that was near the sun. Due to explosion the pieces of star were thrown off that formed the earth and other planets. Q#2: What in brief are his views on the probability of life existing in worlds other than our own? Ans: Butler does not accept the theory of James Jeans about the origin of life. He tells that essential of life also exist on other planets. The suitable physical condition can produce life anywhere else. He does not agree with this view that life is an accidental combination of chemical atoms at a moderate temperature. Q#3: What had to be understood for chemistry to become a science? Ans: Chemistry emerged as a science when it was understood that all substances are combination of the same primary elements, which cannot be destroyed. Q#4: Who was responsible for the atomic theory of chemistry? Ans: Dalton was the first scientist who gave the atomic theory. But it was Lavoisier who established the first stage of chemistry. He explained the facts of chemical combination in simple compounds.
  20. 20. Intermediate English Notes Instructor: Makhdoom Mohsin M.A in English literature Compiled by: Seetal Daas (student Batch 2k10) NSSAB @ Golarchi seetal.daas@gmail.com 20 Q#5: What was the original distinction between the organic and inorganic substances? Does this distinction still hold good in modern science? Ans: The original distinction between the organic and inorganic substances was that organic compounds come from only living things and cannot be prepared artificially in the laboratory. While inorganic compounds were prepared in the laboratory. Inorganic substances were considered totally different from organic compounds. But this distinction does not hold good in modern science because a German scientist Wholker succeeded to prepare urea which was previously regarded as the typical product of life. Q#6: How does Butler justify his belief in the importance of scientific research into the nature of living cells? Ans: Professor Butler gives great importance to the scientific research in to the nature of living cells because such research may help a scientist to find out the chemical basis of life and it will also help to create life by artificial method because of further researches in the field. Q#7: How according to the Butler was science responsible for fostering the popular belief that man is insignificant. Galileo’s discovery lessens the importance of man in the universe. Darwin’s theory pulled the position of man further down. But Butler’s discards all these mechanical ideas and says that man’s importance lies not in his shape or size but in his intelligence. Q#8: Why does Butler thinks that calculating machines ought not to be called mechanical brains? Ans: Butler thinks that it is gross libel on real brains to regard the calculating machines as ‘brains’. So called brains perform limited functions. The varied functions of real brains are quite beyond cur understanding. Q#9: Why did the scientist of the nineteenth century tend to find simplicity in the universe? Ans: The scientists of nineteenth century tend to find simplicity in the universe; they were concerned mainly with the elemental forces. So they found simplicity in the universe but complexity is the gift of twentieth century. Q#10: Why according to Butler is modern science is likely to restore man’s faith in his own importance in the universe? Ans: According to Butler the modern science is likely to restore man’s faith in his own importance because the main emphasis of science is now changing from the study of elementary of forces and simple particles to the complexities of living textures.

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