3. •Temperature: average kinetic Energy of
particles in an object
The more kinetic E
the higher the temp.
Add heat to change
•Density: how close the atoms are in the element
4. SOLIDS: atoms are tightly packed
movement of atoms is small & rapid because of
the close bonds
-definite volume & shape
LIQUIDS: atoms are farther apart than solids and
can slip around each other faster
-definite volume; no definite shape so will take
the shape of container
GASES: atoms are farthest apart and can move
about freely. (unconstrained gases will
spread out indefinitely; confined gases
take shape of container.)
-no definite volume or shape
Different elements have different properties-
•Boiling point: point at which the atoms in a liquid
state vibrate and become a gas (hot)
-different for each element!
•Melting point: point at which the atoms in the solid
state vibrate and become a liquid (hot)
-different for each element!
VIDEO: Making molecules with atoms (2 min)
Elements LINK SONG (3.5 min)
VIDEO: Energy Sources
VIDEO: Energy Flow (2 min)
VIDEO: How Electricity is Made (2 min)
Molecules in motion SONG (3 min)
6. Solubility: amount of a solute that can be
dissolved in a solvent
-depends on the chemistry of it
-depends on the temperature
of it (warm dissolves faster)
10. •Conduit: conducts/ allows Energy transfer;
•Insulator: does not allow Energy transfer;
fiberglass, cardboard, air, cork, wood,
•Heat: Energy transferred between objects
at different temperatures; thermal Energy
If two objects are connected, there is always transfer
between high temp to low temp
•Thermal equilibrium Energy transfer until
the same temperature on both (balanced)
11. Put ‘C’ for Conductor & ‘I’ for Insulator.
Why would we want an object to be an insulator?
Why would we want an object to be a conductor?
12. •Conduction transfer of thermal energy through
•Thermal (warm object touches a cold object)
•Mechanical (kinetic E) 2 objects push or pull
on each other
•Electrical (current) battery or generator is
connected in a complete circuit to a device
•Convection transfer of thermal energy by
movement of liquid/gas (hot up, cold down)
•Radiation transfer of thermal energy by
electromagnetic waves (visible light & ultraviolet
HOW DO OBECTS HEAT UP?
13. QUESTION: Which changes temperature faster:
Can’t measure transferred E directly; must be
Heat (J) = specific heat x mass x change in temp
VIDEO: Heat Transmission (3 min)
HSW video: Fiberglass insulation
VIDEO: Geothermal Power (2 min)
HSW video: THERMAL RADIATION universe (2 min)
HEAT experiment 5 card LINK: http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=sce304
Sugar, hot water, cold water, spoon
Sugar Solution Lab
1. Define solubility: _____________________________________________
2. In this experiment, which was the solute? _____________ Which was the solvent?
3. Which jar dissolved the sugar the fastest? _______________
4. Which jar dissolved the most sugar? ______________
5. Answer: Was your hypothesis correct? ________
6. Explain why the sugar dissolved faster in the ______ water. (Use words from the
word bank.) _________________________________________
7. What happened to the solution when you could not dissolve any more sugar in the
8. What does kinetic energy have to do with solubility? _________________________
9. What would be the best way to make sweet tea? ____________________________
Independent variable- hot water, cold water
Dependent variable- sugar, size of container, amount of water WORD BANK
QUESTION: Does the temperature of a liquid affect the
dissolving of a solute into a solvent?
1.Prediction: In which solution do you think the sugar will dissolve
2.Add the same amount of water to each jar (1 hot, 1 cold)
3.Add a spoon of sugar to each jar. Stir.
4.Add equal spoonfuls of sugar to each jar until no more
dissolving is taking place.
5.Observe & answer the questions below.
15. LAB: Feel the Heat
Trial Mass of nails (g) Volume of water that
equals mass of nails
Initial temp. of water
Initial temp of water
to which nails will be
Final temp of
water and nails
• Bundle the nails together with a rubber band. Record the mass. Tie string around, leaving one end 15
• Put bundle of nails into a cup, letting string dangle out. Fill the cup with hot water, covering nails. Set
aside 5 min.
• Use graduated cylinder to measure enough cold water to exactly the mass of nails. Record.
• Measure & record the temp of the hot water with the nails & temp of cold water.
• Use string to transfer the bundle of nails to the cup of cold water. Use the thermometer to monitor the
temperature of water-nail mixture. When the temp stops changing record this final temp.
• Empty cups, dry nails. Repeat for trial 2, but switch the hot & cold water. Record data.
The cold water in Trial 1 gained energy. Where did the E come from?
How does the E gained by the nails in Trial 2 compare with the E lost by the hot water in Trial 2?
Which material seems to be able to hold E better… iron or water?
Materials: balance, 2 cups, cylinder, 10 nails, string, rubber band, thermometer, hot water, cold water
17. •Wave: disturbance that transmits Energy
through matter or empty space;
--as wave travels it does work on everything in its
•Mechanical waves: need a medium
examples- sound wave, ocean wave
•Some waves don’t need a medium
examples- visible light, microwaves, tv, radio
Transverse wave- particles move up & down,
perpendicular to direction wave is going
Longitudinal wave- particle move horizontally
along the wave in the direction the wave is moving
Surface wave- combination of transverse &
VIDEO: HSW Wavelength Basics
27. Properties of Waves
•Amplitude: maximum distance the particles vibrate
•Wavelength: distance between two crests or
compressions in a wave
•Frequency: number of waves in a given amount of
•Wave speed: speed at which wave travels (v)
28. Wave Interactions
reflection- wave bounces back after hitting a barrier;
light reflected lets us see it
refraction- bending of a wave as it passes from one
medium to another at an angle (because wave
changes speed in a different medium)
light through a prism (light is dispersed into separate colors)
29. Diffraction bending of waves around a barrier
Interference two or more waves overlap
-constructive interference 2 waves overlap
crests & troughs, combining both waves’ energy…
makes it stronger!
-destructive interference 2 waves overlap
one crest on one trough, cancels out each other’s
HSW: Assignment Discovery: Sound/Interference (1 ½ min)
Ripple Tank Simulation
32. Standing waves: pattern looks like wave is
Resonance: two objects naturally vibrate at the
same frequency; sound of one causes the other to
VIDEO: Sound/Resonance-Shattering glass (15 min) United