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Genetics1 classification new.

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Genetics1 classification new.

  1. 1. Genetics 1: Classification of Life ppt. by Robin D. Seamon 1 HOOK VIDEO: COSMOS- “Some Things Molecules do”
  2. 2. 3 Domains: Prokaryote: no nucleus or organelles Eukaryotes: nucleus & membrane-bound organelles VIDEO: How we think complex cells evolved (5:30) 2
  3. 3. NEW There are 3 Domains K C O F S G P RANKING SYSTEM 3
  4. 4. 4 CC video: comparative anatomy (10 min) Kingdom Archae- bacteria
  5. 5. H I S T O R Y Aristotle: (Greek philosopher 384-322 CE) classified animals based on method of reproduction 5
  6. 6. Taxonomy: group or categorize organisms • Before 1700, there were multiple long names for new species with no rules in naming process Carl Linnaeus (Swedish) 1735 grouped organisms by shared physical characteristics • wrote Systems Naturae 3 Kingdoms: 1. Mineral 2. Vegetable 3. Animal 6
  7. 7. Today naming is regulated by Nomenclature Codes allowing names to be divided into ranks: Binomial nomenclature (genus & species) 1740’s R A N K I N G S Y S T E M 7CC Video: #19 Taxonomy(12 min)
  8. 8. • 1859 Darwin insisted classification should reflect genetic relatedness • 1900 Emil Willi Henning: grouped organisms by inferred evolutionary relatedness • Homologous structures; inherited from common ancestors, so were related Phylogenetic taxonomy 8
  9. 9. • Cladistic system: 1960’s scientists started using DNA sequences to determine common ancestry IGNORING RANKS • This new field is making changes & revisions in classification everyday. • International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature (PhyloCode) is currently under development Molecular Phylogenetics C L A D E S Y S T E M 9
  10. 10. • 1990’s: New Grouping based on new discoveries in bacteria metabolism 1. Archaea 2. Bacteria 3. Eukaryota D O M A I N S Separated these 2 Includes Protists 10 CC Video: #35 Archaea, Bacteria, Protists (12 min)
  11. 11. 11 Archaea- ancient group of prokaryotic organisms that are still present today -- Extremphiles- types of archaea that live in very extreme places Some examples: • Halophile: live in extreme salty conditions • Thermophile: live in extremely hot conditions • Methanogen: metabolize such that they use acidic conditions (sulfur) and release methane
  12. 12. 12 Hiller Lake, Australia Halophilic archaea & bacteria live in this salty lake BACK
  13. 13. Under-ocean hot vent 13 Yellowstone hot vent, Wyoming thermophilic archaea & bacteria live in this hot vent BACK
  14. 14. 14 Methanogenic archaea BACK
  15. 15. 15 Bacteria- ancient group of prokaryotic organisms that are still present today
  16. 16. 16 Eukaryota- group of organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles ALL THE REST
  17. 17. Phylogenetic tree 17
  18. 18. H I S T O R Y O F C L A S S I F I C A T I O N 1735 Linnaeus 1866 Haeckel 1925 Chatton 1938 Copeland 1969 Whittaker 1990 Woesse 1998 Cavalier- Smith 2 Kingdoms 3 Kingdoms 2 Empires 4 Kingdoms 5 Kingdoms 3 Domains 6 Kingdoms Mineral Prokaryote Monera Monera Bacteria Bacteria Protist Protist Protist Archaea Protist Eukaryote Eukaryote Chromista Vegetable Plant Plant Plant Plant Fungi Fungi Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal To apply Darwin to Microscopic organisms To show having nucleus or not To show evolutionary history of life 18
  19. 19. 1969 Whittaker: 5 Kingdoms Protists Monera Plants Animals Fungi Prokaryotes: Eubacteria & Archeobacteria Eukaryotes Absorb & photosynthesize Asexual Reproduction Absorb & photosynthesize Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Photosynthesize Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Non-mobile Ingest Asexual & Sexual Reproduction mobile Absorb Sexual Reproduction Non-mobile 19
  20. 20. 1990 Woese: 3 Domains Eukaryotes Plants Animals Fungi Protists Photosynthesize Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Non-mobile Absorb Sexual Reproduction Non-mobile Archaea CBacteria Monera Monera Absorb & photosynethsize Aerobic respiration Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Various metabolism: photosynthesis, fermentation, Methanogenesis respiration Asexual Reproduction Various metabolism: photosynthesis, fermentation, Anaerobic & aerobic respiration Asexual Reproduction Ingest Asexual & Sexual Reproduction mobile NO NUCLEUS NO NUCLEUS NUCLEUS DOMAIN DOMAIN DOMAIN 20
  21. 21. Protist Fungi Tree of life Web Project Tolweb.org 21
  22. 22. H I S T O R Y O F C L A S S I F I C A T I O N 1735 Linnaeus 1866 Haeckel 1925 Chatton 1938 Copeland 1969 Whittaker 1990 Woesse 1998 Cavalier- Smith 2 Kingdoms 3 Kingdoms 2 Empires 4 Kingdoms 5 Kingdoms 3 Domains 6 Kingdoms Mineral Prokaryote Monera Monera Bacteria Bacteria Protist Protist Protist Archaea Protist Eukaryote Eukaryote Chromista Vegetable Plant Plant Plant Plant Fungi Fungi Animal Animal Animal Animal Animal To apply Darwin to Microscopic organisms To show having nucleus or not To show evolutionary history of life NOTES LAB- Highlight Animal category pink. In 1925, Chatton wanted to classify based upon ___________________________ Highlight plant category green. Which is more complex- prokaryote or eukaryote?___________________ Highlight prokaryotes blue. In 1969 Whittaker wanted to classify based upon visual similarities. How many kingdoms did he establish? ___ Which scientist coined the categorization of domains? ____________________ 22
  23. 23. Protists Monera Plants Animals Fungi Prokaryotes: Eubacteria & Archeobacteria Eukaryotes metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Movement?:______________ metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Movement?:______________ metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Movement?:______________ metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Movement?:______________ metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Movement?:______________ NOTES LAB- 1969 Wittaker: 5 Kingdoms 23
  24. 24. 1990 Woese: 3 Domains Eukaryotes Plants Animals Fungi Protists metabolism:__________ ____________________ Respiration: __________ Reproduction_________ metabolism:__________ ____________________ Respiration: __________ Reproduction_________ Archaea CBacteria Monera Monera metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Reproduction:______________ metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Reproduction:______________ metabolism: _______________ __________________________ Respiration: ________________ Reproduction:______________ metabolism:__________ ____________________ Respiration: __________ Reproduction_________ NO NUCLEUS NO NUCLEUS NUCLEUS DOMAIN DOMAIN DOMAIN NOTES LAB- 24
  25. 25. _______ _______ Tree of life Web Project Tolweb.org NOTES LAB- 25
  26. 26. EGG LAB: Phylogeny LINK: http://www.tbi.montana.edu/outreach/hotscience/m aterials/pdfs/Egg_Teachers.pdf 26
  27. 27. 27

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