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Hani Mori-Bottger on "Beauty and Strength"

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"At the Intersection of Beauty and Strength: Earthen Structures that Survive Earthquakes" http://www.scaruffi.com/leonardo/sep2012.html

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Hani Mori-Bottger on "Beauty and Strength"

  1. 1. Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  2. 2. Huacas, enormous monuments in Peru built entirely of individual adobe blocks – Huaca Pucllana in Lima, Peru, 500 ADHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  3. 3. Chan Chan, Chimú Empire, near Trujillo, Peru – 850 AD until 1470 AD Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  4. 4. Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  5. 5. Elsewhere in the Americas – Taos NM, San Francisco de Assis Church, 1816Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  6. 6. Great Mosque at Djenné, Mali – 1907 – largest adobe structure in the world Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  7. 7. Sun-dried mud bricks (adobe, called “ferey”), mud mortar, mud plaster on exterior. Bundled palm protrusions serve as scaffolding for maintenance and access.Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  8. 8. cob bird’s nest cob “fish” lanternHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  9. 9. “lipan” earth embroidery in Gujarat, IndiaHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  10. 10. Arg-é Bam, Iran, adobe city and citadel in use 500 BC to 1850 ADHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  11. 11. After 2003 earthquake – erosion + ground acceleration = over 75% damagedHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  12. 12. Areas of greatest seismic activity around the world:Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  13. 13. Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  14. 14. De La Osa Adobe, Encino CA, 1850 - damaged by Northridge Earthquake, 17 January 1994Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  15. 15. …not to mention the billions, by some estimates close to 1/3 of the world’s population, living in adobe constructions and susceptible to seismic disasters.Hana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  16. 16. What is the problem?earthquake “force” ground accelerationHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  17. 17. What are some solutions? 1. horizontal reinforcement of adobe masonry 2. high fiber content 3. confinementHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  18. 18. 1. Fabric reinforcement for masonry walls: • prevents the primary crack formation • transfers stresses in mortar to other parts of the wall by bonding well to the mortar • forces small cracks to form throughout • can be VERY inexpensive – synthetic felt, burlap etc • allows overall wall to deform greatlyHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  19. 19. Felt fabric reinforcement allowed wall to stay together under large loadsHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  20. 20. 2. High fiber content in cob works similarly: • transfers stresses in cob to other parts through spread and bond of fibers • forces small cracks to form throughout • can be VERY inexpensive – straw • allows overall structure to deform greatlyHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  21. 21. 3. Confinement on exteriors of adobe or cob wall: • do not attempt to change behavior of wall components • contain and control wall material during seismic activityHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  22. 22. Actual implementation of these techniques (1 & 2): Concept watercolor for bamboo-cob composite building by Massey Burke. Clarks Island, Clear Lake, CAHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  23. 23. Model of interior bamboo structure Model of bamboo-cob composite buildingHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  24. 24. Many names, one idea: quincha, wattle-and-daub, baharequeHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  25. 25. USF students & community building togetherHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu
  26. 26. Many thanks to: • University of California at Berkeley, where the fabric reinforcement studies were conducted (Claudia Ostertag, Bill MacCracken, Jeff Higginbotham) • University of San Francisco and Santa Clara University, where the heavy straw clay and bamboo studies were, and continue to be conducted (Massey Burke, Mark Aschheim) • Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, where the greatest amount of study on earthen structures is conducted (Marcial Blondet, Daniel Torrealva) Musgum earthen architecture, CameroonHana Mori Böttger · Architecture & Community Design hmori2@usfca.edu

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